Free Essay

Russia Kazkahstan

In: Business and Management

Submitted By blaugrana
Words 811
Pages 4

Colonial policy of the Russian government in Kazakhstan

Prepared by: Zhunisov Arnur

Manamement 117

Preparation of resettlement of Russian and Ukrainian peasants in Kazakhstan. Completion of the conquest of Kazakhstan coincided with bourgeois reforms in Russia in the mid XIX century. The abolition of serfdom did not solve the agrarian problem. Peasant unrest continued. In these circumstances, the Government has taken steps to divert farmers from the revolutionary movement. One of them - to activate the resettlement policy. Relocation of the peasantry on the eastern edge not only allowed the land hunger in the central provinces of Russia, but also to create in their face support the Government's new place. Therefore, the tsarist government in the mid 60-ies of XIX century. transferred from the military Cossack colonization to mass. On the ground, prepared measures to colonization of the Kazakh steppe and repopulating it with Russian peasants. At the initiative of the military governor of Semirechensk Kolpakovsky in 1868 were developed "Provisional Regulations for the peasant resettlement in the Seven Rivers" acting before 1883. According to "Provisional Regulations" persons determined by a number of benefits: allotment of land of 30 acres per head (male), exemption from taxes and duties of any kind for 15 years, granting a loan of up to 100 rubles.

In 1883, in connection with the transition Semirechensk area in the Steppe General Government Local Authority has developed the "Rules on the land of the settled population of the region. The new rules have cut a few privileges immigrants. Land allotment has already determined in 10 acres on the male soul, exempt from taxation only three years, and in the subsequent three years have made them half the size.

In 1886 was developed "Regulations on the management of the Turkestan general-governorship." According to this document sets the size of the allotment of 10 acres on the male soul, persons are exempted from taxes and duties for five years, and during the subsequent five years to pay them half the size.

Special provision on the voluntary resettlement of rural inhabitants and burghers on public lands and on the order of chargeability of persons designated classes, moved to the old days "of July 13, 1889 permitted the relocation without the prior permission of the Minister of Internal Affairs and State Property. Size of the allotment determined by local authorities.

Resettlement movement in the late XIX century. One of the conductors of agrarian policy of the autocracy in the life of a Committee of the Siberian railway. Trans-Siberian Railway, whose construction began in 1891 was to be held on the Northern Kazakhstan. "The special committee of the Siberian railway in three counties of Akmola region divert 2,241,503 acres of land for the resettlement of 160 thousand peasants.

Since the mid 90-ies of XIX century. began an intensive resettlement to Siberia and Kazakhstan. To identify surplus land and transfer it to a "colonization Foundation organized a special expedition, led by renowned researcher Kazakhstan F. Shcherbina. In the years 1896-1902. were studied 12 counties Turgay, Akmola, Semipalatinsk regions. On the basis of materials collected half of all land in the Kazakh population is withdrawn.

After the abolition of serfdom in the Kazakh steppe and Siberia began spontaneous resettlement movement from the central provinces. Peasant colonization has affected almost all areas of Kazakhstan, formed by thousands of Russian villages. So, submitted to the 1897 census in the Akmola region Russian population was 33 per cent already. In the 90 years in northern Kazakhstan found a "lack of" land for resettlement sites. For arrivals peasants government created a "colonization of land fund." For his creation of the local population consuming large tracts of land suitable for agriculture.

After the conquest of southern Kazakhstan, Russia and the peasants have moved into the southern regions of Kazakhstan. By 1882 it was relocated about 14 thousand peasants, formed five counties and 80 villages.

Peasant colonization also seized Syrdarya region, mainly Chimkent, Tashkent and Aulie Ata counties. At the end of XIX century. of creating about 40 new settlements, inhabited by 2,5 thousand families. Hunger in 1891 in Russia caused a particularly large influx of migrants in Kazakhstan. Resettlement was so great, the tsarist government was compelled to limit it.

As a result of the resettlement policy tsarism main fertile lands were transferred to the Russian peasants, and the Kazakhs rounded up in the arid, marginal lands. Changing the demographic face of Kazakhstan. According to Census 1897 the share of Kazakhs in Kazakhstan was reduced to 87,1%. Of the population of 4 471.8 thousand Kazakhs were 3 399,5, Russian and Ukrainian - 532.7, Tartars - 55,4, Uzbeks - 73,5 thousand Uighurs - 56 thousand persons were settled mainly in strategic locations and armed with firearms. Thus, they served the military's aggressive foreign and military-feudal domestic politics of Russia.

