Free Essay

Russian Reforms

In: Historical Events

Submitted By bigcarpycarp
Words 1644
Pages 7
Late Eighteenth Century Russian Reforms

Russian reforms were not exclusion just to the late eighteenth century; however, the need for Russia to emerge from backwards of policies, administrative, and agriculture means met its mountain by the mid-1800s. The need to modernize Russia was apparent from the defeat during the Crimea War 1853 – 1856 that saw Russian borders erode back to eastern territories which left unattended defense against the French and British navy that could attack from the Black Sea. As with any monarch, reforms came from whom the ruler was but the reforms that the Russian people needed and paved the way to modernization first were the ideas of Peter the Great, expanded upon under Catherine the Great, and materialized during Alexander II’s wearing of the crown. First notion to mimic western cultures first came to pass during Peter the Great reign. Already established as a great land empire, Peter I did not changed ruling policies of past emperors. He did add changes in economy and culture by benchmarking western innovations. Peter’s first major change was in his military structure. Peter recruited bureaucrats from outside of the aristocracy. This led to the creation of his secret police force which kept the aristocracy in check. Peter the Great also created the Imperial navy; the council of nobles was disbanded and replaced by provincial governors that Peter was able to control. The tax system was reformed to place more burdens on the serfs. Serfs began to work in the manufacturing industries and operations. Peter decreed that nobles had to have shave beards and dress in western style. Finally, Peter attempted to invest in his countries future by promoting mathematics and technical subjects. After Catherine the Great took control, she centralized government authority by using the Pugachev peasant rebellion. Although she was brought up with French interests, her belief in a strong royal authority kept Russia from truly encompassing the Enlightenment culture. Catherine gave new power to nobles over serfs. She also oversaw the expansion of the Russian Empire into new territories gained from the Ottoman Empire and colonization migrated into Siberia and Alaska. Catherine partook in the partition of Poland. At the time of her death, Catherine grew the Russian Empire into a great land empire never seen before. She valued the Enlightenment but fear of rebellion of her people due to the French Rebellion, prevented Russia from taking part in this culture paradigm shift. During Tsar Nicholas I’s period, Russia maintained its tradition of territorial expansion. Russian maintained its authority over Russia thanks to Congress of Vienna treaty Nicholas put down a revolt by Polish landowners that was supported by liberal aristocrats and loyal Catholics. After the defeat of this revolt, Russia turned its attention to the Ottoman Empire and the notion of overtaking Constantinople which would provide Nicholas access to the Mediterranean Sea. A stalemate resulted when France and Britain gave support to the Turks, not from apathy but fear from Russian expansion if Constantinople fell. Nicholas’s attention quickly turned to internal domestic affairs in regards to lagging economic and social problems. With Russian failing to keep pace with its western neighbors, the economic need for Russia to rely on western products took a great hit in the grain market. By failing to update to more modern agriculture methods, Russian landlords turned to tightening labor requirements on their serf to maintain any type of profit from gain exports. Serfs were labor slaves to their landlords. They produced large surplus of grain to be exported to the West. In exchanged for these exports, western merchants gave the landlords luxury items. That aspect was not shared with the serfs. Most serfs remained poor, illiterate, and paid higher taxes. Overall, their conditions and society burdens got stiffer and harder throughout the eighteenth century. The onslaught of the Crimean War and enduring defeat finally made Russia realize the need to modernize so that Russia can be on the same leveling field as it bordering neighbors and adversaries. One major factor that Alexander II knew he must change is the subject of serfdom. For Alexander II to get Russia into the industrial age, he needed to have a mobile labor force. Some of Russia’s aristocrats believed that a free labor system would motivate the serfs to work harder which would produce higher profits. Alexander II knew that he must change the policies that affected the serfs’ lack of freedom, undue obligations, and lack of land ownership. Peasant uprisings incline during the 1950s, in large part to bad harvest seasons. Russia had over 22 million serfs that equaled 44 percent of Russia’s population. They were owned by 100,000 landlords. With Alexander II’s coronation, public opinion shifted to favoring emancipation, which many believed would advance Russia’s economics. In 1856, Alexander 11 spoke before the Moscow gentry and challenged them to consider emancipation. He feared that a great revolt for the peasants if they did not receive fairer treatment. He also introduced his new government policy, glasnost, greater freedom of the press and thought. In 1861, Alexander II issued his Emancipation Manifesto. This outlined that freed serfs must pay for their freedom collectively and established communes for freed serfs to farm on. The government felt that it was easier to manage a commune versus nomadic serfs. Although the decree of emancipation is admirable, the beginning of serf suffrage began. Promised futile farm land is not want the serfs received. Serfs received 18 percent less of land promised and 42 percent received land that were insufficient to maintain a lifestyle. This led to serfs rebellions and accusations that a really emancipation was being kept from them from their former landlords. Alexander II also transcended administrative polices. He created the zemstvo which was district assembly areas which forced local gentry and peasants to reach compromised. The zemstvo was responsible for education, medical, and infrastructure. They also went recruiting for teachers, doctors, other professionals. Along with the zemstvo, the legal system was reformed. The judiciary became a separate branch of government. Courts were more transparent and to be equal of justice regardless of society class. Trial by jury was established. Investment in the Industrial Age emerged with the expansion of the Russian railroads. This allowed for farmers to import crops further distances and kept cost at a reasonable rate. The railroad allowed for Russian to expand grain and mineral mining exports which led to more revenue to invest in more industrialization. In 1860, Russian only had about 1,200 miles of track laid. By 1880, the distance grew to over 15,500 miles of railroad tracks. Russian stagnation to invest in education of the Russian populace led to student rebellions and the downfall of Alexander II. Having fewer universities that France or Britain, students felt that governmental reforms neglected their ambition for individual thinking. Political activism increased since students were interested in the utilitarianism positivism and materialism of western ideologies. They resented authority and denounce the ideals of their parents’ generation. As more student protests emerged, government hostilities increased. In 1873, Russian students studying in Switzerland were ordered home which launched the “to the people” movement. After the defeat of the “to the people” movement, the “Land and Liberty” secret organization was created which led to more arrest of student protests. The “Land of Liberty” transformed into the “Will of the People” that supported the striking industrial workers. The “Will of the People” promoted democracy, worker ownership, peasant-owned lands, and complete freedom of speech. Some saw the killing of Alexander II as an opening for new leader that had liberal views that aligned with the “Will of the People”. In March 1888, that assassination was carried out as Alexander II bleed to death from a package that exploded at his feet. The conditions for Russian to have everlasting reforms for society change not monarchy change finally came to a head in the eighteenth century. First reforms were conceived by Peter the Great by invoking certain western ideals to increase economic revenue in grain production. Catherine the Great had a desire to lead the Russian Empire into Enlightenment but her duty to royal authority cut Russia’s full involvement into individual thinking. Only after the defeat during the Crimean War did Alexander II realize the crucial need for Russian to modernize to the same level as its enemies. Alexander II knew for Russian to capitalize on the emerging industrial revolution, the conditions of serfdom must be emancipated for increase production output.

