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Words 21412

Pages 86

Final thesis

Timo Flaspöhler Design of the runner of a Kaplan turbine for small hydroelectric power plants

Supervisor Commissioned by Tampere 2007

Jaakko Mattila Tampere University of Applied Sciences, Mechanical engineering department

TAMPERE UNIVERSITY OF APPLIED SCIENES Environmental Engineering

Timo Flaspöhler Final thesis Supervisor November 2007 Keywords

Design of the runner of a Kaplan turbine for small hydroelectric power plants 78 pages, 42 pages Appendix Jaakko Mattila Electricity tariff, small hydroelectric power plant, Kaplan turbine, runner, adaptation mechanism, stress analysis, technical drawings

ABSTRACT

The final thesis deals with the design of the runner of a Kaplan turbine. It might be that due to the increasing of the electricity tariff in the last years small hydroelectric power plants become cost effective. Since the runner of a small hydroelectric power plant is quite small, it has to be reexamined if the hub of the runner provides enough room for a proper adaptation mechanism. For this purpose the main characteristics of the runner are determined. Then, important data such as the suction head, the occurring forces or the critical speed are established. After those data are known, a detailed stress analysis of the developed adaptation mechanism follows. The stress analysis shows that the mechanism to adjust the blades is able to withstand the occurring forces. Finally drafts of the runner and its parts are done.

TAMPERE UNIVERSITY OF APPLIED SIENCES FINAL THESIS 1 (134) Environmental Engineering Timo Flaspöhler ——————————————————————————————————————

TABLE OF CONTENTS

ABSTRACT ....................................................................................................................................ii TABLE OF CONTENTS ................................................................................................................1 LIST OF SYMBOLS.......................................................................................................................4 1 INTRODUCTION ...................................................................................................................8 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 2 3 4 2.1 3.1 4.1 4.2 Pelton turbine...................................................................................................................9 Francis turbine .................................................................................................................9 Kaplan turbine ...............................................................................................................10 Definition of a small hydroelectric power plant............................................................11 Waterpower in Finland ..................................................................................................11 The price of electricity in Finland .................................................................................12 List of requirements.......................................................................................................14 Selection ........................................................................................................................17 Power .............................................................................................................................21 Speed of the turbine.......................................................................................................22

ASSIGNMENT OF TASKS..................................................................................................13 Variation matrix.....................................................................................................................16 CALCULATION OF THE MAIN CHARACTERISTICS...................................................20

4.2.1 Specific speed ........................................................................................................22 4.2.2 Rational speed .......................................................................................................23 4.2.3 Runaway speed ......................................................................................................23 4.3 Runner diameter section ................................................................................................24 4.4 4.5 5 6 Hub diameter .................................................................................................................24 Blade characteristics of some different heads and discharges.......................................25

CAVITATION ......................................................................................................................26 DESIGN OF THE BLADE ...................................................................................................28 6.1 6.2 Distortion of the blade under ideal circumstances.........................................................28 The “Tragflügeltheorie” ................................................................................................31

7

6.2.1 Procedure ...............................................................................................................32 CALCULATION OF THE FORCES....................................................................................36 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 7.5 Tangential force.............................................................................................................36 Axial force .....................................................................................................................37 Resulting force...............................................................................................................38 Hydraulic moment .........................................................................................................38 Centrifugal force............................................................................................................41

TAMPERE UNIVERSITY OF APPLIED SIENCES FINAL THESIS 2 (134) Environmental Engineering Timo Flaspöhler —————————————————————————————————————— 7.6 Weight of the blade .......................................................................................................42 8 9 CRITICAL SPEED ...............................................................................................................43 STRESS ANALYSES ...........................................................................................................45 9.1 9.2 Axle ...............................................................................................................................46 Blade..............................................................................................................................47

9.2.1 Bending..................................................................................................................47 9.2.2 Torsion...................................................................................................................48 9.3 Pivot...............................................................................................................................50 9.3.1 Contact pressure ....................................................................................................50 9.3.2 Torsion...................................................................................................................51 9.3.3 Bending..................................................................................................................51 9.4 Lever..............................................................................................................................53 9.4.1 Bending..................................................................................................................53 9.4.2 Shear ......................................................................................................................54 9.4.3 Contact pressure ....................................................................................................55 9.5 Link................................................................................................................................56 9.5.1 Buckling ................................................................................................................57 9.5.2 Stress calculation of the links eye..........................................................................58 9.6 Crosshead ......................................................................................................................60 9.7 Bolt ................................................................................................................................62 9.7.1 Bending..................................................................................................................62 9.7.2 Shear ......................................................................................................................63 9.7.3 Contact pressure ....................................................................................................64 9.8 Shaft...............................................................................................................................66 9.9 10 10.1 10.2 10.3 10.4 Hub ................................................................................................................................67 Screw connection of the lever and the pivot .................................................................68 Screw connection between the blade and the pivot.......................................................73 Screw connection between the upper and the middle hub.............................................74 Screw connection between the middle and the lower hub.............................................75 CALCULATION OF THE SCREWS...................................................................................68

11 EXPLANATION OF THE RUNNER DESIGN ...................................................................76 12 ASSEMBLING......................................................................................................................78 13 CONCLUSION .....................................................................................................................79 14 APPENDIX ...........................................................................................................................81 Calculation of the mains characteristics ........................................................................81 Power .....................................................................................................................81 Rational speed .......................................................................................................81 Runaway speed ......................................................................................................81 Runner diameter ....................................................................................................82 Hub diameter .........................................................................................................82 14.1.1 14.1.2 14.1.3 14.1.4 14.1.5 14.1

TAMPERE UNIVERSITY OF APPLIED SIENCES FINAL THESIS 3 (134) Environmental Engineering Timo Flaspöhler —————————————————————————————————————— 14.2 Cavitation ......................................................................................................................83 14.3 Design of the blade ........................................................................................................84 14.3.1 Velocities and the angles angle of distortion (180°-β∞) ........................................84 14.3.2 Calculation of the blade characteristics .................................................................85 14.4 Calculation of the forces................................................................................................89 14.4.1 Tangential force.....................................................................................................89 14.4.2 Axial force .............................................................................................................89 14.4.3 Resulting force.......................................................................................................90 14.4.4 Hydraulic moment .................................................................................................90 14.4.5 Centrifugal force....................................................................................................91 14.5 Critical speed .................................................................................................................92 14.6 Stress analysis................................................................................................................92 14.6.1 Axle .......................................................................................................................92 14.6.2 Blade......................................................................................................................93 14.6.3 Pivot.......................................................................................................................94 14.6.4 Lever......................................................................................................................96 14.6.5 Link........................................................................................................................98 14.6.6 Crosshead ............................................................................................................100 14.6.7 Bolt ......................................................................................................................100 14.6.8 Shaft.....................................................................................................................102 14.7 Calculation of the screws.............................................................................................104 14.7.1 Screw connection of the lever and the pivot .......................................................104 14.7.2 Screw connection of pivot and flange .................................................................108 14.7.3 Screw connection between the upper and the middle hub...................................112 14.8 Drawings......................................................................................................................116 14.9 15 Tables ..........................................................................................................................125 REFERENCES ....................................................................................................................133

TAMPERE UNIVERSITY OF APPLIED SIENCES FINAL THESIS 4 (134) Environmental Engineering Timo Flaspöhler ——————————————————————————————————————

LIST OF SYMBOLS

A A3 Ab Aers AN Aproj B b b c c c cq D De Di d dw dh E E ey F Fa FB Fc FKl Fl Fr Fsp Ft fz Area Core cross section of the thread Blade area Ersatz area Nominal cross section of the screw shank Projection screen Wide Wide Length Velocity Absolute velocity Wide Spring constant for elastic lateral oscillation Diameter Runner diameter Hub diameter Diameter Outer diameter of the annular surface of the screw Hole diameter Elastic modulus Specific hydraulic energy of machine Length Force Axial force Longitudinal force Centrifugal force Clamping force Lifting force Resulting force Tension force Tangential force Setting amount

TAMPERE UNIVERSITY OF APPLIED SIENCES FINAL THESIS 5 (134) Environmental Engineering Timo Flaspöhler —————————————————————————————————————— G Weight G g H H H Hn Hs h I K KA kA l l lk lk M Mh Msp n nmax nQE nmax nmax nQE P p patm pv pmin Q R Re Weightiness Acceleration of gravity Wide Head Gross head Net head Suction head Wide Moment of inertia profile characteristic number Application factor Snap factor Chord Length Buckling length Clamping length Moment Hydraulic moment Tension torque Speed Runaway speed Specific speed Runaway speed Runaway speed Specific speed Power Contact pressure Atmospheric pressure Vapor pressure minimal water pressure Discharge Radius Runner radius

TAMPERE UNIVERSITY OF APPLIED SIENCES FINAL THESIS 6 (134) Environmental Engineering Timo Flaspöhler —————————————————————————————————————— Ri Hub radius Rm Rpo.2 r t u Wb Wt w y y z z z α β δ δT δS ε ζa ζA ζW ηh ηs λ λ λg0.2 μ Ф Фk ρ σ σb Tensile strength Elastic limit Radius Grating dispartment Tangential velocity Section modulus Polar section modus Relative velocity Thickness Length Number of blades Number of the screws Length Angle Angle Angle of attack Flexibility of the uptight parts Flexibility of the screw Angle Lifting coefficient Lifting coefficient Drag coefficient Hydraulic efficiency efficiency of the energy change Thickness ratio Angle of slip Marginal strength Friction factor at the interstice Force ratio Simplified force ratio Density of water Cavitation coefficient Bending stress

TAMPERE UNIVERSITY OF APPLIED SIENCES FINAL THESIS 7 (134) Environmental Engineering Timo Flaspöhler —————————————————————————————————————— σk Buckling stress τs τt ω Shear stress Tensional stress Angular velocity

TAMPERE UNIVERSITY OF APPLIED SIENCES FINAL THESIS 8 (134) Environmental Engineering Timo Flaspöhler ——————————————————————————————————————

1

INTRODUCTION

The demand for increasing the use of renewable energy has risen over the last few years due to environmental issues. The high emissions of greenhouse gases have led to serious changes in the climate. Although the higher usage of renewable energy would not solve the problems over night, it is an important move in the right direction. The field of renewable energy includes, for example wind power, solar power and waterpower. /1/ The first use of waterpower as an energy source dates back centuries. The energy was utilized, for instance, to grinding grain. The applied machinery for this purpose was based on simple water wheels. Over the years the machinery has been developed and become more and more advanced. Hydropower was the first renewable source which was used to generate electricity over 100 years ago. Today, hydropower is an important source of producing electrical energy; approximately 20% of the world electricity is supplied by hydroelectric power plants. /1, 2, 3, 4/ Depending on the head and discharge of the sites, the hydroelectric power plant has to be equipped with a specific turbine in order to get the highest efficiency. There are several different kinds of water turbines and can be divided into impulse and reaction turbines. An impulse turbine is where the water pressure is transformed into kinetic energy before the water reaches the runner of the turbine. The energy hits the runner in a form of a high-speed jet. A turbine, where the water pressure applies a force on the face of the runner blade is called a reaction turbine. The following three following turbines are usually utilized in the modern field of hydropower: • Pelton turbine • Francis turbine • Kaplan turbine These are discussed in more detail below. /1/

TAMPERE UNIVERSITY OF APPLIED SIENCES FINAL THESIS 9 (134) Environmental Engineering Timo Flaspöhler ——————————————————————————————————————

1.1 Pelton turbine

The Pelton turbine belongs to the group of impulse turbines. It consists of a wheel which has a large number of buckets on its perimeter. One or more jets thud on the buckets which cause the torque. The wheel and generator are generally directly connected by a shaft. The range of head, in which the Pelton turbine is used, is between 60m and more than 1,000m. The Pelton turbine has quite a high efficiency and can be in the range of 30% and 100% of the maximum design discharge for a one-jet turbine and between 10% and 100% for a multi-jet turbine. /1, 3/ Nozzle Inlet pipe

Wheel

Flow

Jet

Figure 1.1: Pelton Turbine /3/

1.2 Francis turbine

The Francis turbine is a reaction turbine. It has fixed runner blades and adjustable guide vanes. Francis turbines are generally arranged so that the axis is vertical although smaller turbines can have a horizontal axis. The admission of a Francis turbine is radial and the outlet is axial. The field of application of the turbine is from a head of 25m up to 350m. It has an efficiency of over 80% in a ranging from approximately 40% to 100% of the maximum discharge. /1, 3/ Guide vanes Runner blades

Flow Draught tube

Flow

Figure 1.2: Francis Turbine /3/

TAMPERE UNIVERSITY OF APPLIED SIENCES FINAL THESIS 10 (134) Environmental Engineering Timo Flaspöhler ——————————————————————————————————————

1.3 Kaplan turbine

The Propeller turbine and the Kaplan turbine are reaction turbines. They have relatively small dimensions combined with a high rational speed. Hence the generator dimension is rather small and inexpensive. In addition, both the Propeller and the Kaplan turbines show a large overload capacity. The intake of the flow is radial. After the inlet the flow makes a right angle turn and enters the runner in an axial direction. The difference between the Propeller and Kaplan turbines is that the Propeller turbine has fixed runner blades while the Kaplan turbine has adjustable runner blades. Propeller turbines can only be used on sites with a comparatively constant flow and head while Kaplan turbines are quite flexible. The Kaplan turbine can be divided in double and single regulated turbines. A Kaplan turbine with adjustable runner blades and adjustable guide vanes is double regulated while one with only adjustable runner blades is single regulated. The application of Kaplan turbines are from a head of 2m to 40m. The advantage of the double regulated turbines is that they can be used in a wider field. The double regulated Kaplan turbines can work between 15% and 100% of the maximum design discharge; the single regulated turbines, however, can only work between 30% and 100% of the maximum design discharge. /1, 3, 5/

Guide vanes

Flow

Flow

Runner blades Draught tube

Figure 1.3: Kaplan turbine /3/

TAMPERE UNIVERSITY OF APPLIED SIENCES FINAL THESIS 11 (134) Environmental Engineering Timo Flaspöhler ——————————————————————————————————————

1.4 Definition of a small hydroelectric power plant

To define whether a hydroelectric power plant is a small one or not depends on its capacity. However, European countries do not agree where the capacity limit for a small hydroelectric power plant should be. In the UK, for example, the limit is fixed at 20MW while in France the capacity limit is 12MW. In Finland, the capacity limit is only 1MW. /1, 6/

1.5 Waterpower in Finland

Although Finland is called the land of 1,000 lakes, hydropower does not play a significant role in energy production.

2% 2.8% 2.8% 6% 10.9% 14.7% 24.4% Oil Wood fuels Nuclear Energy Coal Natural gas Peat Net imports of electricity 20.2% Hydro and wind power Other energy sources 16.2% Figure 1.4: Total energy consumption of Finland in the year 2006 /7/

As shown in figure 1.4, hydropower, together with wind power, comprises just 2.8% of the total energy. The main energy sources in Finland are oil (24.4%) and wood fuels (20.2%). Nuclear energy, coal and natural gas are also important energy sources. The main reason for the small share of hydropower as a source of energy lies with the characteristics of the natural landscape. Although Finland has many water sources, it is a relatively flat country. For this reason, the heads are mostly to low to build large or medium-size hydroelectric power plants. Furthermore, areas where the heads are high are normally under environmental protection. The only way to increase the electricity production by water power, therefore, would be to build small hydroelectric power plants. This option has not been cost effective due

TAMPERE UNIVERSITY OF APPLIED SIENCES FINAL THESIS 12 (134) Environmental Engineering Timo Flaspöhler —————————————————————————————————————— to the low electricity tariff - the income would have been too little to cover investments. However, due to the price rise in electricity over the last few years, this option might be reconsidered.

1.6 The price of electricity in Finland

Figure 1.4 shows the price development of electricity in Finland over the last 6 years. Although the years 2004 and 2005 show a downturn, the electricity tariff increased approximately by a factor of three from 2000 to 2006.

60 50 40 EUR/MWh 30 20 10 0 2000 2001 2002 2003 Year 2004 2005 2006

Figure 1.4: Electricity tariff 2000-2006 /8/

In Figure 1.5 it can be seen that the annual average of the electricity tariff in 2007 will be less than in 2006. However a new increase in the price of electricity can be expected for the few next years.

40 35 30 EUR/MWh 25 20 15 10 5 0 Jan Feb Mar A pr May Jun Jul A ug Sep Oct M onth

Figure 1.5: Electricity tariff January- October 2007/8/

TAMPERE UNIVERSITY OF APPLIED SIENCES FINAL THESIS 13 (134) Environmental Engineering Timo Flaspöhler ——————————————————————————————————————

2

ASSIGNMENT OF TASKS

This final thesis is one part of a project carried out by Tampere Polytechnic which, at the time of writing, was in its initial staged. The aim of the project is to explore if it is worth building small hydroelectric power plants in Finland. The aim of this final thesis is to develop a Kaplan turbine’s runner with adjustable blades - adaptive for small hydroelectric power plants. For this purpose, a prototype of the runner is to be designed with a proper mechanism for adjusting the blades. The concern is that the hub of the turbines for small heads does not provide much space for the adaptation mechanism. The mechanism’s parts have to be big enough to resist the occurring forces and small enough to fit in the hub. This thesis determines whether this is possible or not. If the stress analysis shows that the mechanism is suitable, a draft of the runner will be drawn. The requirements of the discharge and the head are set at the site where an experimental rig for the prototype can be founded. Jaakko Matila project supervisor, owns a small hydroelectric power plant equipped with a Francis turbine. The Korpikosky power plant, built on Lake Korpijärvi, provides enough space to build an experimental rig for the runner and as it would allow a direct comparison between a Kaplan and a Francis turbine. The turbine is designed to work in a maximal head of 3.7 meters and a highest discharge of 3m3/s. To guarantee a smooth running of the project, experts from different fields are involved: Jaakko Matila and Simo Marjamäki are responsible for technical issues: Antti Klaavo for economical matters and Juha Paukkala for any legal questions.

