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Russia Kazkahstan

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Submitted By blaugrana
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Colonial policy of the Russian government in Kazakhstan

Prepared by: Zhunisov Arnur

Manamement 117

Preparation of resettlement of Russian and Ukrainian peasants in Kazakhstan. Completion of the conquest of Kazakhstan coincided with bourgeois reforms in Russia in the mid XIX century. The abolition of serfdom did not solve the agrarian problem. Peasant unrest continued. In these circumstances, the Government has taken steps to divert farmers from the revolutionary movement. One of them - to activate the resettlement policy. Relocation of the peasantry on the eastern edge not only allowed the land hunger in the central provinces of Russia, but also to create in their face support the Government's new place. Therefore, the tsarist government in the mid 60-ies of XIX century. transferred from the military Cossack colonization to mass. On the ground, prepared measures to colonization of the Kazakh steppe and repopulating it with Russian peasants. At the initiative of the military governor of Semirechensk Kolpakovsky in 1868 were developed "Provisional Regulations for the peasant resettlement in the Seven Rivers" acting before 1883. According to "Provisional Regulations" persons determined by a number of benefits: allotment of land of 30 acres per head (male), exemption from taxes and duties of any kind for 15 years, granting a loan of up to 100 rubles.

In 1883, in connection with the transition Semirechensk area in the Steppe General Government Local Authority has developed the "Rules on the land of the settled population of the region. The new rules have cut a few privileges immigrants. Land allotment has already determined in 10 acres on the male soul, exempt from taxation only three years, and in the subsequent three years have made them half the size.

In 1886 was developed "Regulations on the management of the Turkestan general-governorship." According to this document sets the size of the allotment of 10 acres on the male soul, persons are exempted from taxes and duties for five years, and during the subsequent five years to pay them half the size.

Special provision on the voluntary resettlement of rural inhabitants and burghers on public lands and on the order of chargeability of persons designated classes, moved to the old days "of July 13, 1889 permitted the relocation without the prior permission of the Minister of Internal Affairs and State Property. Size of the allotment determined by local authorities.

Resettlement movement in the late XIX century. One of the conductors of agrarian policy of the autocracy in the life of a Committee of the Siberian railway. Trans-Siberian Railway, whose construction began in 1891 was to be held on the Northern Kazakhstan. "The special committee of the Siberian railway in three counties of Akmola region divert 2,241,503 acres of land for the resettlement of 160 thousand peasants.

Since the mid 90-ies of XIX century. began an intensive resettlement to Siberia and Kazakhstan. To identify surplus land and transfer it to a "colonization Foundation organized a special expedition, led by renowned researcher Kazakhstan F. Shcherbina. In the years 1896-1902. were studied 12 counties Turgay, Akmola, Semipalatinsk regions. On the basis of materials collected half of all land in the Kazakh population is withdrawn.

After the abolition of serfdom in the Kazakh steppe and Siberia began spontaneous resettlement movement from the central provinces. Peasant colonization has affected almost all areas of Kazakhstan, formed by thousands of Russian villages. So, submitted to the 1897 census in the Akmola region Russian population was 33 per cent already. In the 90 years in northern Kazakhstan found a "lack of" land for resettlement sites. For arrivals peasants government created a "colonization of land fund." For his creation of the local population consuming large tracts of land suitable for agriculture.

After the conquest of southern Kazakhstan, Russia and the peasants have moved into the southern regions of Kazakhstan. By 1882 it was relocated about 14 thousand peasants, formed five counties and 80 villages.

Peasant colonization also seized Syrdarya region, mainly Chimkent, Tashkent and Aulie Ata counties. At the end of XIX century. of creating about 40 new settlements, inhabited by 2,5 thousand families. Hunger in 1891 in Russia caused a particularly large influx of migrants in Kazakhstan. Resettlement was so great, the tsarist government was compelled to limit it.

As a result of the resettlement policy tsarism main fertile lands were transferred to the Russian peasants, and the Kazakhs rounded up in the arid, marginal lands. Changing the demographic face of Kazakhstan. According to Census 1897 the share of Kazakhs in Kazakhstan was reduced to 87,1%. Of the population of 4 471.8 thousand Kazakhs were 3 399,5, Russian and Ukrainian - 532.7, Tartars - 55,4, Uzbeks - 73,5 thousand Uighurs - 56 thousand persons were settled mainly in strategic locations and armed with firearms. Thus, they served the military's aggressive foreign and military-feudal domestic politics of Russia.

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