Bibliography
Longman, Addison Wesley. World Civilizations: The Global Experience. http://occawlonline. pearsoned.com/bookbind/pubbooks/stearns_awl/medialib/IM/ch24.pdf accessed May 31, 2013.

Smitha, Frank E. Imperial Russia, 1856-1903. http://www.fsmitha.com/h3/h47-ru.htm accessed May 30, 2013.

Stearns, Peter N, Adas, Michael and Schwartz, Stuart B. Russia and Japan – Industrialization Outside the West. http://history-world.org/Industrialization%20Outside%20The%20West.htm accessed May 31, 2013.

--------------------------------------------
[ 1 ]. Addison Wesley Longman, World Civilizations: The Global Experience. http://occawlonline.pearsoned.com/bookbind/pubbooks/stearns_awl/medialib/IM/ch24.pdf accessed May 31, 2013.
[ 2 ]. Ibid.
[ 3 ]. Addison Wesley Longman, World Civilizations: The Global Experience. http://occawlonline.pearsoned.com/bookbind/pubbooks/stearns_awl/medialib/IM/ch24.pdf accessed May 31, 2013.
[ 4 ]. Peter N Stearns, Michael Adas, and Stuart B Schwartz. Russia and Japan – Industrialization Outside the West. http://history-world.org/Industrialization%20Outside%20The%20West.htm accessed May 31, 2013.
[ 5 ]. Ibid.
[ 6 ]. Ibid.
[ 7 ]. Frank E. Smitha, Imperial Russia, 1856-1903. http://www.fsmitha.com/h3/h47-ru.htm accessed
May 30, 2013.
[ 8 ]. Ibid.
[ 9 ]. Ibid.
[ 10 ]. Peter N Stearns, Michael Adas, and Stuart B Schwartz. Russia and Japan – Industrialization Outside the West. http://history-world.org/Industrialization%20Outside%20The%20West.htm accessed May 31, 2013.
[ 11 ]. Frank E. Smitha, Imperial Russia, 1856-1903. http://www.fsmitha.com/h3/h47-ru.htm accessed
May 30, 2013.
[ 12 ]. Ibid.