TAMPERE UNIVERSITY OF APPLIED SIENCES FINAL THESIS 14 (134) Environmental Engineering Timo Flaspöhler ——————————————————————————————————————

2.1 List of requirements

Timo Flaspöhler

List of requirements

Project: Kaplan Turbine

R = Requirement W = Wish

R No. W 1 R 1.1 2 R R 2.1 2.2 3 R R R 3.1 3.2 3.3 4 R 4.1 5 W 5.1 6 R R 6.1 6.2 Purpose Small hydroelectric power plant Working range Discharge Head Geometry Number Blade diameter Hub diameter Blades Adjustable blades Forces Mechanical transmission Material Corrosion-resistant Cold-resistant Description

Value, Dates, Comments, Responsible

3 m3/s 3.7m

1 730mm 240mm Timo Flaspöhler

Date: 01.10.2007

Page 1

TAMPERE UNIVERSITY OF APPLIED SIENCES FINAL THESIS 15 (134) Environmental Engineering Timo Flaspöhler —————————————————————————————————————— Timo Flaspöhler R = Requirement List of requirements W = Wish Project: Kaplan Turbine R No. W 7 W W 7.1 7.2 7.3 8 R R 8.1 8.2 9 R 9.1 10 R 10.1 11 R 11.1 12 R 12.1 Manufacturing In the Tampere Polytechnic Using purchased parts Prototype Assembling Accessibly assembling Simple assembling Maintenance Simple maintenance Safety Accident prevention rule Power High efficiency Dates Deadline 17.12.2007 Timo Flaspöhler Description Value, Dates, Comments, Responsible

Date: 01.10.2007

Page 2

TAMPERE UNIVERSITY OF APPLIED SIENCES FINAL THESIS 16 (134) Environmental Engineering Timo Flaspöhler ——————————————————————————————————————

3

Variation matrix

A 1: Axle 2: Shaft 3: Upper hub 4: Middle hub 5: Lower hub 6: Blade 7: Blade number 8: Pivot 9: Bearing pivot Material: X3CrNb17 Material: X3CrNb17 Material: X3CrNb17 Material: X3CrNb17 Material: X3CrNb17 Material: X3CrNb17 4 Material: X3CrNb17 Roller-bearing B Material: X20Cr13 Material: X20Cr13 Material: X5CrNi18-10 Material: X20Cr13 Material: X20Cr13 Material: X3CrNiMo13-4 6 Material: X20Cr13 Bush bearing dry operation C Material: X17CrNi16-2 Material: X17CrNi16-2 Material: X8CrNi18-10 Material: X8CrNi18-10 Material: X8CrNi18-10 Material: X8CrNi18-10 8 Material: X17CrNi16-2 Bush bearing with greasing

Table 3.1: Variation matrix

10: Bearing material 11: Lever 12: Link

iglidur®H370 Material: X3CrNb17 Material: X3CrNb17

iglidur®H Material: X20Cr13 Material: X20Cr13

▬▬▬ Material: X17CrNi16-2 Material: X8CrNi18-10

TAMPERE UNIVERSITY OF APPLIED SIENCES FINAL THESIS 17 (134) Environmental Engineering Timo Flaspöhler —————————————————————————————————————— A 13: Bearing link Bush bearing dry operation B Bush bearing with greasing C

▬▬▬

14: Bearing 15: Crosshead 16: Bolt

iglidur®H370 Material: X3CrNb17 Bolt without head

iglidur®H Material: X20Cr13 Bolt with head and splint pin hole Material: X17CrNi16-2 Bolt with head and threaded pin

17: Bolt 18: Fuse element

Material: X6CrMoS17 Locking ring

Material: X20Cr13 Splint

Material: X17CrNi16-2 Spring cotter

3.1 Selection

Chosen 1:A Statement The axle is made out of stainless steel and will be welded on the upper hub. Thus the chosen material is corrosion-resistant with good weldability. 2:A The shaft has to be corrosions resistant and will be welded to the crosshead. The chosen material is a stainless steel with a good weldability.

TAMPERE UNIVERSITY OF APPLIED SIENCES FINAL THESIS 18 (134) Environmental Engineering Timo Flaspöhler —————————————————————————————————————— 3:B The upper hub is corrosion resistant. Since the upper hub and the axel will be connected by welding, the upper hub should also be from a weldable material. The chosen material fulfills both these requirements and thus a good choice. 4:B 5:A 6:B The middle hub needed to be highly machinable because of the holes needed to fit the pivot. It is corrosions-resistant. The lower hub needs only to be corrosion resistant. Thus this inexpensive material is sufficient. The blade has to be as thin as possible: thus the material should have a high resistance against bending and be stainless. The material chosen for the blade was stainless steel with the highest strength against bending. 7:A 8:B 9:B Four blades are usually used at heads up to approximately 25-30m. /9/ The pivot is of stainless steel and the steel highly machinable. The material satisfies both these properties. The bearing was chosen because it should not have any additives which could contaminate the water (oil and grease): it is also inexpensive compared to roller bearings. 10:B The bearing must be specified to work under water and it fulfills all the stress requirements; the bearing chosen is an inexpensive alternative to the iglidur®H370. 11:B The lever is supposed to manufacture via milling; so its material must be machinable. Furthermore, it must be corrosions resistance. The chosen material fulfills the mentioned requirements. 12:A The link must to be corrosion resistance and withstand the occurring forces. The link chosen fulfills both requirements and it is less expensive than other stainless steels. 13:B 14:B See statement 8 See statement 9

TAMPERE UNIVERSITY OF APPLIED SIENCES FINAL THESIS 19 (134) Environmental Engineering Timo Flaspöhler —————————————————————————————————————— 15:B The material for the crosshead must be stainless steel, have a high machinability and be weldable. The chosen material has a good machinability and conditional weldability which should be sufficient. 16:C 17:A The chosen bolt is to the best for fixing the bolt at the crosshead. The chosen material is corrosion resistant and it is able to withstand all the forces which occur at the bolt. Furthermore, it is a common bolt material. 18:C For maintenance purposes, the runner should be easy to disassemble. This spring cotter is easy to dismantle and it is not always necessary to replace it after each dismantling.

TAMPERE UNIVERSITY OF APPLIED SIENCES FINAL THESIS 20 (134) Environmental Engineering Timo Flaspöhler ——————————————————————————————————————

4

CALCULATION OF THE MAIN CHARACTERISTICS

In this section and also in the following sections, only equations and results will be presented. The detailed calculation of this thesis can be found step by step in the Appendix. The main characteristics are the data on which the design of the runner is based. To calculate, for instance, the forces on the blade or to determine the dimensions of the adaptation mechanism the characteristics of the turbine are needed. In figure 4.1, a sketch of a Kaplan turbine is given. On this sketch, those heads and points which play a significant roll in this thesis are marked.

Figure 4.1: Sketch of a Kaplan turbine

TAMPERE UNIVERSITY OF APPLIED SIENCES FINAL THESIS 21 (134) Environmental Engineering Timo Flaspöhler ——————————————————————————————————————

4.1 Power

The power of the runner can be calculated with the following equation:

P = Q * H * ηh * ρ * g

[W] [m3/s] [m] [-] [kg/m3] [m/s2]

(4.1)

Where: Q discharge gross head hydraulic efficiency water density acceleration of gravity

H ηh ρ g The efficiency depends on the level of the losses which depend on the construction of the water passage of the turbine. However, the design of the runner is just theoretical. This means that the runner is not designed for a specific plant and the water passage does not exist. Thus, the value of efficiency must be assumed. The site where the experimental rig of the turbine can be built provides a maximum gross head of 3.7m. An efficiency of 0.9 can be assumed for a Kaplan turbine. Also, the discharge arises from the site of the experimental rig. The daily maximum discharge of lake Korpijärvi is approximately 3m3/s. In addition, the following values are known:

ρ = 998kg / m 3 g = 9.81m / s 2 The outcome of this is a turbine’s power of 98kW. /1/

TAMPERE UNIVERSITY OF APPLIED SIENCES FINAL THESIS 22 (134) Environmental Engineering Timo Flaspöhler ——————————————————————————————————————

4.2 Speed of the turbine

4.2.1 Specific speed

The different types of water turbines can be classified by their specific speed. Different definitions of the specific speed exist which can be found in the technical literature. As stated in the “Guide on how to develop a small hydropower plant”, the specific speed is a dimensionless parameter and characterizes the hydraulic properties of a turbine in terms of speed and discharge capacity; it is based on similitude rules. The specific speed is defined as:

n QE =

n* Q E3/ 4 specific hydraulic energy of machine rational speed of the turbine

[-]

(4.2)

Where: E n [J/kg] [s-1]

The specific hydraulic energy of machine can be established with the following equation:

E = Hn *g

[J/kg]

(4.3)

Where: Hn net head [m]

A net head of 3.33m arises from the product of the gross head and the efficiency:

H n = H * ηh

[m]

(4.4)

Due to statistical studies of schemes, F. Schweiger and J. Gregory established the following correlation between the specific speed and the net head for Kaplan turbines: n QE = 2.294 H 0.486 n [-] (4.5)

Since the rational speed is unknown, the specific speed has to be calculated with the formula (4.5). Hence, a resulting specific speed of 1.28 arises. /1/

TAMPERE UNIVERSITY OF APPLIED SIENCES FINAL THESIS 23 (134) Environmental Engineering Timo Flaspöhler ——————————————————————————————————————

4.2.2 Rational speed

The rational speed can be calculated by putting equation (4.3) in equation (4.2). The resulting equation has to be re-arranged to the rational speed of the turbine. From this a rational speed of 10s-1 follows. This value of the rational speed is optimal because it is synchronous to the generator speed. Thus, the turbine can be directly coupled to it.

Table 4.1: Generator synchronisation speed /1/ Number of poles 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 50 Hz 3000 1500 1000 750 600 500 428 60 Hz 3600 1800 1200 900 720 600 540 Number of poles 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 50 Hz 375 333 300 272 250 231 214 60 Hz 450 400 360 327 300 277 257

In table 4.1 gives the synchronous speeds (in the unit min-1) which the runner should reach to connect it directly to the generator. /1/

4.2.3 Runaway speed

The runaway speed is the maximum speed which the turbine can theoretically attain; it is achieved during a load rejection. Depending on the regulation of the Kaplan turbine, the following guidelines can be used to determine the runaway speed:

Table 4.2: Runaway speed /1/

Turbine type Single regulated Kaplan turbine Double regulated Kaplan turbine

Runaway speed nmax/n 2.0 – 2.6 2.8 – 3.2

The turbine is supposed to work double regulated. Hence, a maximum runaway speed of 32s-1 arises. /1/

TAMPERE UNIVERSITY OF APPLIED SIENCES FINAL THESIS 24 (134) Environmental Engineering Timo Flaspöhler ——————————————————————————————————————

4.3 Runner diameter section

The runner diameter De can be calculated by the following equation: Hn [m] D e = 84.5 * (0.79 + 1.602 * n QE ) * 60 * n

(4.6)

All the values which are needed to calculate the runner diameter were established in Section 4.2. By using these values, a runner diameter of 0.73m results from the equation (4.6). /1/

4.4 Hub diameter

The hub diameter Di can be calculated with the following equation:

⎛ 0.0951 ⎞ ⎟ * De D i = ⎜ 0.25 + ⎜ n QE ⎟ ⎠ ⎝ A hub diameter of 0.24m arises from the equation (4.7). /1/ [m] (4.7)

TAMPERE UNIVERSITY OF APPLIED SIENCES FINAL THESIS 25 (134) Environmental Engineering Timo Flaspöhler ——————————————————————————————————————

4.5 Blade characteristics of some different heads and discharges

Table 4.2: Characteristics under different circumstances De [m] 0.71 0.75 0.78 0.81 0.84 Di [m] P [kW] Q [m3/s] n [s -1] nmax [s -1] P [kW] Q [m3/s] n [s -1] nmax [s -1] P [kW] Q [m3/s] n [s -1] nmax [s -1] P [kW] Q [m3/s] n [s -1] nmax [s -1] P [kW] Q [m3/s] n [s -1] nmax [s -1] P [kW] Q [m3/s] n [s -1] nmax [s -1] P [kW] Q [m3/s] n [s -1] nmax [s -1] P [kW] Q [m3/s] n [s -1] nmax [s -1] P [kW] Q [m3/s] n [s -1] nmax [s -1] 0.22 50 2.55 9.56 28.67 66 2.71 9.84 29.52 83 2.83 10.09 30.28 101 2.94 10.33 30.98 118 3.02 10.54 31.63 137 3.10 10.74 32.23 155 3.16 10.94 32.81 173 3.22 11.12 33.35 192 3.27 11.29 33.86 0.23 55 2.81 9.11 27.33 73 2.98 9.38 28.14 92 3.12 9.62 28.87 111 3.23 9.85 29.54 130 3.33 10.05 30.16 150 3.41 10.24 30.73 170 3.48 10.43 31.28 191 3.54 10.60 31.80 211 3.60 10.76 32.29 0.24 60 3.06 8.72 26.17 80 3.25 8.98 26.95 100 3.40 9.21 27.64 121 3.53 9.43 28.28 142 3.63 9.62 28.87 164 3.72 9.81 29.43 186 3.80 9.98 29.95 208 3.86 10.15 30.44 230 3.92 10.30 30.91 0.25 65 3.32 8.38 25.14 86 3.52 8.63 25.89 108 3.68 8.85 26.56 131 3.82 9.06 27.17 154 3.93 9.25 27.74 177 4.03 9.42 28.27 201 4.11 9.59 28.77 225 4.18 9.75 29.25 250 4.25 9.90 29.70 0.26 70 3.57 8.08 24.23 93 3.79 8.32 24.95 117 3.97 8.53 25.59 141 4.11 8.73 26.18 166 4.23 8.91 26.73 191 4.34 9.08 27.24 217 4.43 9.24 27.73 243 4.51 9.39 28.18 269 4.58 9.54 28.62 0.87 0.27 75 3.83 7.80 23.41 99 4.06 8.03 24.10 125 4.25 8.24 24.73 151 4.41 8.43 25.30 178 4.54 8.61 25.82 205 4.65 8.77 26.32 232 4.74 8.93 26.79 260 4.83 9.08 27.23 288 4.90 9.22 27.65 0.90 0.28 80 4.09 7.55 22.66 106 4.34 7.78 23.34 133 4.54 7.98 23.94 161 4.70 8.16 24.49 190 4.84 8.33 25.00 218 4.96 8.49 25.48 248 5.06 8.64 25.93 277 5.15 8.79 26.36 307 5.23 8.92 26.77 0.93 0.29 85 4.34 7.33 21.99 113 4.61 7.55 22.64 142 4.82 7.74 23.23 171 4.99 7.92 23.76 201 5.14 8.09 24.26 232 5.27 8.24 24.72 263 5.38 8.39 25.16 295 5.47 8.53 25.58 326 5.56 8.66 25.97 0.95 0.29 90 4.60 7.12 21.37 119 4.88 7.33 22.00 150 5.10 7.52 22.57 181 5.29 7.70 23.09 213 5.44 7.86 23.57 246 5.58 8.01 24.03 279 5.69 8.15 24.45 312 5.79 8.29 24.86 346 5.88 8.41 25.24 0.98 0.30 95 4.85 6.93 20.80 126 5.15 7.14 21.41 158 5.39 7.32 21.97 191 5.58 7.49 22.48 225 5.75 7.65 22.95 259 5.89 7.80 23.39 294 6.01 7.93 23.80 329 6.12 8.06 24.19 365 6.21 8.19 24.57 1.01 0.31 100 5.11 6.76 20.27 133 5.42 6.96 20.87 167 5.67 7.14 21.41 201 5.88 7.30 21.91 237 6.05 7.45 22.36 273 6.20 7.60 22.79 310 6.33 7.73 23.20 347 6.44 7.86 23.58 384 6.54 7.98 23.95 Hn 2

2.5

3

3.5

4

4.5

5

5.5

6

Table 4.2 was completed by using the above equations from this chapter. This table allows the reader to get an overview of the main characteristics of a Kaplan turbine under different head and discharge circumstances.