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Cold War

...Which forces, structures or actors have been identified by historians as most decisive in the crystallisation of Cold War tensions in the years 1945-51? * Define what the cold war tensions were/overview of why they came about after ww2 – wartime alliance had broken down due to ideological clashes of how the post-war world would look, an inherent distrust on both sides of the others true intentions and territorial clashes The Cold War – Edited by Klaus Larres and Ann Lane (short loan D843 C6) Oxford 2001 * Conservative strand of historians which sought to condemn the roosevet and Truman aministrations, the former for yielding too readily to Soviet demands at yalta, the latter for hesitancy and inexperience. The liberals ustified American foreign policy as a bold and imaginative effort to deal at oe and the same time with soviet expansionism and residual American isolationism which reached its pinn * Revisionism – emphasis on economic causes of cold war which came about in the 1950s/60. The US had tried dirstly to demand ipen acces to eastern Europe and ipon being rebuffed, had then sought to reconstruct western Europe and particularly the western zones of Germany in the liberal democratic mould. This extended into the thrd world as decolonization opened up these regions to economic penetration. The creation of multilateral organisation, such as the United Nations and the International Monetary Fund, in which the US had the largest share of votes because it......

Words: 698 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay


...China’s Limited Influence By IAN BREMMER Published: November 27, 2013 * Facebook * Twitter * Google+ * Save * Email * Share * Print * Reprints * Many people around the world believe that China’s rise to the role of dominant global player is inevitable. A Pew Research Center survey released earlier this year found that in 23 of 39 countries surveyed, a majority of respondents said China is already, or will soon become, the “world’s leading superpower.” Connect With Us on Twitter For Op-Ed, follow @nytopinion and to hear from the editorial page editor, Andrew Rosenthal, follow @andyrNYT. Even in America, just 47 percent told Pew they believe the United States will remain in that role, and the survey was conducted before Washington’s recent shutdown hardened opinions about America’s political dysfunction. But although China’s economic influence is growing — it is now the lead trade partner for 124 countries, compared to just 76 for the United States — its power to influence other nations is slight. It has achieved little of what policymakers call “capture,” a condition in which economic or security dependence of one country on another allows the more powerful to drive the other’s policy making. Only in countries like North Korea, Cambodia and Laos does China have that kind of heft; in North Korea, for example, China provides 90 percent of the country’s energy and 80 percent of its consumer goods. But these are not the sorts of......

Words: 869 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

The Space Race

...HIST101-1304B-10 Modern American History 1950 to the 21st Century The Space Race The Space Race began on October 4, 1957 when the Soviet Union launched a satellite into space named Sputnik. This satellite began its journey attached to a Soviet intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM). Sputnik was the first piece of man made equipment ever sent into orbit around the Earth. The launch of Sputnik showed the United States that they were behind the power curve when it came to exploring space. The other thing that the Sputnik launched showed the United States was the power and range of the Soviet’s R-7 ICBM. It seemed that the Soviet Union was capable of delivering nuclear warheads to U.S. soil. This encouraged the U.S. military to take a particularly hard look into the weapon advancements that the Soviets were making. By 1958 the United States launched its own satellite into space, known as Explorer I. It was designed by the U.S. Army and over watched by a rocket scientist, Wernher von Braun. In 1958 President Eisenhower created the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, or more commonly known as NASA. In addition to signing the public order which created NASA, President Eisenhower also signed two more orders that would ensure the United States would not fall behind in gathering intelligence via space again. The first was used by the U.S. Air Force, which focused on using space for military operations. The second named Corona was a collaboration with the CIA,......

Words: 684 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

How Far Do You Agree That Sergei Witte’s Policies Were Successful in Modernising the Russian Economy in the Period of 1892-1904?

...policies were successful in modernising the Russian economy in the period of 1892-1904? At the end of the nineteenth century, Russia had been plunged into depression, because the government was forced to print more and more money which caused a rise in inflation. In addition, because Russia was at war with Turkey, over thirty per cent of the government’s expenditure was being spent on the armed forces, whilst another thirty per cent was being lost on debt interest, which left little money for education or social welfare. Ivan Vyshnegradskii, the finance minister from 1887- 1892 began attempting to rescue the government finances. He reduced imports and imposed tariffs on imported goods, which forced peasants to sell more and more grain which they could not produce, this lead to a famine which overwhelmed large parts of the country in 1891. Russia was also lagging behind many of the Western countries at the time in terms of industrial development too. When count Sergei Witte was appointed finance minister in 1892, there was a desperate need to decrease inflation, improve infrastructure and encourage foreign investment. However, it is debatable how successful the policies introduced by Witte were in modernising the Russian economy. Witte’s aim was to make the Russian economy strong enough to maintain Russia’s position as a Great Power. However, Russia did not possess several of the essential factors required to be able to rapidly industrialise like countries such as Germany......