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Walmart - Entering Russia

...retail chain; Save Money, Live Better and EDLP (Everyday Low Price). Walmart is in 57 countries under multiple banners, but is Walmart right for Russia and if so, is Russia right for Walmart? The Russian People The Russian population stands at a 143 million people across multiple districts and is projected to decrease to 140 million (1.6%) by the year end of 2015. The main point associated with the population decrease is that the death rate of the Russian Federation, which holds 85% of the total population, is increasing at a faster pace than the birth rate. There is a slight increase of people that are migrating to Russia, not enough to outweigh the significant population decreases. Poor health conditions due to alcohol consumption (Vodka) have reduced the male life expectancy is 60 years of age. This has caused there to be a starling 10,000 more deaths than births over the last decade. This is 15 years less than other industrialized nations. It has also been reported that the live birth rate has decreased due to the overwhelming job opportunities for women beginning in the economic downturn of 2008. Russia is an ethnically diverse country. Although almost 81% of Russian citizens identify themselves as ethnic Russians, there are also other ethnic groups. • 3.9% of Russians are Tartars • 1.4% Ukrainians • 1.2% Bashkirs • 1.1% Chuvashs • 1.0% Chechens • 3.9%...

Words: 1603 - Pages: 7

Free Essay

Were the Policies of the Revolutionaries, Once in Power, Supported by the People?

...Were the policies of the revolutionaries, once in power, supported by the people? | Analysis of both the Russian and French revolution to evaluate the extent of the support and effectiveness of revolutionary policy once implemented | When considering the term revolution, one must analyse its true meaning. Revolution implies the overthrow of government; in particular oust of a ruler or political system. There were many policies implemented in France and Russia during the revolution process. Policy refers to a programme of actions adopted by an individual, group, or government, or the set of principles on which they are based upon. The revolutionaries during the French (occurring in 1789) and Russian revolutions (occurring in 1917) implemented many policies that would inevitably change not only the face of their individual countries but also the whole world in its geographical, political and fiscal stability. Such radical change is perfectly exemplified in the policy and decision making that the revolutionaries had to sanction and control after the take over from their previously unfair and unjust political systems. The revolutionaries were divided among factions based on ideological belief. Some were left wing some were right wing, whilst other considered moderates, thus a social division of fundamental belief was created. At times some sanctions and policies did not represent the best interest of the wider populous and consequently was only to be attributed to a......

Words: 1150 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

Comparative Politics

...POL 101 Politics: Comparative Introduction State Role in Development Hypothesis—Development covaries with state capability in complex, population-dense world. Definitions of Key Terms state— territory, population, government, international capacity state capability—delivery of essential functions; providing physical security, efficient institutions to assure rule of law, competent administration development—diversified commons with overlapping, cross-cutting allegiances, interactive networks of communication, invention, production, distribution, innovation, regeneration, sanctioned by performance-linked status quality of life—pervasive literacy, discretionary leisure, opportunities for self-improvement and life-long education, various sets of friends and associates, choice of urban or country life, privacy, with adequate prosperity and technological sophistication to make it all work Comments ● Republic of Kazakhstan: Kazakhstan’s development of immense mineral reserves and massive economic prospective (major foreign investments in oil sector) co-varies with its state capability of efficient administration, primarily from competent leaders, like President Nursultan Nazarbayev. ■ Republic of Latvia: Under the rule of successful and competent administration, Latvia has been able to restore economic growth in times of global hardship, co-varying with its efforts in establishing a status as a world educator in transferring that knowledge to member states...