TAMPERE UNIVERSITY OF APPLIED SIENCES FINAL THESIS 26 (134) Environmental Engineering Timo Flaspöhler ——————————————————————————————————————

5

CAVITATION

In the fact that the vapor pressure of a liquid exceeds the hydrodynamic pressure of the liquid flow, a small part of the water changes into the vapor phase; this causes the formation of steam bubbles. The bubbles join the water flow and the more the water changes into the vapor phase the bigger the bubbles get. Finally, the water carries the bubbles to a spot where the liquid pressure increases again. The steam bubbles are not able to withstand the higher pressure and they condense in an imploding manner. This implosion releases very fast micro streams and pressure peaks of up to some hundred MPa occur. Cavitation occurs especially at spots where the pressure is low. In the case of a Kaplan turbine, the inlet of the runner is quite susceptible to it. At parts with a high water flow velocity cavitation might also arise. Cavitation should be avoided because it has several negative effects on the turbine. First it decreases the efficiency and causes crackling noises. However, the main problem is the wear or rather the damage of the turbine’s parts such as the blades. Cavitation does not just destroy the parts, chemical properties are also lost; for example, the material is not able to recover its protective layer which is tutelary against corrosion. The suction head Hs is the head where the turbine is installed; if the suction head is positive, the turbine is located above the trail water; if it is negative, the turbine is located under the trail water. To avoid cavitation, the range of the suction head is limited. The maximum allowed suction head can be calculated using the following equation:

Hs = p atm − p v c2 + 4 − σ * Hn ρ*g 2*g

[m]

(5.1)

Where: patm pv ρ g atmospheric pressure water vapor pressure water density acceleration of gravity [Pa] [Pa] [kg/m3] [m/s2]

TAMPERE UNIVERSITY OF APPLIED SIENCES FINAL THESIS 27 (134) Environmental Engineering Timo Flaspöhler —————————————————————————————————————— c4 outlet average velocity [m/s] σ Hn cavitation coefficient net head [-] [m]

The cavitation coefficient, calculated by modeling tests, is usually given by the turbine manufacture. However, statistical studies related the cavitation coefficient to the specific speed. Thus the σ for the Kaplan turbine can also be established with the following equation: σ = 1.5241 * n 1.46 + QE Where: nQE specific speed [-] c2 4 2*g * Hn [-] (5.2)

The outlet velocity c4 can be established via the discharge and the diameter at the outlet of the water passage. Since the dimensions of the water passage are not known, the outlet velocity has to be assumed. An outlet velocity of 2m/s is chosen. Using this velocity a diameter of 1.38m would arise at the outlet of the water passage - a quite realistic value. The specific speed is known from Section 4.2.1 and has a value of 1.28s-1. Thus a cavitation coefficient of 2.2 arises. The vapor pressure depends on the water temperature. The water temperature of rivers in Finland can vary from 0°C in the winter to a maximum of 24°C in the summer. Since the vapor pressure increases with higher temperatures the vapor pressure at 24°C is relevant for the cavitation calculation. At a water temperature of 24°C, the vapor pressure is 2985.7 Pa (see Table 14.1). Since the site, where the experimental rig can be build, is just 100m above the sea level, an atmospheric pressure of 101300 Pa can be used. Hence, a maximum suction head of 2.9m results from equation (5.1). As long the chosen suction head is below the established suction head no cavitation occurs. A suction head of 0.45m is chosen. /1, 9, 10/

TAMPERE UNIVERSITY OF APPLIED SIENCES FINAL THESIS 28 (134) Environmental Engineering Timo Flaspöhler ——————————————————————————————————————

6

DESIGN OF THE BLADE

Leading edge

Trailing edge

Figure6.1: Two different views of a blade

The design of the blade does not just depend on the stress analysis; several other factors play significant roles as well. The leading edge is thicker than the trailing edge for a streamlined flow. Furthermore, the blade should to be as thin as possible to improve the cavitation characteristics; it is thicker near the flange becoming thinner and thinner towards the tip. In addition, the blade has to be distorted on the basis of the tangential velocity. The “Tragflügeltheorie” is also an important factor in defining the shape of the profile and the distortion of the blade. /9, 11/

6.1 Distortion of the blade under ideal circumstances

The velocity triangles, which occur on the blade, play a significant role in determining its distortion. The velocities at the velocity triangle are shown in Figure 6.2. u β c w wm = c m u c w tangential velocity absolute velocity relative velocity [m/s] [m/s] [m/s]

cu

wu

Figure6.2: Velocity triangle:

TAMPERE UNIVERSITY OF APPLIED SIENCES FINAL THESIS 29 (134) Environmental Engineering Timo Flaspöhler —————————————————————————————————————— When a cylindrical cut is set at the runner and the cut is developed into a drawing pane, a grating like that shown in Figure 6.3 occurs. Velocity triangle 1 occurs directly before the grating and the velocity triangle 2 occurs directly after the grating. The meridian components w1m and w2m are equal. The medial relative velocity can be determined via the average of w1 and w2 and its direction is specified due to the angle β∞. Value t represents the grating partition and value l denotes the chord. u c1 w1

l

u c2 w2 w∞ w2 w 1u + w 2 u 2

Figure 6.3: Grating /9/

t β∞

l

wm1= wm2 t

w1

To define the distortion of the blade, the velocity triangles of six different radiuses of the blade are determined. The angle β∞ of each radius gives conclusions on the distortion of the blade.

1 2 3 4 5 6

Figure6.4: Cylindrical cuts of the blade /9/

TAMPERE UNIVERSITY OF APPLIED SIENCES FINAL THESIS 30 (134) Environmental Engineering Timo Flaspöhler ——————————————————————————————————————

Table 6.1: Velocities and angles of the occurring velocity triangles

d u cu1 cu2 wu1 wu2 wu∞ wm w1 w2 w∞ β∞ (180-β∞)

0.73 22.93 1.39 1.45 -21.54 -21.48 -21.51 8.00 22.98 22.92 22.95 160 20

0,63 19.79 1.62 1.69 -18.18 -18.11 -18.14 8.00 19.86 19.80 19.83 156 24

0,54 17.03 1.88 1.96 -15.15 -15.07 -15.11 8.00 17.13 17.06 17.10 152 28

0,43 13.51 2.37 2.47 -11.14 -11.04 -11.09 8.00 13.72 13.63 13.67 144 36

0,33 10.37 3.08 3.22 -7.28 -7.15 -7.22 8.00 10.82 10.73 10.77 132 48

0,24 7.54 4.24 4.42 -3.30 -3.12 -3.21 8.00 8.65 8.59 8.62 112 68

Table 6.1 shows the velocities and the significant angles of the velocity triangles for each of the radiuses. The equations, which were used to establish the table, are as follows: u = π*n *d cu = Hn *g u

[m/s] [m/s] [m/s]

(6.1) (6.2) (6.3)

w u = cu − u

wm =

Q A

[m/s] [m/s] [m/s]

(6.4) (6.5) (6.6)

w = w2 + w2 u m β ∞ = arccos wu w

The angles, however, are not 100% accurate. To get the exact angles of the distortion the “Tragflügletheorie” has to be considered. /9/

TAMPERE UNIVERSITY OF APPLIED SIENCES FINAL THESIS 31 (134) Environmental Engineering Timo Flaspöhler ——————————————————————————————————————

6.2 The “Tragflügeltheorie”

The “Tragflügeltheorie” was developed by Ludwig Prandtl. According to the “Tragflügeltheorie” a lifting force Fl applies at the blades of the runner due to the configuration of the parallel stream and the circulation stream, which occur at the blade. Hence, values such as the lift coefficient and the attack angel δ also play a significant role in the design of the blade. These coefficients can be determined via model tests. In the book “Vesiturbiinit”, the results of such model tests are shown. Using these results the profile, the chord and the exact distortion of the blade can be determined. /9, 12/

w∞

(180-β∞) δ Ft λ Fa Fr Fl

Figure 6.5: “Tragflügeltheorie” /9/

TAMPERE UNIVERSITY OF APPLIED SIENCES FINAL THESIS 32 (134) Environmental Engineering Timo Flaspöhler ——————————————————————————————————————

6.2.1 Procedure

For a better understanding, this section examines the precise procedure of the determining the blade’s main characteristics. Step 1: With the following equation, the lifting coefficients for each radius are determined:

⎛ c2 − c2 4 ⎜ p atm − H s − p min − ηs * 3 w − w + 2*g *⎜ 2*g ⎝ ζa = 2 K * w∞

2 2 2 ∞

⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠

[-]

(6.7)

Where: w2 w∞ patm Hs pmin ηs c3 c4 K relative velocity after the grating medial relative velocity atmospheric pressure suction head minimal water pressure efficiency of the energy change velocity after the runner outlet velocity profile characteristic number [m/s] [m/s] [m] [m] [m] [-] [m/s] [m/s]

Almost all the values of the equation (6.7) are known either from previous section or they can easily be established. The other values have to be assumed but can be found in “Vesiturbiinit” where a range for these values is given. The ranges of these values are as follows: pmin = 2÷2.5 ηs = 0.88÷0.91 K = 2.6÷3 Step 2: When the lifting coefficient is known, the ratio l/t can be established as follows:

1 cos λ l g * ηh * H c m * * = * 2 t u sin (180 − β ∞ − λ ) ζ a w∞

[-]

(6.8)

TAMPERE UNIVERSITY OF APPLIED SIENCES FINAL THESIS 33 (134) Environmental Engineering Timo Flaspöhler —————————————————————————————————————— Where: g ηh H cm λ u acceleration of gravity hydraulic efficiency gross head meridian velocity angle of slip tangential velocity [m/s2] [-] [m] [m/s2] [°] [m/s2] [°]

(180-β∞)inflow angle

In equation (6.8), the angle of slip λ has to be assumed; the range for the assumption is as follows: λ = 2.5°÷3° Using this assumption, an approximate value of the ratio l/t can be established. Step 3: During Step 3, the reciprocal value of the ratio l/t has to be established. Via the reciprocal value, the ratio of the lifting coefficients ζa/ζA can be read off in the following chart. Using this ratio the lifting coefficient ζA can be established.

Figure 6.6: Ratio of ζa/ζA and t/l /12/

TAMPERE UNIVERSITY OF APPLIED SIENCES FINAL THESIS 34 (134) Environmental Engineering Timo Flaspöhler —————————————————————————————————————— Step 4: The chart in the following figure gives information on the drag coefficient ζW of the different profiles. Profiles 391 410 417 419 423 430 432 443 444

Figure 6.7: Ratio of ζA and ζA for different profils /12/

Each of the curves represents one of the profiles which are listed beside the chart. First, it has to be decided which of the profiles should be chosen; following this, the drag coefficient of this profile can be determined by using the chart. Step 5: With the following equation, the angle of slip can be calculated: λ = arctan ζW ζA

[°]

(6.9)

It has to be checked whether the assumed angle of slip and the calculated angle of slip are similar or not. If the difference is too great, the procedure of the calculation has to be repeated using the angle of slip calculated in equation (6.9). Steps 2 to 5 must be repeated until the angles of slip do not change anymore; however, it is necessary to always choose the same profile in Step 4. When the angle λ is fixed, it can be assumed that the last calculated values of Steps 2 to 5 are accurate enough. Thus the ratio l/t and the profile are determined.

TAMPERE UNIVERSITY OF APPLIED SIENCES FINAL THESIS 35 (134) Environmental Engineering Timo Flaspöhler —————————————————————————————————————— Step 6: The angle of attack δ of the chosen profile can now be established using the following figure.

Figure6.8: Ratio of ζA and δ for different profils /12/

The above Steps have to be followed for the same diameters as in Section 6.1. The listed values in Table 6.2 arise using the profile 430:

Table6.2: Characteristics of the blade

d l/t ζA ζW λ δ

0.73 0.95 0.12 0.0062 2.9 -5.40

0.63 0.90 0.16 0.0063 2.3 -4.60

0.54 0.87 0.21 0.0065 1.8 -3.30

0.43 0.85 0.32 0.006 1.1 -1.20

0.33 0.85 0.52 0.009 1.0 3.00

0.24 0.94 0.87 0.04 2.6 9.60

At a diameter of 0.24m, the value of the lift coefficient ζA is so high that it is not indicated in the Figures 6.7 and 6.8. Thus, the further development of the curves in these charts had to be assumed in order to obtain the drag coefficient and the angle of slip. To get the accurate angle of distortion, the angle δ has to be subtracted from the angle (180-β∞). The outcome of this is shown in Table 8.3.

Table6.3: Angle of the blade distortion

d (180-β∞- δ) /12/

0.73 26

0.63 28

0.54 31

0.43 37

0.33 45

0.24 59

TAMPERE UNIVERSITY OF APPLIED SIENCES FINAL THESIS 36 (134) Environmental Engineering Timo Flaspöhler ——————————————————————————————————————

7

CALCULATION OF THE FORCES

Ri rcp Fc G ey Ft

Fa

Fa

Fr

Figure 7.1: Occurring forces upon the blade /11/

7.1 Tangential force

The tangential force is defined as:

Ft = P 2 * π * n * z * rcp

[N]

(7.1)

Where: P n z rcp power rational speed number of blades radius of the center of pressure (cp) [W] [s-1] [-] [m]

The radius rcp can be calculated using the following equation: rcp =

2 R e + R i2 2

[mm]

(7.2)

TAMPERE UNIVERSITY OF APPLIED SIENCES FINAL THESIS 37 (134) Environmental Engineering Timo Flaspöhler —————————————————————————————————————— The outcome of this is a radius of 0.272m and from this follows a tangential force of 1,434N. /11/

7.2 Axial force

The axial force can be established in two ways. The first possibility is to calculate Fa via the water pressure and the second possibility is to calculate it via the tangential force and the distortion of the blade. Understandably, the results are supposed to be the same. Using both ways to calculate the axial force is a good method of ensuring that the design of the blade fits. 1. Calculation via water pressure: Assuming that the water is dormant and the blade is a plate, the force Fa, which is caused by the water, can be approximately calculated with the following equation: Fa = g * ρ * H n * A b Where: g acceleration of gravity water density net head area of the blade [m/s2] [kg/m3] [m] [m] [N] (7.3)

ρ

Hn Ab

To calculate the area Ab, a further assumption must be made. Assuming that the ratio of l/t (see chapter 6.2.1) of the blade is constant, a simplified blade area as shown in Figure 7.2 arises.

α = 80°

Figure 7.2: Sketch of the simplified blade area

TAMPERE UNIVERSITY OF APPLIED SIENCES FINAL THESIS 38 (134) Environmental Engineering Timo Flaspöhler —————————————————————————————————————— Hence, an Ab of 0.083m2 has been established using the following equation: Ab =

2 π * α * (R e − R i2 ) 360 o

[m2]

(7.4)

Thus a force of 2,706N results from the equation (7.3). /13/ 2. Calculation via the tangential force and blade distortion: The blade distortion (180-β∞- δ) at the radius r has a value of 31°. The force Fa can be established using the following equation:

Fa = Ft tan(180 − β ∞ − δ)

[N]

(7.5)

The outcome from equation (7.5) is an axial force of 2,387N. The results do not match 100%; however, that can be based on the assumption of the dormant water and the simplification of the blade. One can thus say that the blade characteristics which were established in Chapter 6 are accurate. In the following calculations, the higher value of 2,706N will be used. /9/

7.3 Resulting force

The force Fr can be established by using following equation:

Fr = Ft2 + Fa2

[N]

(7.6)

A resulting force of 3,062N results from the equation (7.6). /11/

7.4 Hydraulic moment

The force Fr causes a turning moment which tends to turn the blade about its axis of rotation - the ‘hydraulic moment’. The value of the moment changes due to the adjustment of the blade. The main forces that the adaptation mechanism has to withstand are caused by this moment. Hence, the moment has a high influence on the design of the adaptation mechanism and can be calculated with the following equation:

M h = Fr * e y

[Nmm] (7.7)

TAMPERE UNIVERSITY OF APPLIED SIENCES FINAL THESIS 39 (134) Environmental Engineering Timo Flaspöhler —————————————————————————————————————— Where: ey distance from the cp to the rotation axis of the blade [mm]

The center of pressure cp is not a fixed point; it changes its position depending on the adjustment of the blade. Thus the arm ey also changes its value. Under simplified circumstances as those in Section 7.2, the arm ey can be calculated, although the evaluation is not 100% accurate. The exactly center of pressure and consequently the exactly length of the arm ey can only be precisely established by using model tests. However, to get an idea of the length of ey the calculation under simplified circumstances is sufficient.

ε

α

x cg y

x’

Figure 7.3: Turbine with projected view of the blade

The distance between the center of gravity cg and respectively the rotation axis of the blade and the center of pressure in y-direction can be calculated with the following equation:

TAMPERE UNIVERSITY OF APPLIED SIENCES FINAL THESIS 40 (134) Environmental Engineering Timo Flaspöhler —————————————————————————————————————— Is ey = [mm] (7.8) ys * A Where: Is ys Ab moment of inertia of the area A related to the x’-axis which runs parallel to the x-axis over the center of gravity the distance between the x-axis and the center of gravity area of the blade [mm4] [mm] [mm2]

The moment of inertia is defined as: ) 4 R e − R i4 ⎛ α α α⎞ Is = * ⎜ − sin * cos ⎟ 4 2 2⎠ ⎝2

[mm4]

(7.9)

With a blade-radius R e of 365mm, a hub-radius R i of 120mm and an angle α of ) 80° ( α = 1.396) a moment of inertia of 901,718,555mm4 results. The distance ys can be calculated as follows: ys = Fa g * ρ * A b * cos ε

[m]

(7.10)

Where: Fa g ρ Ab ε force of the water on the plate acceleration of gravity water density area of the plate angle of the adjustment of the blade [N] [m/s2] [kg/m3] [m2] [°]

Angle ε changes with the adjustment of the blade. The smaller the angle the bigger is ey. The smallest possible angle of 20° was chosen. Hence, a ys of 3.5m results. All the necessary values are now known to calculate ey - a value of 3.1mm results from the equation (7.8). /13/ Using the results from equation (7.8) and (7.6) in equation (7.7) a maximum turning moment of 9,422Nmm results. /11/

TAMPERE UNIVERSITY OF APPLIED SIENCES FINAL THESIS 41 (134) Environmental Engineering Timo Flaspöhler ——————————————————————————————————————

7.5 Centrifugal force

The blade, the blade flange, the pivot, the lever and the link of the runner cause the centrifugal force, which is defined as:

Fc = M G * R cg * ω 2

[N]

(7.11)

Where: MG Rcg ω total weight of the five parts radius to the center of gravity angular velocity

[kg] [mm] [s-1]

The total weight of the five parts results out of the sum of the weight of each part:

MG = ∑Gi

[kg]

(7.12)

Where: Gi weight of a single part [kg]

The radius to the center of gravity can be calculated with the following equation:

R cg =

∑G *R ∑G i i

i

[mm] (7.13)

Where: Ri radius to the center of gravity of a single part Runner center line Lever Link [mm]

Blade

Flange

Pivot

R5 R4 R3 R2 R1

Figure 7.4: Radiuses to the center of gravity of each part

TAMPERE UNIVERSITY OF APPLIED SIENCES FINAL THESIS 42 (134) Environmental Engineering Timo Flaspöhler —————————————————————————————————————— The angular of velocity can be calculated with the following equation: ω = 2 * π * n max Where: nmax runaway speed [s-1] [s-1] (7.14)

Table 7.1: Weight and radius to the center of gravity

Part 1. Blade 2. Blade flange 3. Pivot 4. Lever 5. Link Total

Gi [kg] 5.6 0.55 1.15 0.27 0.08 7.65

R [mm] 272 110.6 90 55 45

G*R [kgmm] 1523 61 103.5 14.85 3.6 1,706

A radius to the center of gravity Rcg of 223mm as the case may be of 0.223m results. To calculate the angular velocity, the runaway speed is needed. In Section 4.2.3, a maximum runaway speed of 32s-1 has been determined. Thus an angular velocity of 201s-1 results from equation (7.14). The outcome of this is a centrifugal force of 68,922N. /11/