Words: 1582 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay


...economies, Brazil, India, China, Russia, Indonesia, economic growth Future of the BRICs Different options exist for companies to expand their markets globally. For example, companies may choose an exporting strategy, product licensing, or joint ventures. Alternatively, a company’s strategy may involve foreign direct investment (FDI) in another country by building a subsidiary from the ground up in the host country – a greenfield venture – or by acquiring an existing foreign entity. All globalization efforts present some risk. There are risks of encountering trade barriers with an exporting strategy and risk exists for either loss of the investment or lack of control over the foreign enterprises with FDI. For an individual company, there are pros and cons for each of these strategies in a particular country and the strategies have long-term economic, social, and political implications for the nations involved. The resulting interrelationships impact commerce and financial markets worldwide. Some companies and investors focus their global strategies on emerging markets where rapid growth might be anticipated. Convertibility of a selected market’s currency may be a potential problem especially for emerging markets. For example, the Russian ruble was not convertible into U.S. dollars until 2006. In addition, national governments may restrict currency exchanges in order to maintain monetary reserves for debt payments. In emerging markets without convertible......

Words: 353 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Business in Global Arena Exam

...Master of Business Administration Paper Title: Business in Global Arena Final Examination Presented by: Mohamed Mohamed Abd-ElMeguid MBA#: Intake Number #58 Course Title: Business in Global Arena Module: Core Courses Instructor: Dr. Hein Roelfsema Course Delivery Date: November 2010 Date of Submission: 14- November -2010 Table of Contents Question 1: 3 Economic Profile and market seeking/resource seeking recommendations 3 Psychic distance that Egyptian expatriate managers are likely to face 5 Question 3: 6 Part 1: 6 Part 2: 6 Question 5: 8 Hypothesis 1: 8 Hypothesis 2: 8 Question 1: Economic Profile and market seeking/resource seeking recommendations |Indicator |Kenya |Tanzania |Uganda | |GNI |$60.27 Billion |$52.05 Billion |$36.08 Billion | |GNI per capita in PPP dollars |$1,550 |$1,260 |$1,140 | |GDP |$1,600 |$1,400 |$1,200 | |GDP Growth Rate |2.6% |6% |5.3% | |HDI ...

Words: 2594 - Pages: 11

Free Essay

Rebuttal to Michael Craig's "Weak Nations' Pose Greatest Threat"

...ideological, political, international and economic transformation. Kraig claims that the United States’ new political and economic “threats” stem from a new source; failed states such as Somalia, Pakistan, Iran, Afghanistan, and Nigeria, as opposed to conventional superpowers such as Russia, China, Japan, or the former Soviet Union. Kraig backs his claim by citing multiple civil conflicts that indirectly effect oil prices and our economic way of life in addition to the threat of small arms and a future attack on the homeland. Initially, it is noticed that Michael Kraig has numerous fallacies in his argument that failed states pose a greater threat to the U.S. than stable nations, for one he doesn’t recognize that the threats he cites can be traced to stable nations. Many of the nations Kraig cites, including terrorist organizations are funded and supplied by Russia and China. According to the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute, Russia and China sell arms to every single nation the United States labels as a “Rogue State” or “State Sponsor of Terrorism”. Furthermore, the Congressional Research Service on August 25, 2005, listed multiple dubious transactions involving Russia, including “Russia signing an agreement with Iran to finish construction of the Bushehr nuclear power reactor, a transaction worth $800 million or more”, in 1995. Additionally, in 1996, “reports surfaced of Russian entities providing ballistic missile assistance to Iran, including......

Words: 558 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay


...Disaster Capitalism The best way to describe the opening stages of disaster capitalism is shock and awe and the inception of what she refers to as the shock doctrine. Throughout Naomi Klein’s The Shock Doctrine, she describes how cataclysmic events whether through wars, terrorism, military coups, market meltdowns or natural disasters open the doors to Friedmanite (named after Milton Friedman) economics (2007). Not only do these disastrous events make countries susceptible to increased exploitation from free market capitalists looking to profit from disaster, their radical economic policies and the massive privatization of public schools, utilities, health care and other public services, but also, as Klein describes in the book, it has led to some of the most atrocious and violent acts carried out by governments and their army and police forces throughout the world. Klein begins with describing the events that took place immediately after Louisiana was hit by Hurricane Katrina. She introduces us to Milton Friedman, author of Capitalism and Freedom and the one responsible for using “shock therapy” to implement Chicago School economics in other countries. Friedman’s goal was to recreate societies and return them to a pure capitalist state without any interruptions, government regulations, trade barriers and entrenched interests (Klein, 2007). In addition, he believed that the reformation to pure capitalism of these societies was not possible without the presence of a......