Words: 704 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

The Russian "Trepak" vs. the Ukrainian "Hopak"

...The Russian “Trepak” vs. The Ukrainian “Hopak” The popular FOX TV show “So You Think You Can Dance” began introducing various styles of dance to bring awareness of traditions of other cultures into the mainstream television in the US. In last season’s finale, the two top male dancers, Joshua and Twitch, danced a ‘Russian “trepak”’ while wearing Ukrainian folk costumes and dancing traditional hopak moves. The hopak is the traditional dance of Ukraine. This caused some controversy, and offended those from Ukraine as well as Russia. The dance was choreographed to music from “The Nutcracker”, which raised questions as well. The fact that the composer, Tchaikovsky, who was of Ukrainian origin, used Ukrainian folk melodies in his works does not make them automatically Russian. Just to give a little history, trepak, or hopak was developed and then danced by the Ukrainian Cossacks even before Ukraine was taken over by Russia. The costumes, choreography and music had nothing to do with Russian culture, but instead were tied to Ukrainian traditions. Russians have never danced “trepak” as part of their traditional cultural dance. The fact that the dance was presented as a Russian number was not only an uncharacteristic sign of ignorance, but also insulted many Ukrainians watching everywhere! The “trepak” and hopak are distinct Ukrainian national dances that even the Soviet government never suggested were Russian in origin! Also, it was said that it was “Russian street......

Words: 456 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Country Analysis: Russia

...Country Analysis: Russia MBA Fall 2015 International Management in Sport and Entertainment Table of Contents Country Analysis: Russia 1 Introduction 1 Economic Environment 1 Political and Legal Environment 2 Culture 2 Conclusion 6 Country Analysis: Russia Introduction Russia is the world’s largest nation, covering 6,5 million square miles, with a population of 143 million people recorded in 2014. Russia borders European and Asian countries as well as the Pacific and Arctic oceans. In order to make a decision, concerning the market expansion of an organization into Russia, the economic environment as well as the political and legal environment will be analyzed with a focus on the cultural aspects. Economic Environment Russia is one of the BRICS countries (Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa), which are projected to be the fastest growing emerging economies, with a combined GDP of $16 trillion. With a GDP of $2.6 trillion, Russia is a leading exporter of natural gas and oil and is the fifth largest economy in the world. Services are the largest sector of the economy and accounts for 58 percent of the GDP. The most important segments in services include wholesale and retail trade, repair of motor vehicles, motorcycles and personal and household goods. This represents 17 percent of total GDP; public administration, health and education (12 percent); real estate (9 percent) and transport storage and communications (7 percent). Industry......

Words: 1926 - Pages: 8

Premium Essay

Alexander's Ii Reforms

...and now the country faced both an incredible backwardness and a lack of credibility in its own potential in protecting itself against competitive and rival countries, bringing into question some of the very basic structures of Russian politics and society. Russia’s backwardness in all key institutions compared to surrounding great powers was massive, and the loss of the war had a critical effect on the faith the people of Russia had in their Tsar. Because of this intolerable humiliation, Alexander II found his back pushed against a wall and was forced to make all sorts of reforms in order to ameliorate the poor conditions of his country. As one of Alexander’s first reform, in 1861 Alexander II declared “the edict to emancipation”, in other words, the abolishment of serfdom for fear that it would “reform from the below”. Even though Slavophiles stressed the importance of serfdom in the preservation of political and social stability, Westernizes emphasized its role as a brake upon Russia’s economic development in relation to other countries surrounding it. Alexander therefore decided to free the serfs from their landowners and give them land that they could now grow crops on without being governed by the landowners. However, right from the very first reform other major conflicts were brought up, as the emancipation of the serfs caused a huge problem to the nobles and the landowners, who now no longer had free labor. In addition, land could only be granted to the peasants at......

Words: 1643 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Russia: Organized Crime and Politics- How Serious an Issue?

...Background:  Since the late 1980’s the Russian people have experienced one of the most drastic transitions seen in the world to date, a transition from an attempt at communism to a workable capitalist system.  As one would expect, this transition has not been painless and has been the impetus of many distressing problems for the Russian people.  One such problem is organized crime.  Organized crime during Soviet rule and the Russian Federation has created obstacles in this transition to a functioning market economy. This transition from the USSR to the Russian Federation has impaired Russia’s attempts at a market economy. It has worked its way through openings provided by the transition economy to become a setback to the Russian society and economy.  Organized crime disables successful economic reform by influencing important issues such as competition, entrepreneurship, capital flight, the shadow economy, and violence.  The major roots of organized crime in Russia go back to the middle of the twenty century. As early as the 1970’s, the Russian mafia had advanced to the status of primary protectors and beneficiaries in the robust Soviet shadow economy. By 1991, organized crime had expanded to form over 700 gangs in the Russian republic alone. This expansion was aided by Perestroika’s, a political movement within the Communist Party, opening up of market opportunities. In Leningrad, as much as ninety percent of the cooperatives produced by the liberal policies......