7.6

Weight of the blade

The weight of the blade can be calculated by using the following equation:

FB = G B * g

[N]

(7.15)

A weight of 55N results from equation (7.15). /11/

TAMPERE UNIVERSITY OF APPLIED SIENCES FINAL THESIS 43 (134) Environmental Engineering Timo Flaspöhler ——————————————————————————————————————

8

CRITICAL SPEED

The critical speed is that where the runner has its natural frequency. When the runner operates at or close to the critical speed, a high vibration occurs which may damage the runner. To assure that the rational speed is not equal or close to the critical speed, the critical speed can be determined as follows: nc = cq 1 * 2*π G spring constant for elastic lateral oscillation total weightiness of the runner [s-1] (8.1)

Where: cq G [N/m] [kg]

The total weight of the runner results from the sum of the weight of the single parts which are listed in the following table:

Table 7.1: Weight of the runner parts

Part Blade Blade flange Pivot Lever Link Upper hub Middle hub Lower hub Total

Gi [kg] 4*5.6 4*0.55 4*1.15 4*0.27 4*0.08

1.8

17

4.8

54.2

The runner of a turbine is overhung-mounted; thus the spring constant for elastic lateral oscillation is defined as: cq = 3* E * I l3 elastic modulus axial moment of inertia length of the axle to the bearing [N/mm] (8.2)

Where: E I l [N/mm2] [mm4] [mm]

TAMPERE UNIVERSITY OF APPLIED SIENCES FINAL THESIS 44 (134) Environmental Engineering Timo Flaspöhler —————————————————————————————————————— The material which was chosen for the axle has an elastic modulus of 220,000N/mm2. The axial moment of inertia can be established as follows:

I= π * (D 4 − d 4 ) 64 outer diameter of the axle interior diameter of the axle [mm4] (8.3)

Where: D d [mm] [mm]

Value D is equal to 168.3mm and value d equal of 159.3mm. Hence, an axial moment of inertia of 7,772,160mm4 results. The axel is supposed to be borne at a length of 200mm. The outcome of this is a spring constant for an elastic lateral oscillation of 6,41,203N/mm. A critical speed of 17.3s-1 results from equation (8.1) which is 7.3s-1 higher than the rational speed. Thus the difference between rational speed and the critical speed is big enough. In the case of a load rejection, the speed reaches its maximum of approximately 32s-1 (see Section 4.2.3). However, a load rejection only lasts a short time and as the speed passing through the critical field rather quick there is no danger of damage. /13/

TAMPERE UNIVERSITY OF APPLIED SIENCES FINAL THESIS 45 (134) Environmental Engineering Timo Flaspöhler ——————————————————————————————————————

9

STRESS ANALYSES

The moment Mh which was calculated in Section 7.4 is one of the main characteristics on which the stress analysis is based. Since it was established under simplified circumstances, it might be that it is different under real circumstances and a bigger turning moment occurs. Thus a safety factor of 10 has been chosen to be sure that the parts of the runner can withstand the forces which might occur. Hence, a turning moment of 94,920Nmm will be utilized in the stress analysis. Furthermore, it will be assumed that the parts are stressed statically. The stress of the parts changes with the head and the discharge. These changes take place rather slowly, though. Thus the assumption of statically stress is rather convenient than dynamically stress. When a load rejection occurs, the forces at the blade suddenly decrease and after the load rejection suddenly increase again. This causes an impact on the runner. Thus an application coefficient KA of 1.25 is utilized to consider the impulsive stress. The strength factors of the material of the parts can be read off Table 14.2 in the Appendix.

TAMPERE UNIVERSITY OF APPLIED SIENCES FINAL THESIS 46 (134) Environmental Engineering Timo Flaspöhler ——————————————————————————————————————

9.1 Axle

The maximum tensional stress which the axle can withstand is 125N/mm2. The present tensional stress can be calculated as follows: τt = KA *Mt Wt

[N/mm2] (9.1)

Where: Mt Wt turning moment polar section modulus [Nmm] [mm3]

The turning moment Mt is the moment caused by the tangential forces and it can be establish using the following equation:

M t = K A * 4 * rcp * Ft

[Nmm] (9.2)

The tangential force has a value of 1,434N and the rcp has a value of 272mm. Thus a turning moment of 1,560,192Nmm results from equation (9.2). The polar section modulus is defined as: Wt = π D4 − d4 * 16 D [mm3] (9.3)

Where: D d outer diameter of the axle interior diameter of the axle [mm] [mm]

The outer diameter is 168.3mm and the interior diameter is 159.3mm; a polar section modulus of 184,722mm3 results. The outcome of this is a present tensional stress of 10.6N/mm2 which is significantly smaller then the permissible tensional stress. /13, 14/

TAMPERE UNIVERSITY OF APPLIED SIENCES FINAL THESIS 47 (134) Environmental Engineering Timo Flaspöhler ——————————————————————————————————————

9.2

Blade

At the stress analysis, the blade is treated as a flat plate. Furthermore, the blade is not considered over its whole width only over the width h, which has a value of 60mm. This is because the main forces are at work in this area. Accordingly, one can say that the stress analysis of this part represents the whole blade.

9.2.1 Bending

Fr

y z

h

Figure 9.1: Sketch of the significant cutaway of the blade

With the assumption that force Fr applies at the tip of the blade instead of the center of pressure, equation (9.4) can be used to calculate the minimum required thickness y at every radius. Since the bending moment at the assumption is even higher than in reality, a safety factor of approximately 1.6 is included. Due to this fact, utilizing the application coefficient KA is not necessary. Furthermore, as the weight of the blade is relatively small compared with the force Fr, it can be neglected. Equation to calculate the minimum required thickness of the blade: y= 6 * Fr * z h * σ bpermissible [mm] (9.4)

The permissible bending stress of the blade is 450N/mm2.

TAMPERE UNIVERSITY OF APPLIED SIENCES FINAL THESIS 48 (134) Environmental Engineering Timo Flaspöhler —————————————————————————————————————— Using equation (9.4), the following table of the blade thickness is created; whereas the thickness at 0.73m was set with a value of 2mm without using the equation:

Table 9.1: Blade thickness at different radiuses r y 120 13 165 12 215 10 265 8 315 6 365 2

According, to the source /10/ the in the table, the shown values should be safe against bending and thus further bending stress analyses are not necessary. /13, 15/

9.2.2 Torsion

Center line of the runner

Mh y h

rcp

Figure 9.2: Sketch of the significant cutaway of the blade with cylindrical cut

The main force Fr, which causes the hydraulic moment, is applied at the radius rcp. A cut is therefore made at this radius to get the relevant cross-section form. The maximum permissible tensional stress of the blade is 270N/mm2. The present tensional stress can be determined as follows: τt = KA * Mh Wt

[N/mm2] (9.5)

TAMPERE UNIVERSITY OF APPLIED SIENCES FINAL THESIS 49 (134) Environmental Engineering Timo Flaspöhler —————————————————————————————————————— Where: Mh Wt hydraulic moment polar section modulus [Nmm] [mm2]

The polar section modulus for the present cross-section form is defined as:

Wt = c1 * h * y2 c2

[mm2]

(9.6)

The values of c1 and c2 depend on the ratio of h and y and they can be read off the Table 14.3 in the Appendix. The value of h is 60mm and y is equal to 8mm. From this follows a c1 of 0.307 and a c2 of 0.999 and a polar section modulus of 1,180mm2 results. The hydraulic moment has a value of 94,920Nmm and the outcome of this is a present tensional stress of 101N/mm2, which is less than the maximum permissible stress. /13, 15/

TAMPERE UNIVERSITY OF APPLIED SIENCES FINAL THESIS 50 (134) Environmental Engineering Timo Flaspöhler ——————————————————————————————————————

9.3 Pivot

Figure 9.3: Sketch pivot

Material: X20Cr13 (1.4021)

9.3.1 Contact pressure

The maximum permissible contact pressure of the pivot is 300N/mm2. The maximum permissible contact pressure of the bearing (HSM-4550-30) must, however, also be considered. The permissible contact pressure of the bearing is

90N/mm2 and is therefore used as the reference value for the maximum contact

pressure. The present contact pressure can be calculated with the following equation: p= K A * Fr A proj [N/mm2] (9.7)

Where: Fr Aproj resulting force projection screen [N] [m2]

The projection screen can be established as follows: A proj = b * d [mm2] (9.8)

TAMPERE UNIVERSITY OF APPLIED SIENCES FINAL THESIS 51 (134) Environmental Engineering Timo Flaspöhler —————————————————————————————————————— Where: b d length of the pivot diameter of the pivot [mm] [mm]

With a diameter d of 45mm and a length b of 30mm, a projection screen of 1,350mm2 results. As the resulting force has a value of 3,062N, a present contact pressure of 2.8N/mm2 results from the equation (9.7). /13, 15, 16/

9.3.2 Torsion

The maximum permissible tensional stress is 225N/mm2. The present tensional stress can be established using the following equation: τt = KA * Mh Wt

[N/mm2] (9.9)

Where: Mh Wt hydraulic moment polar section modulus [Nmm] [mm3]

Equation of the polar section modulus: π * d3 Wt = 16 [mm3] (9.10)

With a hydraulic moment Mh of 94,920Nmm and a polar section modulus of 17,892mm3 a present tensional stress of 6.6N/mm2 results. /13, 15/

9.3.3 Bending

The significant maximum permissible bending stress is the value of the bearing which is 175N/mm2. The present bending stress can be determined as follows: σb = KA * Mb Wb min

[N/mm2](9.11)

TAMPERE UNIVERSITY OF APPLIED SIENCES FINAL THESIS 52 (134) Environmental Engineering Timo Flaspöhler —————————————————————————————————————— Where: Mb Wb min bending moment minimal section modulus [Nmm] [mm3]

The length l of the arm which causes the bending moment is 212mm. Thus a bending moment of 649,144Nmm can be established from the following equation: M b = l * Fr The section modulus can be calculated as follows: Wb min π * d3 = 32 [mm3] (9.13) [Nmm] (9.12)

The diameter d is 45mm; so a section modulus of 8,946mm4 results. The outcome of this is a present bending stress of 90N/mm2. /13, 15, 16/

TAMPERE UNIVERSITY OF APPLIED SIENCES FINAL THESIS 53 (134) Environmental Engineering Timo Flaspöhler ——————————————————————————————————————

9.4 Lever l b1

b2 A

d

Figure 9.4: Sketch lever

Material: X20Cr13 (1.4021) The pin of the lever is where the force is applied. Thus the occurring stresses at the pin have to be checked. If the pin is able to withstand the forces, one can assume that the whole lever is strong enough as the pin is the weakest part of the lever.

9.4.1 Bending

The maximum bending stress of the pin is 375N/mm2; however, the present bending stress should not exceed the permissible bending stress of the bearing which has a value of 175N/mm2. The force which is applied at the pin can be calculated with the following equation:

F= Mh l

[N]

(9.14)

The length l is 40mm and Mh has a value of 94,920Nmm, thus a force F of 2,373N results.

TAMPERE UNIVERSITY OF APPLIED SIENCES FINAL THESIS 54 (134) Environmental Engineering Timo Flaspöhler —————————————————————————————————————— Equation of the present bending stress: σb = KA * Mb Wb min

[N/mm2](9.15)

Where: Mb Wb min bending moment minimal section modulus [Nmm] [mm3]

The bending moment results from the following equation: Mb = b2 * F [Nmm] (9.16)

The length b2 is 10mm and from this follows a bending moment of 23,730Nmm. The minimal section modulus can be calculated as follows: Wb min = π * d3 32 [N/mm2](9.17)

With a value of d of 12mm, a section modulus of 170mm3 results. The outcome of this is a present bending stress of 174N/mm2. /13, 15, 16/

9.4.2 Shear

The maximum shear stress which the pin can withstand can be calculated as follows: τ spermissible = Where: Rp0.2 elastic limit [N/mm2] R p 0.2 1.5 [N/mm2](9.18)

The elastic limit of the lever material is 550N/mm2. Hence, a permissible shear stress of 367N/mm2 results. The present shear stress can be established using the following equation: τs = KA *F A

[N/mm2](9.19)

With an area of 113mm2 a present shear stress of 26N/mm2 results. /13, 15/

TAMPERE UNIVERSITY OF APPLIED SIENCES FINAL THESIS 55 (134) Environmental Engineering Timo Flaspöhler ——————————————————————————————————————

9.4.3 Contact pressure

The maximum permissible contact pressure of the bearing (HSM-1214-10) is

90N/mm2.

Equation of the present contact pressure: p= KA *F A proj [N/mm2](9.20)

Where: Aproj projection screen [mm2]

Equation of the projection screen: A proj = b 2 * d [mm2] (9.21)

The projection screen is equal to 120mm2 and a contact pressure of 25N/mm2 results. /13, 15, 16/

TAMPERE UNIVERSITY OF APPLIED SIENCES FINAL THESIS 56 (134) Environmental Engineering Timo Flaspöhler ——————————————————————————————————————

9.5 Link

l

A

Figure 9.5: Sketch link

Material: X3CrNb17 (1.4511)

TAMPERE UNIVERSITY OF APPLIED SIENCES FINAL THESIS 57 (134) Environmental Engineering Timo Flaspöhler ——————————————————————————————————————

9.5.1 Buckling

The link is clamped between the lever and the crosshead as in buckling case II. Thus, buckling length lk is equal to length l and has a value of 70mm. The thickness ratio of the link can be established with the following equation: λ = lk * A I min

[-]

(9.22)

Where: Imin minimal axial moment of inertia [mm4]

The minimal axial moment of inertia can be calculated as follows: I min = 2 * B * H3 + b2 * h3 12 [mm4] (9.23)

The outcome of this is a minimal moment of inertia of 395mm4. The area A is 104mm2 and a thickness ratio of 36 results from the equation (9.22). The marginal thickness ratio λ g 0.2 can be determined using the following equation: λ g 0, 2 = π * E σ d 0.2

[-]

(9.24)

Where: E σd0.2 elastic modulus elastic limit (Rp0.2) [N/mm2] [N/mm2]

The steel 1.4511 has an elastic modulus of 220,000N/mm2 and an elastic limit of 230N/mm2. Hence, a marginal thickness ratio of 97 results. Since the thickness ratio of the link is smaller than the marginal thickness ratio λ g 0.2 , the present buckling stress has to be calculated with the following equation: σk = KA *F A

[N/mm2](9.25)

TAMPERE UNIVERSITY OF APPLIED SIENCES FINAL THESIS 58 (134) Environmental Engineering Timo Flaspöhler —————————————————————————————————————— Force F which is applied at the link is the same force as in Section 9.4 which has a value of 2,373N. Thus a present buckling stress of 29N/mm2 results. The permissible buckling stress is equal to the permissible compression stress which is

170N/mm2. Accordingly, the present buckling stress is within the permitted range.

/13, 15/

9.5.2 Stress calculation of the links eye

Bearing

b1

c

d3 d1

c

Figure 9.6: Sketch of the eye

The eye of the link is the point where the most stress occurs. To calculate the stress which appears at the eye the following equation can be used: σ= KA *F 2 * c * b1 ⎡ 3 ⎛d ⎞⎤ * ⎢1 + * ⎜ 3 + 1⎟⎥ ⎠⎦ ⎣ 2 ⎝ c

[N/mm2](9.26)

The permissible stress can be determined with the following equation: σ permissible = 0,5 * R m Where: Rm tensile strength [N/mm2] [N/mm2](9.27)

TAMPERE UNIVERSITY OF APPLIED SIENCES FINAL THESIS 59 (134) Environmental Engineering Timo Flaspöhler —————————————————————————————————————— The tensile stress is 420N/mm2, thus a permissible stress of 210N/mm2 results. The values which are needed to calculate the stress in the eye are as follows: F= 2,373N c=5mm b1=10mm d3=12mm Accordingly, a stress of 181N/mm2 results from equation (9.26). The present stress is smaller than the permissible stress, thus the dimension of the eye is sufficient. /15/

TAMPERE UNIVERSITY OF APPLIED SIENCES FINAL THESIS 60 (134) Environmental Engineering Timo Flaspöhler ——————————————————————————————————————

9.6 Crosshead

b c Section A

d

Figure 9.7: Sketch of the crosshead

Material: X20Cr13 (1.4021) In section A, the crosshead has the weakest point. If this point can withstand the occurring stress, it can be assumed that the whole crosshead is safe against failure. The principle of this stress analysis is the same as in Section 9.5.2.

TAMPERE UNIVERSITY OF APPLIED SIENCES FINAL THESIS 61 (134) Environmental Engineering Timo Flaspöhler —————————————————————————————————————— Link

Section A

½F

½F

F

Figure 9.8: Clamping of the link in the crosshead

The force which is applied at section A is the half of the force which applies at the link. The stress which applies in section A can be calculated as follows: σ= K A * 1 F ⎡ 3 ⎛ d ⎞⎤ 2 * 1 + * ⎜ + 1⎟ 2 * c * b ⎢ 2 ⎝ c ⎠⎥ ⎣ ⎦

[N/mm2](9.28)

The permissible stress is defined as: σ permissible = 0,5 * R m Where: Rm tensile strength [N/mm2] [N/mm2](9.29)

The tensile stress is 750N/mm2, thus a permissible stress of 375N/mm2 results. The outcome of this is a present stress of 113N/mm using the following values: F= 2,373N c=5mm b=8mm

TAMPERE UNIVERSITY OF APPLIED SIENCES FINAL THESIS 62 (134) Environmental Engineering Timo Flaspöhler —————————————————————————————————————— d=12mm The section A can withstand the present stress; this means that the dimension of the whole cross head is sufficient. /15/

9.7 Bolt l1 l2 l3

d

Bolt

Crosshead F

Link

Figure 9.9: Sketch of the bolt connection

Bolt: DIN 1445-12h11x17x55 Material: X6CrMoS17 (1.4105)

9.7.1 Bending

The permissible bending stress is 215N/mm2. The present bending stress is defined as: σb = KA * Mb Wb min

[N/mm2](9.30)

TAMPERE UNIVERSITY OF APPLIED SIENCES FINAL THESIS 63 (134) Environmental Engineering Timo Flaspöhler —————————————————————————————————————— Where: Mb Wb min bending moment minimal section modulus [Nmm] [mm3]

Depending on the fitting of the bolt, the bending moment has to be calculated in different ways. The bolt has a clearance fit over the lengths l1, l2, and l3. Thus, to calculate the bending moment the following equation must be used:

Mb = F * (l1 + l 2 + l 3 ) 8

[Nmm] (9.31)

The force F has a value of 2,373N and the relevant lengths are as follows: l1=20mm l2=10mm l3=8mm Thus a bending moment of 11,272Nmm results. The section modus can be established with the following equation: Wb min = π * d3 32 [mm3] (9.32)

The bolt has a diameter d of 12mm and the outcome of this a section modus of 170mm3. Thus a present bending stress of 83N/mm2 results from equation (9.30). /15/

9.7.2 Shear

At the bolt calculation, the maximum permissible shear stress can be determined using the following equation: τ spermissible = 0.2 * R m Where: Rm tensile strength [N/mm2] The tensile strength has a value of 430N/mm2; so a maximum shear stress of

86N/mm2 is permitted.