Words: 1235 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

The Bolshevik Revolution

...The Bolshevik Revolution At the turn of the 20th century, Russia was a vast empire. The country spanned across the entire northern half of Asia, from the Pacific coast in the east, and into Western Europe. Tsar Nicholas II ruled the country as it had been ruled by his family for centuries before. The strict feudal traditions were upheld with brutality; Tsarist policies prolonged the agony of the lower classes and supported the opulence of the royal family. In the early 1900s, the poor social and economic conditions coincided with the spread and increased study of Karl Marx’s communist philosophy. The Russian people, determined to establish a new government, initiated a chain of events that climaxed with the Bolshevik Revolution in October 1917. The Bolshevik Revolution transformed Eastern Europe and Asia and had a significant impact on the entire world throughout the twentieth century. The fallout of the Bolshevik Revolution still impacts Russia and the rest of the world today. There was no singular cause or event that sparked the Bolsheviks to take to arms in 1917, instead the action resulted from the culmination of a history of social, political, and economic issues. Prior to the Bolsheviks’ rise to power in October 1917, there were two Revolutions that set the stage for the Soviet takeover. The First was the revolution of 1905. This revolution resulted in Russia transitioning from a strict feudal system to a constitutional monarchy; the power of the Tsar was......

Words: 3331 - Pages: 14

Free Essay


...Ukraine is a country in Eastern Europe. Ukraineborders the Russian Federation to the east and northeast, Belarus to the northwest, Poland, Slovakia and Hungary to the west,Romania and Moldova to the southwest, and the Black Sea and Sea of Azov to the south and southeast, respectively. It has an area of 603,628 km², making it the second largest contiguous country on the European continent, after the Russian Federation. According to a popular and well established theory, the medieval state of Kievan Rus was established by the Varangians in the 9th century as the first historically recorded East Slavic state which emerged as a powerful nation in the Middle Ages until it disintegrated in the 12th century. By the middle of the 14th century, Ukrainian territories were under the rule of three external powers—the Golden Horde, the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, and the Kingdom of Poland. After the Great Northern War (1700–1721) Ukraine was divided between a number of regional powers and, by the 19th century, the largest part of Ukraine was integrated into the Russian Empire with the rest under Austro-Hungarian control. A chaotic period of incessant warfare ensued, with several internationally recognized attempts at independence from 1917 to 1921, following World War I and the Russian Civil War. Ukraine emerged from its own civil war, and on December 30, 1922 Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic became one of the founding republics of the Soviet Union. The Ukrainian SSR's territory was......

Words: 817 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay


...current and likely future situation. The recommendations aim to enhance FPEK’s existing competencies. This will add value to the both the company and its customers. Thus enabling FPEK to develop and sustain competitive advantage in the highly competitive branded products market segment of the packaging industry, in which it operates. 2 Environmental Analysis (700 words) 2.1 Transactional Environment Social Despite a projected decline in population of 10 million by 2010 [01.], Russia is seeing a rise of the middle class, which has now reached 4 million adults and children [02.]. This segment has a taste for westernised affluence, so is demanding higher quality, premium, healthy products and increased convenience from the retail sector. There is a strong need for organisations to address this demand by supplying more innovative products of higher quality to the market (such as premium-range yogurts and healthy snacks). Market It is estimated that the grocery market in Russia will reach $186 Billion USD by 2010 which will be good for WBD’s future in the dairy market [02.]. In urban centres especially, there is a shift towards food being sold in supermarkets so that by 2010, 45% of it will be sold there as compared to 28% in 2006 [04.]. These figures suggest that the future for WBD dairy lies with strategic customers, such as major supermarkets. Globalisation With an increase in globalisation, continued growth in GDP (5% per annum), a decrease......