[N/mm2](9.33)

TAMPERE UNIVERSITY OF APPLIED SIENCES FINAL THESIS 64 (134) Environmental Engineering Timo Flaspöhler —————————————————————————————————————— The present shear stress is defined as: τs = 4 KA *F * 3 AS * 2

[N/mm2](9.34)

Where: As cross section area of the bolt [mm]

With a diameter of 12mm, it follows a cross section area of 113mm2. Force F is 2,373N; so a present shear stress of 18N/mm2 results from equation (9.34). /15/

9.7.3 Contact pressure

At the bolt contact pressure is applied which is caused by the link and the contact pressure caused by the crosshead. The permissible contact pressure can be established using the following equation: p permissible = 0.35 * R m contact pressure of 151N/mm2 results. The respective present contact pressure can be established using the following equation: p= KA *F A proj [N/mm2](9.36) [N/mm2](9.35)

The tensile strength is, as in the previous section 430N/mm2 and a permissible

Where: Aproj projection screen of the link alternatively of the crosshead [mm2]

Crosshead: The projection screen of the crosshead can be established as follows: A proj = (l1 + l 3 ) * d [mm2] (9.37)

With a projection screen of 336mm2 a present contact pressure of 9N/mm2 follows.

TAMPERE UNIVERSITY OF APPLIED SIENCES FINAL THESIS 65 (134) Environmental Engineering Timo Flaspöhler —————————————————————————————————————— Link: The projection screen of the link is defined as: A proj.link = l 2 * d

25N/mm2 results from equation (9.36). /15/

[mm2] (9.38)

The projection area of the link is 120mm and the present contact pressure of

TAMPERE UNIVERSITY OF APPLIED SIENCES FINAL THESIS 66 (134) Environmental Engineering Timo Flaspöhler ——————————————————————————————————————

9.8 Shaft

The shaft has to withstand four times force F of 2,373N, which was calculated in Section 9.4. Assuming that the shaft is clamped as in the buckling case II, the buckling length lk is equal to the length of the shaft which has the value of 3300mm. The thickness ratio of the link can be established with the following equation: λ = lk * A I min

[-]

(9.39)

Where: Imin minimal axial moment of inertia [mm4]

The minimal axial moment of inertia can be calculated as follows: π * d4 I= 64 results. With an area A of 2,827mm, a thickness ratio of 220 results from equation (9.39) The marginal thickness ratio λ g 0.2 can be determined using the following equation: λ g 0, 2 = π * E 0.8 * σ d 0.2

[mm4] (9.40)

The diameter of the shaft is 60mm; so an axial moment of inertia of 636,173mm4

[-]

(9.41)

Where: E σd0.2 elastic modulus elastic limit (Rp0.2) [N/mm2] [N/mm2]

The elastic modulus is 220,000N/mm2 and the elastic limit is 230N/mm2; the outcome of this is a marginal thickness ratio of 109. Since the marginal thickness ratio is smaller than the thickness ratio, the following equation has to be used to calculate the present stress:

TAMPERE UNIVERSITY OF APPLIED SIENCES FINAL THESIS 67 (134) Environmental Engineering Timo Flaspöhler —————————————————————————————————————— K * π2 * E σk = A 2 [N/mm2](9.42) λ A present buckling stress of 56N/mm2 follows from equation (9.42); this is less than the permissible buckling stress of 170N/mm2. /13, 14/

9.9 Hub

The hub has to absorb the moment caused by the tangential force and the contact pressure caused by the resulting force. A stress analysis for the hub is not necessary. The wall thickness of the hub is much bigger than the wall thickness of the axle. Since the axle is able to withstand the occurring tensional stress, the hub should also withstand it. The contact pressure which occurs at the hub must be calculated in the same way as in Section 9.3.1. In reference to this section, it can be assumed that the contact pressure at the hub is within the permitted range.

TAMPERE UNIVERSITY OF APPLIED SIENCES FINAL THESIS 68 (134) Environmental Engineering Timo Flaspöhler ——————————————————————————————————————

10 CALCULATION OF THE SCREWS

The screw calculation is rather bulked and the procedure of it is always pretty much the same; thus just the calculation of the first screw connection will be detailed. In the following sections, only the main results will be presented.

10.1 Screw connection of the lever and the pivot

Step1: Pre-selection of the screw The following two motive forces are acting at the screw connection: 1. 2. Longitudinal force which is equal to the centrifugal force Shear force which is caused by the hydraulic moment Mh

In Section 5.5, a maximum centrifugal force of 68,922N was established. Three screws are supposed to be used for the connection; thus a longitudinal force FBs of 22,974N results for each screw. According to Table 14.4 in the Appendix, a M12 screw of the strength class 12.9 can be chosen. The shear force is defined as:

FQ = KA * Mh r

[mm]

(10.1)

Where: r radius of the hole circle diameter

The holes are arranged at a radius of 15mm and the hydraulic moment has a value of 94,920Nmm; a shear forces FQs of 7,910N results from this. This means that each screw has to absorb 2,637N. The screws chosen based on the longitudinal force are also adequate accordingly for the shear force. Step2: Rough calculation of the contact pressure The occurring contact pressure can approximately be calculated as follows: p= Fsp 0,9 * A p [N/mm2](10.2)

TAMPERE UNIVERSITY OF APPLIED SIENCES FINAL THESIS 69 (134) Environmental Engineering Timo Flaspöhler —————————————————————————————————————— Where: Fsp Ap tension force contact surface of the screw head [N] [mm2]

A tension force of 68.5kN can be read off Table 14.5 in the Appendix and the contact surface of the screw head can be determined as follows: Ap = π * (d 2 − d 2 ) w h 4 outer diameter of the annular surface of the screw head hole diameter [mm2] (10.3)

Where: dw dh [mm] [mm]

Diameter dw is equal to 18mm and the diameter of the hole is 13mm (see Table 14.6). The outcome of this is a contact surface of 122mm2 and from this follows a contact pressure of 624N/mm2. However, the permissible contact pressure of the lever is only 300N/mm2. Hence, a washer must be used to decrease the contact pressure. The outer diameter of the washer must now be used in equation (10.3) instead of diameter dw. With the new outer d2 diameter of 24mm (see table 14.6) a contact surface of 320mm2 results and a contact pressure of 238N/mm2 follows, which is in the permitted range. Step3: Calculation of the required assembly preload force The assembly preload force is defined as: FVM = k A * [FKl + FBs * (1 − Φ ) + FZ ] Where: kA FKl FB Φ FZ snap factor clamping force longitudinal force per screw force ratio preload force loss [-] [N] [N] [-] [N] [N] (10.4)

The snap factor can be read off the Table 14.8 which is in the Appendix. Since the screws are supposed to be manually tightened by torque wrench, the snap factor

TAMPERE UNIVERSITY OF APPLIED SIENCES FINAL THESIS 70 (134) Environmental Engineering Timo Flaspöhler —————————————————————————————————————— has a value of 1.6. As already mentioned, the longitudinal force per screw is

22,974N.

The clamping force can be determined with the following equation:

FKl = FQ μ*z

[N]

(10.5)

Where: µ z friction factor number of the screws [-] [-]

A friction factor of 0.5 can be assumed based on the Table 14.9. Thus a clamping force of 4,218N results from equation (10.5). The force ratio is defined as:

Φ = n *ΦK

[-]

(10.6)

Where: n ΦK force introduction factor simplified force ratio [-] [-]

A force introduction factor of 0.5 is normally used. The simplified force ratio can be established using the following equation:

ΦK = δT (δ T + δ S )

[-]

(10.7)

Where: δT δS flexibility of the uptight parts flexibility of the screw [mm/N] [mm/N]

The flexibility of the uptight parts can be determined as follows: δT = lk A ers * E T

[mm/N] (10.8)

TAMPERE UNIVERSITY OF APPLIED SIENCES FINAL THESIS 71 (134) Environmental Engineering Timo Flaspöhler —————————————————————————————————————— Where: lk Aers ET clamping length ersatz area elastic modulus of the uptight part [mm] [mm2] [N/mm2]

The clamping length is 12.5mm and the elastic modulus of the part is 216,000N/mm2. The ersatz area can be calculated using the following equation: A ers = π π 2 * (d w − d h ) + * d w * (D A − d w ) * (x + 1) − 1 4 8

[

]

[mm2] (10.9)

Where: dw DA dh x outer diameter of the annular surface of the screw head outer diameter of the uptight part hole diameter

3

[mm] [mm] [mm] [mm] (10.10)

lk * d w D2 A

The outer diameter DA of 30.5mm has been established using the following equation: DA = d w + lk flexibility δT of 3.9*10-7mm/N follows from equation (10.8). The flexibility of the screws can be determined with the following equation: δS = 1 ES ⎛ 0,4 * d l 0,5 * d 0,4 * d ⎞ ⎟ *⎜ + + + ⎜ A A3 A3 AN ⎟ N ⎠ ⎝

[mm] (10.11)

The outcome of this is a x of 0.62. Thus an ersatz area of 147mm2 results and a

[mm/N](10.12)

Where: ES d AN l A3 elastic modulus of the screws nominal diameter of the screw nominal cross section of the shank length of the non screwed part core cross section of the thread [N/mm2] [mm] [mm2] [mm] [mm2]

The elastic modulus of the screws is 220,000N/mm2; the nominal diameter of the screw is 12mm; the length of the non screwed part is 12.5mm; the core cross section of the thread is 76.25mm2 (see Table 14.10). A nominal cross section of

TAMPERE UNIVERSITY OF APPLIED SIENCES FINAL THESIS 72 (134) Environmental Engineering Timo Flaspöhler —————————————————————————————————————— 113mm2 results out of the circular area equation. A flexibility of the screws of 1.5*10-6mm/N results from equation (10.12). The results of equation (10.12) and (10.8) must be put in equation (10.7) and from this a simplified force ratio of 0.21 results. This result has to be used in equation (10.6) and a force ratio of 0.105 results. Only the value of the preload force loss is still missing by which to calculate the assembly preload force. Equation of the preload force loss:

FZ = fZ (δ S + δ T )

[N]

(10.13)

Where: fZ setting amount [mm]

The setting amount is a recommended value which can be established using Table 14.11 from the Appendix. The setting amount is 0.023mm. Hence, a preload forces loss of 12,169N results. Finally all the values are known to establish the assembly preload force via equation (10.4) which is equal to 59,118N. The assembly preload force is less than the tension fore; thus the screws which were chosen can be used. Step4: Calculation of the required tightening torque Since the screws are supposed to be tightened by a torque wrench, the tightening torque is defined as: M A = 0.9 * M sp Where: Msp tension torque [Nm] [Nm] (10.14)

A tension torque of 137Nm can be read off Table 14.5, the outcome of which is a tightening toque of 123Nm. Step5: Maximum permissible screw force The following requirement has to be fulfilled: Φ * FBs ≤ 0.1 * R p 0.2 * A S

TAMPERE UNIVERSITY OF APPLIED SIENCES FINAL THESIS 73 (134) Environmental Engineering Timo Flaspöhler —————————————————————————————————————— Where:

Φ * FB = 2,412N

(10.15) (10.16)

0.1 * R p 0.2 * A S = 9,104N

Thus the requirement is fulfilled. The value Rp0.2 can be determined from Table 14.12 and the value AS can be determined from Table 14.10 from the Appendix. Step6: Exact calculation of the contact pressure The contact pressure is defined as: p= Fsp + Φ * FBs Ap [N/mm2] (10.17)

All the values are already known from the previous calculation and an exact contact pressure of 222N/mm2 results from equation (10.17). This exactly contact pressure is even less than the contact pressure which was roughly determined; thus the chosen material can be taken. /15/

Chosen screw: ISO 4017 M12x25 class 12.9

10.2 Screw connection between the blade and the pivot

Step1: Pre-selection of the screw The longitudinal force has a value of 68,922N. The connection exists out of 8 screws. Thus a longitudinal force of 8,615N results for each screw. The shear force per screw is 424N. Hence, an M8 screw of class 12.9 is chosen. Step2: Roughly calculation of the contact pressure When using washers, the determined contact pressure has a value of 225N/mm2. The material of the blade is able to withstand a contact pressure of up to 360N/mm2. Step3: Calculation of the required assembly preload force The assembly preload force has to be less than the tension force of 29.5kN. The established assembly preload force is 27.19kN, which is within the permitted limit.

TAMPERE UNIVERSITY OF APPLIED SIENCES FINAL THESIS 74 (134) Environmental Engineering Timo Flaspöhler —————————————————————————————————————— Step4: Calculation of the required tightening torque The required tightening torque has a value of 35.73Nm. Step5: Maximum permissible screw force The maximum permissible screw force of 3,953N is not exceeded. Step6: Exact calculation of the contact pressure The accurate contact pressure has a value of 208N/mm2. /15/

Chosen screw: DIN 7984 M8x12 class 12.9

10.3 Screw connection between the upper and the middle hub

Step1: Pre-selection of the screw The longitudinal force of 14,052N follows from the sum of the axial force and the weight of the blade. Eight screws should be used for the connection; thus a longitudinal force of 1,757N results per screw. The shear force is 21,061N, which means that each screw has to absorb a shear force of 2,633N. An M8 screw of the class 12.9 is sufficient for the longitudinal force as well as for the shear force. Step2: Roughly calculation of the contact pressure When using washers the occurring contact pressure is 192N/mm2 which is okay, since the chosen material of the upper hub has a maximum permissible contact pressure of 210N/mm2. Step3: Calculation of the required assembly preload force The required assembly preload force for this screw connection is 25.19kN. The tension force, which has a value of 29.5kN, of the screw has to be higher than the assembly preload force; this requirement is fulfilled. Step4: Calculation of the required tightening torque The torque which is necessary to tighten the screw has a value of 35.7Nm. Step5: Maximum permissible screw force It exits no danger to exceed the permissible screw force.

TAMPERE UNIVERSITY OF APPLIED SIENCES FINAL THESIS 75 (134) Environmental Engineering Timo Flaspöhler —————————————————————————————————————— Step6: Exact calculation of the contact pressure Using the accurate equation to determine the contact pressure, a result of 203N/mm2 results. Thus the material of the upper hub is able to withstand the occurring contact pressure. /15/

Chosen screw: DIN 7984 M8x16 class 12.9

10.4 Screw connection between the middle and the lower hub

The screw connection between the middle and the lower hub hardly has to absorb forces. The longitudinal force results just from the weight of the lower hub and has a value of 49.05N. Also the shear force is so little that it does not have an important influence on the connection. Thus, four M8 screws of class 4.6 are chosen for this connection. Due to the little forces, a check-up of the screws is not necessary; one can assume that the connection is strong enough.

Chosen screw: DIN 7984 M8x16 class 4.6

TAMPERE UNIVERSITY OF APPLIED SIENCES FINAL THESIS 76 (134) Environmental Engineering Timo Flaspöhler ——————————————————————————————————————

11 EXPLANATION OF THE RUNNER DESIGN

The principle of the adaptation mechanism of the runner can be seen in Figure 11.1. The blade is connected to a pivot which is connected with a lever; the lever is connected to the crosshead using a simple link. Through upwards and downwards movements of the crosshead, the blade can be adjusted. To realize the movements, the crosshead is welded to a shaft which is interfaced, for example, to an electric motor.

Crosshead

Link Lever Pivot Blade

Figure 11.1: Sketch of the adaptation mechanism

The adjustment of the blade can be made in quite a wide range. As can be seen in Figure 11.2, the crosshead fits into the axle. Thus the upturn of the crosshead is, Sectional view of the axle theoretical, unlimited. The middle hub Crosshead is the barrier of the downturn. In the practice, the blades can be turned about 69°.

Middle hub

Figure 11.2: Sketch of the crosshead inside the axle

TAMPERE UNIVERSITY OF APPLIED SIENCES FINAL THESIS 77 (134) Environmental Engineering Timo Flaspöhler —————————————————————————————————————— The parts of the runner can be manufactured by machining or casting; whereas the smaller parts, such as the pivot, the lever, the link and the crosshead can be produced at the Tampere Polytechnic. Other parts, such as, the bearings, the shaft and the axle are standard parts and can be purchased. The parts can be connected by screws or by welding. The parts of the adaptation mechanism are mostly connected by screws and thus they can be changed quite easy in the case of damage or wearing. Since the adaptation mechanism is working without the input of oils or greases, the runner does not contaminate the water. Also, it is of no concern if some water does penetrate the runner as all parts are made out of stainless steel and some water in the runner will not influence its efficiency. Thus seals are not needed.

TAMPERE UNIVERSITY OF APPLIED SIENCES FINAL THESIS 78 (134) Environmental Engineering Timo Flaspöhler ——————————————————————————————————————

12 ASSEMBLING

Upper hub

Crosshead

Blade

Pivot

Bearing1

Bearing 2

Link

Sectional view of middle hub

Lever

Lower hub

Figure 12.1: Parts of the runner

Figure 12.1 explains the assembly of the runner step by step. Step1: Bearing 1 is attached to the middle hub with a tight fit. Step2: Bearing 2 is attached to the link with a tight fit Step3: The pivot is fit into bearing 1 Step4: The lever is connected to the pivot using screws Step5: The link is fit to the pin of the lever; a spring cotter secures the link Step6: Repeat steps 1 to 5 with the other three sides Step7: The links are connected to the crosshead using a bolt connection Step8: The upper and middle hub are connected by screws Step9: The middle and lower hub are connected by screws Step10: The blades and the pivots are connected by screws

TAMPERE UNIVERSITY OF APPLIED SIENCES FINAL THESIS 79 (134) Environmental Engineering Timo Flaspöhler ——————————————————————————————————————

13 CONCLUSION

The adaptation mechanism in this thesis is different to the adaptation mechanisms found in the literature. This is based on the small space the hub provides. However, even though the space of the hub is little, it is enough to fit a proper mechanism with which to adjust the blades. The stress analysis and the screw calculation show that the adaptation mechanism should be able to withstand the occurring forces. To design the runner some simplifications and assumptions had to be made, as it is only tests can really confirm that the adaptation mechanism is sufficient. However, the safety factor used in the stress analysis should be high enough to avoid any significant malfunction. Since the design of the runner is just based on theory, it can not be assumed to be 100% practicable – some variances to the theory always appear in practice. Hence, for example, the profile of the blade maybe needs to be change somewhat to improve the manner of the water flow. On some points, the sources which were used to design the runner give different information and thus it was not altogether clear which of the sources should be used. Furthermore, the only book providing a step-by step design of the blade was in Finnish. Therefore, in designing the blade I was heavily dependent on my Finnish supervisor Mr Jaakko Mattila. The drawings were compiled using the program Inventor Professional 11 similar to the Solid Edge program taught at the Fachhochschule Hannover. The most of the drawings were simple. But the blade is a quite complex part; so it caused a lot of difficulties to draw the blade in a proper way. To keep the English number system also in the drawings, they were made according to the JSI. Due to setup issues of the plotter it was not possible to plot the drawings exactly according to the standard sizes A2 and A1; the drawing areas just have approximately the correct size.

TAMPERE UNIVERSITY OF APPLIED SIENCES FINAL THESIS 80 (134) Environmental Engineering Timo Flaspöhler —————————————————————————————————————— To write the final thesis in English was a very big challenge and it was not always easy. Especially technical terms were not that easy to translate into English. But the thereby gained experience is irreplaceable.

TAMPERE UNIVERSITY OF APPLIED SIENCES FINAL THESIS 81 (134) Environmental Engineering Timo Flaspöhler ——————————————————————————————————————

14 APPENDIX 14.1 Calculation of the mains characteristics

Q = 3m3/s H = 3.7m ηh = 0.9 ρ = 998kg/m3 g = 9.81m/s2

14.1.1 Power

P = Q * H * ηh * ρ * g

=> P = 3 * 3.7 * 0.9 * 998 * 9.81 = 97,806W = 98kW

Specific speed

n QE =

2.294 H 0.486 n => H n = 3.7 * 0.9 = 3.33m

H n = H * ηh

=> n QE =

2.294 = 1.28 3.330.486

14.1.2 Rational speed n QE n* Q = E3/ 4 => n = n QE * E 3 / 4 Q

E = H n * g => E = 3.33 * 9.81 = 32.7J / kg 1.28 * 32.7 3 / 4 3

=> n =

= 10s-1

14.1.3 Runaway speed n max = 3.2 * n => n max = 3.2 *10 = 32s-1

TAMPERE UNIVERSITY OF APPLIED SIENCES FINAL THESIS 82 (134) Environmental Engineering Timo Flaspöhler ——————————————————————————————————————

14.1.4 Runner diameter

D e = 84.5 * (0.79 + 1.602 * n QE ) * Hn 60 * n

=> D e = 84.5 * (0.79 + 1.602 * 1.28) *

3.33 = 0.73m 60 *10

14.1.5 Hub diameter

⎛ 0.0951 ⎞ ⎟ * De D i = ⎜ 0.25 + ⎜ n QE ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ 0.0951 ⎞ ⎛ => D i = ⎜ 0.25 + ⎟ * 0.73 = 0.24m 1.28 ⎠ ⎝

TAMPERE UNIVERSITY OF APPLIED SIENCES FINAL THESIS 83 (134) Environmental Engineering Timo Flaspöhler ——————————————————————————————————————

14.2 Cavitation patm = 101,300Pa pv = 2,985.7Pa (see table 14.1) ρ = 998kg/m3 g = 9.81m/s2 c4 = 2m/s Hn = 3.33m

Suction head

Hs = p atm − p v c2 + 4 − σ * Hn ρ*g 2*g

σ = 1.5241 * n

1.46 QE

c2 4 + 2*g * Hn

=> σ = 1.5241 *1.281.46 +

22 = 2.2 2 * 9.81 * 3.33

101,300 − 2,985.7 22 + − 2.2 * 3.33 = 2.9m => H s = 998 * 9.81 2 * 9.81

TAMPERE UNIVERSITY OF APPLIED SIENCES FINAL THESIS 84 (134) Environmental Engineering Timo Flaspöhler ——————————————————————————————————————

14.3 Design of the blade

The calculation of the blade characteristics is rather bulky; thus all the established values were calculated via Excel. But for a better understanding the calculation of the diameter De is listed below.

14.3.1 Velocities and the angles angle of distortion (180°-β∞) d = De = 0.73m n = 10s-1 Hn = 3.33m H1 = 3.26m H2 = 3.4m Q = 3m3/s Di = 0.24m u = π*n *d H1 * g u H2 *g u

=> u = π *10 * 0.73 = 22.93m/s 3.26 * 9.81 = 1.39m/s 22.93 3.4 * 9.81 = 1.45m/s 22.93

c u1 =

=> c u1 =

cu2 =

=> c u 2 =

w u1 = c u 1 − u w u2 = cu2 − u

=> w u1 = 1.39 − 22.93 = -21.54m/s => w u 2 = 1.45 − 22.93 = -21.48m/s

w u∞ =

w u1 + w u 2 2

=> w u∞ =

− 21.54 + (−21.48) = -21.51m/s 2

TAMPERE UNIVERSITY OF APPLIED SIENCES FINAL THESIS 85 (134) Environmental Engineering Timo Flaspöhler —————————————————————————————————————— Q wm = A∞

2 π * (D e − D i2 ) 4

A∞ =

=> A ∞ =

π * (0.73 2 − 0.24 2 ) = 0.37 4

=> w m =

3 = 8m/s 0.37

w 1 = w 21 + w 2 u m

=> w 1 = − 21.54 2 + 8 2 = 22.98m/s

w 2 = w 22 + w 2 u m

=> w 2 = − 21.48 2 + 8 2 = 22.92m/s

w ∞ = w 2∞ + w 2 u m

=> w ∞ = − 21.512 + 8 2 = 22.95m/s

β ∞ = arccos

w u∞ w∞

=> β ∞ = arccos

− 21.51 = 160° 22.95

(180

o

− β ∞ ) = 180 o − 160 o = 20°

14.3.2 Calculation of the blade characteristics

Lifting coefficient 1

w2 = 22.92m/s w∞ = 22.95m/s p/γ = 10m Hs = 0.45 pmin/γ = 2 ηs = 0.9 c4 = 2m/s K = 2.6 Q = 3m3/s

TAMPERE UNIVERSITY OF APPLIED SIENCES FINAL THESIS 86 (134) Environmental Engineering Timo Flaspöhler —————————————————————————————————————— ⎛p c2 − c2 ⎞ p 2 4 ⎟ w 2 − w ∞ + 2 * g * ⎜ − H s − min − ηs * 3 2 ⎜γ γ 2*g ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ζa = 2 K * w∞ Q A3

2 π * De 4

c3 =

A3 =

=> A 3 =

π * 0.73 2 = 0.42m2 4

=> c 3 =

3 = 7.2m/s 0.42 ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ = 0.08

⎛ 7.2 2 − 2 2 22.92 2 − 22.95 2 + 2 * 9.81 * ⎜10 − 0.45 − 2 − 0.9 * ⎜ 2 * 9.81 ⎝ => ζ a = 2 2.6 * 22.95

Ratio l/t

ηh = 0.9 H = 3.7m cm = wm = 8m/s w∞ = 22.95m/s u = 22.93m/s β∞ = 160° ζa = 0.08 λ = 3° (assumption) l g * ηh * H c m cos λ 1 = * * * 2 t u sin (180 − β ∞ − λ ) ζ a w∞

=>

l 9.81 * 0.9 * 3.7 8 cos 3 1 * * * = 0.92 = 2 t 22.93 sin (180 − 160 − 3) 0.08 22.95

TAMPERE UNIVERSITY OF APPLIED SIENCES FINAL THESIS 87 (134) Environmental Engineering Timo Flaspöhler —————————————————————————————————————— This value of l/t does not match exactly with the value in Section 6.2.1 which has a value of 0.95. The values in Section 6.2.1 were established using precise numerical data; however, in the calculation above the numerical data were rounded. This impreciseness will also arise in some of the following calculation. However, these calculations are supposed to show the exact procedure to establish the main characteristics of the blade and thus the impreciseness can be neglected.

Reciprocal value of l/t

t/l =

1 l/ t

=> t / l =

1 = 1.1 0.92

Lifting coefficient ζA

=> ζa/ζA = 0.62 => ζ A = 0.08 / 0.62 = 0.13

TAMPERE UNIVERSITY OF APPLIED SIENCES FINAL THESIS 88 (134) Environmental Engineering Timo Flaspöhler —————————————————————————————————————— Drag coefficient ζW

=> ζW = 0.0062

Angle of slip λ λ = arctan ζW ζA

=> λ = arctan

0.0062 = 2.7° 0.13

It can be assumed that the assumed angle of 3° and the calculated angle are close enough. (In the calculations with the precise values in Section 6.2.1 the calculated angle of slip is even 2.9)

Angle of attack

TAMPERE UNIVERSITY OF APPLIED SIENCES FINAL THESIS 89 (134) Environmental Engineering Timo Flaspöhler —————————————————————————————————————— => δ = -5.4°

Exact angle of distortion

(180°-β∞- δ) = 180°-160°-(-5.4°) = 25.4° Now all the significant values of the diameter De are known.

14.4 Calculation of the forces

14.4.1 Tangential force

P = 98kW n = 10s-1 z=4 Re = 0.365m Ri = 0.12m P 2*π*n *z*r

Ft =

r=

2 R e + R i2 2

=> r =

0.365 2 + 0.12 2 = 0.272m 2

=> Ft =

98,000 = 1434N 2 * π *10 * 4 * 0.272

14.4.2 Axial force

Hn = 3.33m α = 80° β∞ = 152° δ = -3.1°

TAMPERE UNIVERSITY OF APPLIED SIENCES FINAL THESIS 90 (134) Environmental Engineering Timo Flaspöhler —————————————————————————————————————— Via water pressure Fa = g * ρ * H n * A b

2 π * α * (R e − R i2 ) Ab = 360 o

π * 80 * (0.365 2 − 0.12 2 ) => A b = = 0.083m2 360

=> Fa = 9.81 * 998 * 3.33 * 0.083 = 2,706N Via the tangential force and blade distortion:

Fa = Ft tan(180 − β ∞ − δ) o => Fa =

1434 = 2,387N tan 31

14.4.3 Resulting force

Fr = Ft2 + Fa2

=> Fr = 1434 2 + 2706 2 = 3,062N

14.4.4 Hydraulic moment

Fr = 3,062N Ab = 0.083m2 Re = 0.365m = 365mm Ri = 0.12m = 120mm ) α = 80° => α = 1.396 ε = 20° M h = Fr * e y

ey =

Is ys * A b

4 R e − R i4 4

Is =

) α α⎞ ⎛α * ⎜ − sin * cos ⎟ 2 2⎠ ⎝2

TAMPERE UNIVERSITY OF APPLIED SIENCES FINAL THESIS 91 (134) Environmental Engineering Timo Flaspöhler —————————————————————————————————————— 365 4 − 120 4 ⎛ 1.396 80 80 ⎞ => I s = *⎜ − sin * cos ⎟ = 901,718,555mm4 4 2 2⎠ ⎝ 2

Fa g * ρ * A b * cos ε

ys =

=> y s =

2,706 = 3.5m 9.81 * 998 * 0.083 * cos 20

=> e y =

901,718,555 = 3.1mm 3.5 *103 * 0.083 *106

=> M h = 3,062 * 3.1 = 9,492Nmm

14.4.5 Centrifugal force nmax = 32s-1 ΣGi = 7.65kg ΣGi*Ri = 1,706kgmm

Fc = M G * R cg * ω 2 M G = ∑ G i = 7.65kg

R cg =

∑G *R ∑G i i

i

=> R cg =

1,706 = 223mm = 0.223m 7.65

ω = 2 * π * n max

=> ω = 2 * π * 32 = 201s-1

=> Fc = 7.65 * 0.223 * 2012 = 68,922N

TAMPERE UNIVERSITY OF APPLIED SIENCES FINAL THESIS 92 (134) Environmental Engineering Timo Flaspöhler ——————————————————————————————————————

14.5 Critical speed

G = 54.2kg E = 220,000N/mm2 D = 168.3mm d = 159.3mm l = 2m

nc =

cq 1 * 2*π G 3* E * I l3

cq =

I=

π π * D 4 − d 4 => I = * 168.3 4 − 159.3 4 = 7,772,160mm4 64 64

(

)

(

)

=> c q =

3 * 220,000 * 7,772,160 = 641,203N/mm 200 3

=> n c =

1 641,203 * = 17.3s-1 2*π 54.2

14.6 Stress analysis

14.6.1 Axle τt permissible = 125N/mm2 r = 272mm Ft = 1434N D = 168.3mm d = 159.3mm KA = 1.25

TAMPERE UNIVERSITY OF APPLIED SIENCES FINAL THESIS 93 (134) Environmental Engineering Timo Flaspöhler —————————————————————————————————————— Present tensional stress τt = KA *Mt Wt

M t = 4 * r * Ft

=> M t = 4 * 272 *1,434 = 1,560,192Nmm

Wt =

π D4 − d4 * 16 D

=> Wt =

π 168.3 4 − 159.3 4 * = 184,722mm3 16 168.3

=> τ t =

1.25 *156,0192 = 10.6N/mm2 z = 365 − 120 = 245mm

=> y =

6 * 3,062 * 245 = 13mm 60 * 450

TAMPERE UNIVERSITY OF APPLIED SIENCES FINAL THESIS 94 (134) Environmental Engineering Timo Flaspöhler —————————————————————————————————————— Torsion: τt permissible = 270N/mm2 Mh = 94,920Nmm y = 8mm KA = 1.25 Present tensional sterss τt = KA * Mh Wt

Wt =

c1 * h * y2 c2

h 60 = = 7.5 => c1 = 0.307 and c2 = 0.999 (see table 14.3) y 8

=> Wt =

0.307 * 60 * 8 2 = 1,180 0.999

=> τ t =

1.25 * 94,920 = 101N/mm2 < 270N/mm2 1,180

14.6.3 Pivot

Contact pressure:

ppermissible = 90N/mm2 Fr = 3,062 d = 45mm b = 30mm KA = 1.25 Present contact pressure p= K A * Fr A proj

TAMPERE UNIVERSITY OF APPLIED SIENCES FINAL THESIS 95 (134) Environmental Engineering Timo Flaspöhler —————————————————————————————————————— A proj = b * d => p = => A proj = 30 * 45 = 1350mm2

1.25 * 3062 = 2.8N/mm2 < 90N/mm2 1,350

Torsion:

τt permissible = 225N/mm2 Mh = 94,920Nmm Present tensional stress τt = KA * Mh Wt

Wt =

π * d3 16

=> Wt =

π * 45 3 = 17,892mm3 16

=> τ t =

1.25 * 94,920 = 6.6N/mm2 < 225N/mm2 17,892

Bending:

σbpermissible = 175N/mm2 l = 212mm Present bending stress σb = KA * Mb Wb min

M b = l * Fr

=> M b = 212 * 3,062 = 649,144Nmm

Wb min =

π * d3 32

=> Wb min =

π * 45 3 = 8,946mm3 32

=> σ b =

1.25 * 649,144 = 90N/mm2 < 175N/mm2 8,946

TAMPERE UNIVERSITY OF APPLIED SIENCES FINAL THESIS 96 (134) Environmental Engineering Timo Flaspöhler ——————————————————————————————————————

14.6.4 Lever

Bending:

σbpermissible = 175N/mm2 Mh = 94,920Nmm l = 40 b2 = 10mm d = 12mm KA = 1.25 Present bending stress σb = KA * Mb Wb min

Mb = b2 * F

F=

Mh l

=> F =

94,920 = 2,373N 40

=> M b = 10 * 2,373 = 23,730Nmm

Wb min =

π * d3 32

=> Wb min =

π *12 3 =170mm3 32

=> σ b =

1.25 * 23,730 = 174N/mm2 < 175N/mm2 170

Shear:

Rp0,2 = 550N/mm2 F = 2,373N Permissible shear stress τ spermissible =

R p 0.2 1.5

=> τ spermissible =

550 = 367N/mm2 1.5

TAMPERE UNIVERSITY OF APPLIED SIENCES FINAL THESIS 97 (134) Environmental Engineering Timo Flaspöhler —————————————————————————————————————— Present shear stress τs = KA *F A

A=

π*d2 4

=> A =

π *12 2 = 113mm2 4

=> τ s =

1.25 * 2,373 = 26N/mm2 < 140N/mm2 113

Contact pressure:

ppermissible = 90N/mm2 Present contact pressure p= KA *F A proj => A proj = 10 *12 = 120mm2