Words: 1988 - Pages: 8

Premium Essay

Russian Notes for History Sl

...Matheus Aug/1/2012 Russia Military Notes Russia’s army 1,200,000 (Brooman, Old Europe ) Advantages The third Largest military (Brooman, Old Europe) Had many to recruit, as they had the largest population of over 159 Million(Brooman, Old Europe) Disadvantages They couldn’t move around very effectively that even Germany had plans to attack France before the six weeks in which it would take for Russia to move their army from the east.(Duffy, firstworldwar) They were far from there allies making there supply demands more complicated Weakened by Japan (Smele, BBC) “Masurian Lakes, in 1914, Russia lost two entire armies (over 250,000 men).” (Smele, BBC) Peasants Lack of communication “Most corps did not have working telephones due to lack of wire and consequently received orders hours too late.” (Murphy, Russia Military) Influence The Russian army did not influence the population very well because the Russian military, something so far apart from what was the day-to-day reality, did not have enough “movement”. There was break out happening and Nicholas couldn’t do anything because The Russian military was also occupied on the east side, since there defeat with japan (Smele, BBC) Russia’s Navy 166 ships Coasts were bad Alliance - Britain and France 5th largest (24/7) Military now a days Sentences 1. The Russian army was the third largest army with......

Words: 671 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Increasing Cross-Cultural Analysis and Action Skills

...Increasing cross-cultural analysis and action skills Jones International University September 15, 2013 Situation An American Manager asks one of his subordinates who was recently transferred from Russia if it was possible for him to start the next day one hour earlier so they could finish a special account analysis before the team meeting at noon. The Russian employee responded affirmatively but next day he arrived at his usual start time. Cultural analysis United States: According to Hofstede’s dimensions, United States has a low uncertainty avoidance index (46); therefore American society accepts ambiguous situations and handles well risk. There is a great level of acceptance for new ideas, innovative products and an inclination to try new ways. At the same time, Americans are less expressive and don’t mind ideas or opinions from others since are firm believers of the freedom of speech. Russia: Russia scores at 95 in uncertainty avoidance which means they feel threatened by uncertain or confusing situations. Russians prefer detailing planning and briefing for new ventures. They prefer to have perspective and circumstantial information before involving in any business. A high index in uncertainty avoidance also impact on the way instructions and directions in the workplace are handled and noticed. Russians expect explicit instructions and direction for any task and also will give very detailed...

Words: 457 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Terror Through the Wire

...White House as well as Pentagon servers. The second wave which targeted South Korea only attacked the National Intelligence Agency, the Ministry of defense, and the Blue House(no idea what that is assuming its like the white house). The third attack which was a deadly blow attacked the U.S as well as South Korea’s stock exchange. This basically was an attack on the economy, economy is down defenses are down which can turn a hard target into a soft target. After investigation sources believe that this wasn’t a total attack of malice. Rather just a very bold statement, a “were not ones to fuck with” statement. This is an absolute fact because North Korea as well as Russia are two countries that really should not be played with. This attack happened in 2009, it is 2014 and nothing has changed. North Korea as well as Russia are two very military powerful countries. This attack could have been a hell of a lot worse, and thankfully it wasn’t. I watched a documentary on this once, and the person who planned it said it was very easy. We are in a time where cyber warfare is just as deadly as one fought with guns. This was a test of our strength and we failed, but you always learn from your mistakes and we...

Words: 330 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Kira Plastinina

...1. Describe Kira Plastinina in terms of the brand image, product, price range and consumer target market. The brand image of Kira Plastinina is girlish, glittery, club-inspired, the products are “Russian street wear style” emphasizes denim, tops, and day and evening dresses. Plastinina has an average price point of $48 and is aimed at girls and women aged 15 to 25 who crave fashion. 2. How many stores does KP have in Russia? KP has around 40 stores in the Russian Federation. 3. Describe how KP entered the US market in May 2008. KP makes its U.S retail debut by opening a 3500-square-foot flagship store in Manhattan’s SoHo. 4. In terms of stores, what was the US goal by year-end 2008? by 2010?’ KP plans to open a total of 12 to 15 stores in the U.Ss by year-end 2008. KP plans to open a minimum of 50 U.S. stores by 2010. 5. What were KP's two greatest external threats in the US? * The distressed U.S. economy and shortcomings in how the chain was operated have largely impacted on KP’s business. * The flow of merchandise, especially new styles, was weak, making it difficult for KP to compete with fast fashion retailers such as H&M, whose stores receive new shipments daily. 6. What 4 potential benefits would KP have had if it had formed a strategic alliance to enter the US? Explain how.  (See "Benefits of Stragegic Alliances") * Ease of Market Entry * Shared Risk * Shared Knowledge and Expertise * Synergy and Competitive......

Words: 411 - Pages: 2