A proj = b 2 * d

=> p =

1.25 * 2,373 = 25 N/mm2 < 90N/mm2 120

TAMPERE UNIVERSITY OF APPLIED SIENCES FINAL THESIS 98 (134) Environmental Engineering Timo Flaspöhler ——————————————————————————————————————

14.6.5 Link

Buckling:

σkpermissible = 170N/mm2 l = 70mm B = 4mm H = 8mm b2 = 10mm h = 4mm σd0.2 = Rp0.2 = 230N/mm2 E = 220,000N/mm2 F = 2373N KA = 1.25 Buckling case II => lk = l = 70mm Thickness ratio: λ = lk * A I min

A = 2 * B * H + b2 * h

=> A = 2 * 4 * 8 + 10 * 4 = 104mm2

I min

2 * B * H3 + b2 * h3 = 12

=> I min

2 * 4 * 8 3 + 10 * 4 3 = = 395mm4 12

=> λ = 70 *

104 = 36 395

Marginal thickness ratio λ g 0.2 = π * E σ d 0.2

=> λ g 0.2 = π *

220,000 = 97 > 36 230

TAMPERE UNIVERSITY OF APPLIED SIENCES FINAL THESIS 99 (134) Environmental Engineering Timo Flaspöhler —————————————————————————————————————— K *F 1.25 * 2,373 => σ k = A => σ k = = 29N/mm2 < 170N/mm2 A 104

Stress calculation of the links eye:

Rm = 420N/mm2 c = 5mm b1 = 10mm d3 = 12mm Permissible stress σ permissible = 0.5 * R m

=> σ permissible = 0.5 * 420 = 210N/mm2

Present stress σ= KA *F 2 * c * b1 ⎡ 3 ⎛d ⎞⎤ * ⎢1 + * ⎜ 3 + 1⎟⎥ ⎠⎦ ⎣ 2 ⎝ c

=> σ =

1.25 * 2,373 ⎡ 3 ⎛ 12 ⎞⎤ * ⎢1 + * ⎜ + 1⎟⎥ = 181N/mm2 < 210N/mm2 2 * 5 * 10 ⎣ 2 ⎝ 5 ⎠⎦

TAMPERE UNIVERSITY OF APPLIED SIENCES FINAL THESIS 100 (134) Environmental Engineering Timo Flaspöhler ——————————————————————————————————————

14.6.6 Crosshead

Rm = 420N/mm2 F = 2,373 c = 5mm b = 8mm d = 12mm KA = 1.25 Permissible stress σ permissible = 0.5 * R m

=> σ permissible = 0.5 * 420 = 210N/mm2

Present stress

K A * 1 F ⎡ 3 ⎛ d ⎞⎤ 2 * 1 + * ⎜ + 1⎟ σ= 2 * c * b ⎢ 2 ⎝ c ⎠⎥ ⎣ ⎦

=> σ =

1.25 *1186.5 ⎡ 3 ⎛ 12 ⎞⎤ * ⎢1 + * ⎜ + 1⎟⎥ = 113N/mm2 < 210N/mm2 2 *5*8 ⎠⎦ ⎣ 2 ⎝5

14.6.7 Bolt

Bending:

σbpermissible = 215N/mm2 F = 2,373N l1 = 20mm l2 = 10mm l3 = 8mm d = 12mm KA = 1.25 Present bending stress σb = KA * Mb Wb min

TAMPERE UNIVERSITY OF APPLIED SIENCES FINAL THESIS 101 (134) Environmental Engineering Timo Flaspöhler —————————————————————————————————————— F * ( l1 + l 2 + l 3 ) 2373 * (20 + 10 + 8) Mb = => M b = = 11,272Nmm 8 8 π * d3 32 π *12 3 = 170mm3 32

Wb min =

=> Wb min =

=> σ b =

1.25 *11,272 = 83N/mm2 < 215N/mm2 170

Shear:

Rm = 430N/mm2 Permissible shear stress τ spremissible = 0.2 * R m

=> τ spremissible = 0.2 * 430 = 86N/mm2

Present shear stress τs = 4 KA *F * 3 As * 2

As =

π*d2 4

=> A s =

π *12 2 = 113mm2 4

=> τ s =

4 1.25 * 2,373 * = 18N/mm2 < 86N/mm2 3 113 * 2

Contact pressure:

Permissible shear stress p premissible = 0.35 * R m => p premissible = 0.35 * 430 = 151N/mm2

Crosshead: p= KA *F A proj

TAMPERE UNIVERSITY OF APPLIED SIENCES FINAL THESIS 102 (134) Environmental Engineering Timo Flaspöhler —————————————————————————————————————— A proj = (l1 + l 3 ) * d => A proj = (20 + 8) *12 = 336mm2

=> p =

1.25 * 2,373 = 9N/mm2 < 151N/mm2 336

Link: p= KA *F A proj => A proj = 10 *12 = 120mm2

A proj = l 2 * d

=> p =

1.25 * 2,373 = 25N/mm2 < 151N/mm2 120

14.6.8 Shaft

Buckling:

σkpermissible = 170N/mm2 l = 3300mm d = 60mm σd0.2 = Rp0.2 = 230N/mm2 E = 220,000N/mm2 F = 2,373N KA = 1.25 Buckling case II => lk = l = 3300mm Thickness ratio: λ = lk * A I min

π*d2 A= 4

π * 60 2 => A = = 2,827mm2 4

TAMPERE UNIVERSITY OF APPLIED SIENCES FINAL THESIS 103 (134) Environmental Engineering Timo Flaspöhler —————————————————————————————————————— I min = π*d4 64

=> I min =

π * 60 4 = 63,6173mm4 64

=> λ = 3300 *

2,827 = 220 636,173

Marginal thickness ratio λ g 0.01 = π * E 0.8 * σ d 0.2

=> λ g 0.01 = π *

220,000 = 109 < 220 0.8 * 230

=> σ k =

K A * π2 * E λ2

=> σ k =

1.25 * π 2 * 220,000 = 56N/mm2 < 170N/mm2 220 2

TAMPERE UNIVERSITY OF APPLIED SIENCES FINAL THESIS 104 (134) Environmental Engineering Timo Flaspöhler ——————————————————————————————————————

14.7 Calculation of the screws

14.7.1 Screw connection of the lever and the pivot

Step1: Pre-selection z=3 FB = 68,922N Mh = 94,920 r = 15mm KA = 1.25 FB = 68,922N => FBs = 22,974kN per screw => M12 class 12.9 (see table 14.4)

KA * Mh r

FQ =

=> FQ =

1.25 * 94,920 = 7910N => FQs = 26,37N per screw 15

=> M12 class 12.9 (see table 14.4) Step2: Roughly calculation of the contact pressure ppermissible = 300N/mm2 Fsp = 68.5kN = 68,500N (see table 14.5) dw = 18mm (see table 14.6) dh = 13mm (see table 14.6) Contact pressure p= Fsp 0.9 * A p π * (18 2 − 13 2 ) => A p = = 122mm2 4

π * (d 2 − d 2 ) w h Ap = 4

=> p =

68,500 = 624N/mm2 > 300N/mm2 0.9 *122

=> A washer is necessary

TAMPERE UNIVERSITY OF APPLIED SIENCES FINAL THESIS 105 (134) Environmental Engineering Timo Flaspöhler —————————————————————————————————————— d2 = 24mm (see table 14.6) π * (d 2 − d 2 ) 2 h 4 π * (24 2 − 13 2 ) = 320mm2 4

=> A p =

=> A p =

=> p =

68,500 = 238N/mm2 < 300N/mm2 0.9 * 320

Step3: Calculation of the required assembly preload force kA = 1.6 (see table 14.8) μ = 0.5 (see table 14.9) n = 0.5 lk = 12.5mm ET = 216,000N/mm2 ES = 220,000N/mm2 d = 12mm l = 12.5mm A3 = 76.25mm2 (see table 14.10) fZ = 0.023 (see table 14.11) FVM = k A * [FKl + FBs * (1 − Φ ) + FZ ]

FKl =

FQ μ*z

=> FKl =

6,328 = 4,218N 0,5 * 3

Φ = n *ΦK δT (δ T + δ S )

ΦK =

δT =

lk A ers * E T

TAMPERE UNIVERSITY OF APPLIED SIENCES FINAL THESIS 106 (134) Environmental Engineering Timo Flaspöhler —————————————————————————————————————— π π 2 A ers = * (d w − d h ) + * d w * (D A − d w ) * (x + 1) − 1 4 8

[

]

DA = d w + lk

=> D A = 18 + 12.5 = 30.5mm

x=3

lk * d w D2 A

=> x = 3

12.5 * 18 = 0.62 30.5 2

=> A ers =

π π 2 * (18 − 13) + *18 * (30.5 − 18) * (0.62 + 1) − 1 = 147mm2 4 8

[

]

=> δ T =

12.5 = 3.9*10-7mm/N 147 * 216,000

δS =

1 ES

⎛ 0 .4 * d 1 0 .5 * d 0 .4 * d ⎞ ⎟ + + + *⎜ ⎜ A A3 A3 AN ⎟ N ⎝ ⎠

π*d2 AN = 4

π *12 2 => A N = = 113mm2 4

=> δ S =

1 ⎛ 0.4 * 12 12.5 0.5 *12 0.4 *12 ⎞ -6 + + + *⎜ ⎟ = 1.5*10 mm/N 220,000 ⎝ 113 76.25 76.25 113 ⎠ 3.9 * 10 −7 (3.9 *10 −7 + 1.5 *10 −6 ) = 0.21

=> Φ K =

=> Φ = 0.5 * 0.21 = 0.105 fZ (δ S + δ T )

FZ =

=> FZ =

(

0.023 = 12,169N 1.5 *10 + 3.9 *10 −7

−6

)

=> FVM = 1.6 * [4,218 + 22,974 * (1 − 0.105) + 12,169] = 59,118N < 68,500N

TAMPERE UNIVERSITY OF APPLIED SIENCES FINAL THESIS 107 (134) Environmental Engineering Timo Flaspöhler —————————————————————————————————————— Step4: Caculation of the required tightening torque Msp = 137Nm (see table 14.5) M A = 0.9 * M sp => M A = 0.9 * 137 = 123Nm

Step5: Maximum permissible screw force Rp0.2 = 1,080N/mm2 (see table 14.12) As = 84.3mm2 (see table 14.10)

Φ * FBs ≤ 0.1 * R p 0.2 * A s

=> 0.105 * 22,974 ≤ 0.1 * 1,080 * 84.3

=>2,412N ≤9,104N Step6: Exact calculation of the contact pressure p= Fsp + Φ * FBs Ap => p = 68,500 + 0.105 * 22,974 = 222N/mm2 320

Chosen screw: ISO 4017 M12x25 class 12.9

TAMPERE UNIVERSITY OF APPLIED SIENCES FINAL THESIS 108 (134) Environmental Engineering Timo Flaspöhler ——————————————————————————————————————

14.7.2 Screw connection of pivot and flange

Step1: Pre-selection z=8 FB = 68,922N Mh = 94,920 r = 35mm KA = 1.25 FB = 68,922N => FBs = 8,615N per screw

KA * Mh r

=> M8 class 12.9 (see table 14.4)

FQ =

=> FQ =

1.25 * 94,920 = 3,390N => FQs = 424N per screw 35

=> M8 class 12.9 (see table 14.4) Step2: Roughly calculation of the contact pressure ppermissible = 360N/mm2 Fsp = 29.5kN = 29,500N (see table 14.5) d1 = 13mm (see table 14.7) dh = 8.4mm (see table 14.6) Contact pressure p= Fsp 0.9 * A p

2 π * (d 1 − d 2 ) h 4

Ap =

=> A p =

π * (13 2 − 8.4 2 ) = 77mm2 4

=> p =

29,500 = 426N/mm2 > 360N/mm2 0.9 * 77

=> A washer is necessary d2 = 16mm (see table 14.6)

TAMPERE UNIVERSITY OF APPLIED SIENCES FINAL THESIS 109 (134) Environmental Engineering Timo Flaspöhler —————————————————————————————————————— π * (d 2 − d 2 ) π * (16 2 − 8.4 2 ) 2 h => A p = = 146mm2 => A p = 4 4 29,500 = 225N/mm2 < 360N/mm2 0.9 *146

=> p =

Step3: Calculation of the required assembly preload force kA = 1.6 (see table 14.8) μ = 0.5 (see table 14.9) n = 0.5 lk = 6.6mm ET = 216,000N/mm2 ES = 220,000N/mm2 d = 8mm l = 6.6mm A3 = 32.84mm2 (see table 14.10) fZ = 0.023 (see table 14.11) FVM = k A * [FKl + FBs * (1 − Φ ) + FZ ]

FKl =

FQ μ*z

=> FKl =

3,390 = 848N 0.5 * 8

Φ = n *ΦK δT (δ T + δ S )

ΦK =

δT =

lk A ers * E T

A ers =

π π 2 * (d 1 − d h ) + * d 1 * (D A − d 1 ) * (x + 1) − 1 4 8

[

]

TAMPERE UNIVERSITY OF APPLIED SIENCES FINAL THESIS 110 (134) Environmental Engineering Timo Flaspöhler —————————————————————————————————————— D A = d 1 + l k => D A = 13 + 6.6 = 19.6mm

x=3

l k * d1 D2 A

=> x = 3

6.6 * 13 = 0.61 19.6 2

=> A ers =

π π 2 * (13 − 8.4) + * 13 * (19.6 − 13) * (0.61 + 1) − 1 = 57mm2 4 8

[

]

=> δ T =

6.6 = 5.4*10-7mm/N 57 * 216,000

δS =

1 ES

⎛ 0 .4 * d 1 0 .5 * d 0 .4 * d ⎞ ⎟ + + + *⎜ ⎜ A A3 A3 AN ⎟ N ⎝ ⎠

π*d2 AN = 4

π * 82 => A N = = 50.3mm2 4

=> δ S =

1 6.6 0.5 * 8 0.4 * 8 ⎞ ⎛ 0.4 *12 -6 + + + *⎜ ⎟ = 2.2*10 mm/N 220,000 ⎝ 50.3 32.84 32.84 50.3 ⎠ 5.4 *10 −7 (5.4 *10 −7 + 2.2 *10 −6 ) = 0.2

=> Φ K =

=> Φ = 0.5 * 0.2 = 0.1 fZ (δ S + δ T )

FZ =

=> FZ =

(

0.023 = 8,394N 2.2 * 10 + 5.4 *10 −7

−6

)

=> FVM = 1.6 * [848 + 8,615 * (1 − 0.1) + 8,394] =27,193N < 29,500N

TAMPERE UNIVERSITY OF APPLIED SIENCES FINAL THESIS 111 (134) Environmental Engineering Timo Flaspöhler —————————————————————————————————————— Step4: Caculation of the required tightening torque Msp = 39.7Nm (see table 14.5) M A = 0.9 * M sp => M A = 0.9 * 39.7 = 35.73Nm

Step5: Maximum permissible screw force Rp0,2 = 1,080N/mm2 (see table 14.12) As = 36.6mm2 (see table 14.10)

Φ * FBs ≤ 0.1 * R p 0.2 * A s

=> 0.1 * 8,521 ≤ 0.1 *1,080 * 36.6

=>852N ≤ 3,953N Step6: Exact calculation of the contact pressure p= Fsp + Φ * FBs Ap => p = 29,500 + 0.1 * 8,615 = 208N/mm2 146

Chosen screw: DIN 7984 M8x12 class 12.9

TAMPERE UNIVERSITY OF APPLIED SIENCES FINAL THESIS 112 (134) Environmental Engineering Timo Flaspöhler ——————————————————————————————————————

14.7.3 Screw connection between the upper and the middle hub

Step1: Pre-selection z=8 Fa = 2,706N G = 53.2kg g = 9.81kg/s2 Mt = 1,560,192Nmm r = 92.6mm KA = 1.25 FB = 4 * K A * Fa + G * g => FB = 4 * 1.25 * 2,706 + 53.2 * 9.81 = 11,346

=> FBs = 1,757N => M8 class 12.9 (see Table 14.4)

KA *Mt r

FQ =

=> FQ =

1.25 *1,560,192 = 21,061N => FQs = 2,633N per screw 92.6

=> M8 class 12.9 (see table 14.4) Step2: Roughly calculation of the contact pressure ppermissible = 230N/mm2 Fsp = 29.5kN = 29,500N (see table 14.4) d1 = 13mm (see table 14.7) dh = 8.4mm (see table 14.6) Contact pressure p= Fsp 0.9 * A p

2 π * (d 1 − d 2 ) h 4

Ap =

=> A p =

π * 13 2 − 8.4 2 = 77mm2 4

(

)

TAMPERE UNIVERSITY OF APPLIED SIENCES FINAL THESIS 113 (134) Environmental Engineering Timo Flaspöhler —————————————————————————————————————— 29,500 => p = = 426N/mm2 > 230N/mm2 0.9 * 77 => A washer is necessary d2 = 16mm (see table 14.3) π * (d 2 − d 2 ) 2 h 4 π * (16 2 − 8.4 2 ) = 146mm2 4

=> A p =

=> A p =

=> p =

29,500 = 225N/mm2 < 230N/mm2 0.9 *146

Step3: Calculation of the required assembly preload force kA = 1.6 (see table 14.8) μ = 0.5 (see table 14.9) n = 0.5 lk = 6.6mm ET = 200,000N/mm2 ES = 220,000N/mm2 d=8 l = 6.6 A3 = 32.84mm2 (see table 14.10) fZ = 0.023 (see table 14.11) FVM = k A * [FKl + FBs * (1 − Φ ) + FZ ]

FKl =

FQ μ*z

=> FKl =

21,061 = 5,265N 0.5 * 8

Φ = n *ΦK δT (δ T + δ S )

ΦK =

TAMPERE UNIVERSITY OF APPLIED SIENCES FINAL THESIS 114 (134) Environmental Engineering Timo Flaspöhler —————————————————————————————————————— lk δT = A ers * E T π π 2 * (d 1 − d h ) + * d 1 * (D A − d 1 ) * (x + 1) − 1 4 8

A ers =

[

]

D A = d1 + l k

=> D A = 13 + 6.6 = 19.6mm

x=3

l k * d1 D2 A

=> x = 3

6.6 * 13 = 0.61 19.6 2

=> A ers =

π π 2 * (13 − 8.4) + * 13 * (19.6 − 13) * (0.61 + 1) − 1 = 57mm2 4 8

[

]

=> δ T =

6,6 = 5.8*10-7mm/N 57 * 200,000

δS =

1 ES

⎛ 0,4 * d 1 0,5 * d 0,4 * d ⎞ ⎟ + + + *⎜ ⎜ A A3 A3 AN ⎟ N ⎝ ⎠

AN =

π*d2 4

=> A N =

π * 82 = 50.3mm2 4

=> δ S =

1 6.6 0.5 * 8 0.4 * 8 ⎞ ⎛ 0.4 * 8 -6 + + + *⎜ ⎟ = 2*10 mm/N 220,000 ⎝ 50.3 32.84 32.84 50.3 ⎠

5.8 *10 −7 => Φ K = (5.8 *10 −7 + 2 *10 −6 ) = 0.22 => Φ = 0.5 * 0.21 = 0.11 fZ (δ S + δ T )

FZ =

=> FZ =

(

0.023 = 8,915N 2 * 10 + 5.8 *10 −7

−6

)

TAMPERE UNIVERSITY OF APPLIED SIENCES FINAL THESIS 115 (134) Environmental Engineering Timo Flaspöhler —————————————————————————————————————— => FVM = 1.6 * [5,265 + 1757 * (1 − 0.11) + 8,915] = 25,190N < 29,500N Step4: Calculation of the required tightening torque Msp = 39.7Nm (see table 14.5) M A = 0.9 * M sp => M A = 0.9 * 39.7 = 35.7Nm

Step5: Maximum permissible screw force Rp0,2 = 1,080N/mm2 (see table 14.12) As = 36.6mm2 (see table 14.10)

Φ * FBs ≤ 0.1 * R p 0.2 * A s

=> 0.11 *1418 ≤ 0.1 *1,080 * 36.6

=>193N ≤3,953N Step6: Exact calculation of the contact pressure p= Fsp + Φ * FBs Ap => p = 29,500 + 0.11 *1,757 = 203N/mm2 146

Chosen screw: DIN 7984 M8x16 class 12.9

TAMPERE UNIVERSITY OF APPLIED SIENCES FINAL THESIS 116 (134) Environmental Engineering Timo Flaspöhler ——————————————————————————————————————

14.8 Drawings

TAMPERE UNIVERSITY OF APPLIED SIENCES FINAL THESIS 117 (134) Environmental Engineering Timo Flaspöhler ——————————————————————————————————————

TAMPERE UNIVERSITY OF APPLIED SIENCES FINAL THESIS 118 (134) Environmental Engineering Timo Flaspöhler ——————————————————————————————————————

TAMPERE UNIVERSITY OF APPLIED SIENCES FINAL THESIS 119 (134) Environmental Engineering Timo Flaspöhler ——————————————————————————————————————

TAMPERE UNIVERSITY OF APPLIED SIENCES FINAL THESIS 120 (134) Environmental Engineering Timo Flaspöhler ——————————————————————————————————————

TAMPERE UNIVERSITY OF APPLIED SIENCES FINAL THESIS 121 (134) Environmental Engineering Timo Flaspöhler ——————————————————————————————————————

TAMPERE UNIVERSITY OF APPLIED SIENCES FINAL THESIS 122 (134) Environmental Engineering Timo Flaspöhler ——————————————————————————————————————

TAMPERE UNIVERSITY OF APPLIED SIENCES FINAL THESIS 123 (134) Environmental Engineering Timo Flaspöhler ——————————————————————————————————————

TAMPERE UNIVERSITY OF APPLIED SIENCES FINAL THESIS 124 (134) Environmental Engineering Timo Flaspöhler ——————————————————————————————————————

TAMPERE UNIVERSITY OF APPLIED SIENCES FINAL THESIS 125 (134) Environmental Engineering Timo Flaspöhler ——————————————————————————————————————

14.9 Tables

Table 14.1: Vapor pressure of water /10/ t/°C 0 20 40 60 80 100 0 0.6112 2.3392 7.3848 1.,948 47.416 101.42 2 0.706 2.6452 8.2096 21.869 51.388 108.87 4 0.8135 2.9857 9.1126 23.946 55.636 116.78 6 0.9353 3.3638 10.1 26.188 60.174 125.15 8 1.0729 3.7809 11.117 28.605 65.018 134.01 10 1.2281 4.2452 12.352 31.21 70.183 143.38 12 1.4027 4.7582 13.632 34.013 75.685 153.25 14 1.5989 5.324 16.023 37.01 81.542 163.74 16 1.8187 5.9472 16.534 40.24 87.771 174.77 18 2.0646 6.6324 18.173 43.704 94.39 186.41

Table 14.2: Strength factors /15/

TAMPERE UNIVERSITY OF APPLIED SIENCES FINAL THESIS 126 (134) Environmental Engineering Timo Flaspöhler ——————————————————————————————————————

Table 14.3: Values of c1 and c2 /13/

Table 14.4: Nominal diameter of the screws depending on the force /15/

TAMPERE UNIVERSITY OF APPLIED SIENCES FINAL THESIS 127 (134) Environmental Engineering Timo Flaspöhler ——————————————————————————————————————

Table14.5: Tension force and tension torque /15/

TAMPERE UNIVERSITY OF APPLIED SIENCES FINAL THESIS 128 (134) Environmental Engineering Timo Flaspöhler ——————————————————————————————————————

Table 14.6: Main characteristic of headless screws /15/

TAMPERE UNIVERSITY OF APPLIED SIENCES FINAL THESIS 129 (134) Environmental Engineering Timo Flaspöhler ——————————————————————————————————————

Table 14.7: Main characteristic of countersink screws /15/

TAMPERE UNIVERSITY OF APPLIED SIENCES FINAL THESIS 130 (134) Environmental Engineering Timo Flaspöhler ——————————————————————————————————————

Table 14.8: Snap factor /15/

Table 14.9: Friction factor /15/

μ

TAMPERE UNIVERSITY OF APPLIED SIENCES FINAL THESIS 131 (134) Environmental Engineering Timo Flaspöhler ——————————————————————————————————————

Table 14.10: Nominal cross section of the shank and core cross section of the thread /15/

Table 14.11: Setting amount /15/

TAMPERE UNIVERSITY OF APPLIED SIENCES FINAL THESIS 132 (134) Environmental Engineering Timo Flaspöhler ——————————————————————————————————————

Table 14.12: Strength factors of the screws /15/

TAMPERE UNIVERSITY OF APPLIED SIENCES FINAL THESIS 133 (134) Environmental Engineering Timo Flaspöhler ——————————————————————————————————————

15 REFERENCES

1. http://www.esha.be/index.php?id=39 Guide on how to develop a Small Hydropower Plant, Accessed 11 May 2007 2. Gordon, J.L. Hydraulic turbine efficiency. Article. Canada. 2001 3. Dixon, S.L. Fluid mechanics and thermodynamics of turbomachinery. Burlington, United States of America: Butterworth-Heinemann, 1998 4. http://www.worldofenergy.com.au/factsheet_water/07_fact_water_hydro.html THE FACTS ABOUT WATER ENERGY, modified 27 February 2007. Accessed 31 July 2007 5. http://www.ept.ntnu.no/vk/publikasjoner/pdf/ArneKjolle/chapter8.pdf Kaplna Turbines, Accessed 22 May 2007 6. http://www.pienvesivoimayhdistys.fi/ Pienvesivoima on puhtainta uusiutuvaa energiaa, Accessed 31 July 2007 7. http://www.maakaasu.fi/pdf/Energy_consumption.pdf Primary energy consumption in Finland, Accessed 24 July 2007 8. http://www.nordpool.com/ Spot market data, monthly prices. Accessed 19 November 2007 9. Menny, Klaus. Strömungsmaschinen: Hydraulische und thermische Kraft- und

Arbeitsmaschinen. Wiesbaden, Germany: Teubner, 2006.

ISBN-10 3-519-6317-2

10. http:www.kayelaby.npl.co.uk/chemistry/3_4/3_4_2.html

Vapour pressure of water at temperatures between 0 and 360°C, Accessed 24 September 2007 11. Kovale, N. N. Hydroturbines. Moscow, Russia: Mashinostroitel’noi Literatury, 1961. 12. Ahlfors, K. Axel. Vesiturbiinit. Helsinki, Finland: Porvoo, 1932 13. Gieck, K., R. Gieck. Technische Formelsammlung. Germering, Germany: Gieck, 1995. ISBN 3 920379 21 7 14. Fischer, U., Heinzler M., Kilgus, R.,Näher, F., Paetold, H., Röhrer, W., Schilling K., A. Stephan. Tabellenbuch Metall. Haan-Gruiten, Germany: Lehrmittel, 1999. ISBN 3-8085-1712-2

TAMPERE UNIVERSITY OF APPLIED SIENCES FINAL THESIS 134 (134) Environmental Engineering Timo Flaspöhler —————————————————————————————————————— 15. Becker, Manfred., Jannasch, Dieter., Matek, Wilhelm., Muhs, Dieter., Herbert. Wittel. Roloff/Matek: Maschinenelemente. Braunschweig/ Wiesbaden, Germany: Vieweg, 2001. ISBN 3-528-94028-X 16. http://www.igus.de/iPro/iPro_02_0008_00_DEde.htm?ArtNr=&C=DE&L=de Iglidur® H, Accessed 14 September 2007 17. http://www.kleinsorge.de/html/katalog/produktdetail.asp?id={46C6CDEF8E73-4BD2-9962-BA9F3D75163C}&catID={7DAD2090-B7AC-46E3-98CF3D16A0E0FEF1}&lang=0

kleinsorge-Verbindungstechnik, Accessed 7 November 2007 18. Hoischen, Hans. Technisches Zeichnen. Berlin, Germany: Cornelsen, 2003. ISBN 3-464-48009-7

Tampere, 04.12.2007

Timo Flaspöhler

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...Old Dog, New Trick When my daughter, Marisa turned eleven, a friend at school told her about an event the YMCA was sponsoring over the summer called, “Kids can do 26.2”. It was to promote kids staying active during the summer. I helped her train and get ready for the race for ten weeks. The day before the race, we went to the Amory to pick up her bib and t shirt. The armory was a flurry of activity with sports, snack and other race vendors. I saw a slim, very fit woman setting up a booth. I picked up one of the pamphlets she laid out on the table. “Moms in Motion” it said. “Hi,” she said extending her hand toward me. “I’m Deb. Are you a runner?” I smiled and shook my head. “No, I’m too old to start that”. She laughed. “You’re never too old to start something new!” I listened intently as she spoke about the “Moms” and I have to admit that secretly, I wanted to try it. Deb asked me where I lived and then proceeded to tell me that there was a new leader who wanted to start a team in Webster. She wrote down all the information and handed me back the pamphlet. The next morning, my husband, son, daughter and I left for Frontier Field. “Are you nervous?” I asked her. “No way”, she replied. I’m excited!” “You’ll do great!” My husband told her. Frontier Field was mobbed. Kids and parents were everywhere. The race atmosphere was exhilarating. There was music, spectators, and other vendors. There was an announcement that the race was about to start. We...

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...The Maze Runner book review The Maze Runner is very similar to the Hunger games books as it almost has the same story line. I would suggest to anyone who enjoyed reading the Hunger Games, they would very much relish the chance to read The Maze Runner. The basic plot of the book is the lead character Thomas wakes up in an abandoned elevator by himself and has no memories of life before the elevator he wakes up in, the only memories he had were not specific and were bare such as his school, however he doesn’t remember any people faces and only remembers his name. The elevator doors open and he finds himself in a huge field with boys aged 12-18. The boys are known as Gladers and use their own dialect every other words so the first couple of chapters are very hard to understand but once you get the hand of it, it’s all very easy. All the boys lived in huts inside this field and there are massive walls surrounding them so Thomas is very unsure of his position. Outside the walls there is a huge maze which runs on for miles and miles, which seems to run nowhere. Everyday this group of boys called the runners try to find a way out of the maze. However they have to return every night as the wall go up and the boys would be stuck outside the maze where these horrible creatures called Griever’s come out and hunt down the children. These creatures are half animal half machine and have saws for arms. Thomas came up with a dangerous plan to escape. The plan works, but half of the group......

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...CONCORD LAW SCHOOL OF KAPLAN UNIVERSITY CRIMINAL LAW ESSAY 1 Hal and Wanda had been married for many years. Each weekday Hal, who worked for a data processing firm, left for work at 8am and returned home after 6pm. Wanda worked from their home as a telemarketer. As their 20th wedding anniversary approached, Hal decided to prepare a romantic surprise for Wanda. On the day of their anniversary Hal left work at 1pm and drove to the local florist where he purchased a dozen long stem roses. He then drove home intending to surprise Wanda with the flowers and spend the entire afternoon alone with her. When Hal arrived at his home he looked in the window of the office Wanda used to do her telemarketing calls and observed Wanda in what he believed to be a passionate embrace with his neighbor, Norm. Hal, an overly jealous man, had long suspected that Norm harbored desires for his wife. Believing that Wanda and Norm had just engaged in sexual relations, he flew into a rage, ran to the garage and retrieved a revolver he kept in a locked box. He then opened a safe located in the garage in which he stored bullets, removed 6 bullets and loaded the revolver. He then ran back to the front of the house just as Norm was leaving. Hal shot Norm, killing him instantly. In actuality Norm had dropped by Hal's and Wanda's home to drop off an anniversary gift for the two of them and Wanda was giving Norm a hug to thank him when Hal had looked through the window. Hearing the shot Wanda ran from the......

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...muscles because of the thin air. After the training period, a return to sea level can lead a body to acclimatize to the lower level of oxygen, which results in improving the delivery of more oxygen to the muscles and an increase of their VO2 max. Athletes from many different sports use this kind of training to aid them. However, there is debate in which altitude might just have a physiological benefit. Critics question whether it is just a psychological advantage that helps athlete’s performance once they return back to sea level. Nummela and Rusko’s aim of this study was to “establish the effects of living high and training low on sea-level performance in sprint athletes”(2000, p411). The chosen subjects were made up of eighteen 400m runners or hurdlers, all of which were well-trained and performing at high intensities (Nummela & Rusko, 2000,p412). The participating subjects were split into two groups for the study: six men and two women, who ran for the Finnish national team. They were required to live at altitude and to train at sea level, while the remaining ten men both lived and trained at sea level (Nummela & Rusko, 2000,p412). The average age of the group living at the altitude house was 21.8 years of age, while the average age of the sea level group was 21.9 years of age (Nummela & Rusko, 2000,p412).). The study was conducted over two lengthy years. Two annual outdoor seasons were used, both consecutively in...

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...gone by since Kaplan University Online restructured its business model. I was part of the massive laid off that shook the online for-profit schools back in the fall of 2011. Who is Kaplan University Online? Kaplan University Online is a division of the Washington Post (Hechinger, 2013, ∂ 1) an online university of higher learning education offering certificates, associates, bachelors and graduate degrees (Kaplan University, n.d., ∂ 1). Kaplan’s mission and market niche was to enroll adults or working adults who want to complete a college degree but neither has the time to enroll in a traditional campus. That being said, Kaplan was new player in the market competing against other for profit schools such as Devry Institute, ITT, Phoenix University to name a few. In 2007, I was recruited by Kaplan’s HR department to work as an inside sales representative. Myself and 12 other individuals went through a 2-week training class covering Kaplan’s culture, Fafsa (free application for student aid), compliance and boilerplate sales script. The training was intense and strict focusing mostly on the sales script and preaching Kaplan’s ethics, integrity and mission. Like any other jobs I had before this; I took the challenge seriously and was focus on becoming the best at my trade. After my first week on the sales floor, I found myself enrolling more students than any other Kaplan University sales rep. My recognition and reputation quickly escalated to the CEO of Kaplan Inc and......

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...vegetative state. Meanwhile, Thomas learns more about the Glade, and he feels at home like he's been there before. He learns that the Gladers have been trying to solve the Maze for two years and that the Grievers sting can cause you to recall almost complete memories from the past. The process is painful and dreaded by other Gladers. He feels oddly connected to the new girl and also befriends a young Glader named Chuck, as well as a boy named Newt. On the other hand, he has a somewhat negative relationship with Gally, who is suspicious of Thomas and claims that he has seen him, after he was stung by a Griever, in a process known as the Changing. Thomas also feels an inexplicable urge to be a Runner, the people who explore, map out, and try to find a way out of the Maze. One day, one Runner and the "leader of the Glade," Minho and Alby return late from the job. Alby has been stung by a Griever. As the doors are about to close...

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...The Kite Runner The Kite Runner is a great tale about betrayal and redemption, in the novel, the author uses diction to portray the theme through symbolism and through suspense, these elements help tell the tale of betrayal and redemption. In the first few chapters, Amir’s cowardice leads directly to the betrayal of Hassan. When is forced to stick up for the both of them, the cost is much higher then if Amir would of stuck up for both of them, leading to the rape of Hassan. Amir could of said something to Assef, telling him to leave them be, as Amir is pashtan and pashtans are a higher majority in Afghanistan, instead, Hassan being Hazara, the leading minority in their country, which are treated as servents and slaves, is forced to take action. Assef’s racism towards Hazaras is compared to Hitler and the jewish, showing immediately how his hate towards hassan is much greater then his hate towards Amir. When Hassan sticks up for them, the cost is much higher because of his racial minority. “Assef gritted his teeth “Put it down you motherless Hazara” (Hosseini 45) Amir’s cowardice is shown through fear as he thinks about his relationship with Hassan, thoughts of betrayal ponder his mind even before the rape. “But he’s not my friend! I almost blurted, He’s my servent!” (Hosseini 44) As Amir thinks of future encounters, He also fears for his safty, and Hassans, because he knows that Hassan will not always be able to save them with his slingshot. “Certin that......

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