Words: 1239 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Russia and Eurasia Documents: 1993, the Russian Federation J.L. Black, Ed. Gulf Breeze, Fl: Academic International Press, 1995

...Documents: 1993, The Russian Federation J.L. Black, ed. Gulf Breeze, FL: Academic International Press, 1995 Foreign Policy: “A Fresh Start. Tomorrow Will See the Inauguration of the 42nd President of the United States”—Bill Clinton (Ye), 310 Ye’s piece on the foreign policy in relation to the United States depicts the transmigration from President Bush to Clinton, and the “bad cards” which Bush passed on to him. The failure of Bush’s and Reagan’s “Reagonomic blueprint” resulted in a tripling of the federal budget deficit and government borrowing in excess of $3 trillion. Ye hopes that Clinton, as the head of the only superpower currently in existence in the world, would be able to jump start the economy by putting a greater “focus on the economy”, and focus on the taxing problems at home in the United States. The author can only hope that Clinton will be able to “play his campaign chips”, and hopefully, whether or not his term as president will result in the fulfillment of said hope. Quality of Life, The Environment, and Crime: “Already, They are Simply Not Paying Us and We Are Simply Not Working—And We Are Not Pretending” (Andreev), 361-363 In a survey asking whether or not people’s attitudes regarding work were changing, the majority of over one thousand respondents believed that the economic reforms instigated in Russia either worsened or failed to change the people’s attitude toward work. The survey also led to the conclusions that Russians had grown to......

Words: 668 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Russian Culture

...Russian Culture When talking about the culture of Russia, using the ASCOPE method is an accurate approach to get an overview of what the culture consists of and the breakdown of the important factors. ASCOPE an abbreviation for: Area, which is the geographic location or territory of the country. Structures, is a physical location and function that can hinder a military operation: schools, government buildings, mosques and cemeteries. Capabilities, which refer to limitations of key personnel and civilian organization: Health, education and social status. These can also be measured by what they produce. Organization, are categorized by the positive or negative impact of the U.S mission. People, understanding the people are the most important in Counter Insurgency Operations. Learning the people and relating to the people will benefit the country by limiting the mistakes from misunderstandings and will guarantee more accomplished missions. Lastly is Events, which are the cultures religious traditions and holidays or any specific event that is cherished amongst the people (Miles). “Know thy self, know thy enemy. A thousand battles, a thousand victories” (Sun Tzu, The Art of War). So, when looking at Russia it is important to take into consideration the aspects of ASCOPE, especially the people. Russia is located in northern Eurasia, and is considered to be the world’s largest country on the basis of territory. It spans over 17,075,200 kilometers and covers roughly one eighth of...

Words: 1081 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

A Mir Kiss

...were joined with four Russian cosmonauts. The three researches were from Japan, Canada, and Austria. None of the participants spoke English as their first language, however they each communicated in English at varying levels of proficiency during their stay. The replica was no larger than the size of a train car. As part of the study, the researchers were asked to join the Russian cosmonauts for 110 days, after the four Russians had already completed almost half of their 240 days in isolation. Only one female, Judith Lapierre, was invited to participate in the experiment. She had a PhD in public health and social medicine, and had previously conducted isolation research in Antarctica. It should also be mentioned that this would be her fourth trip to Russia enabling her to learn the language. Lapierre claims that the Japanese and Austrian participants viewed her as something favorable. Lapierre created a comfortable environment by rearranging furniture, hanging posters and putting down a tablecloth on the kitchen table. Lapierre explained that the Russians only viewed their environment as something to be endured. It was during a New Year’s Eve party, when an event ensued that created tension between the participants in the study. After drinking vodka, two of the Russian cosmonauts engaged in a fistfight and had to be restrained by the other men. The two involved generally did not cope well with each other even before the incident. Soon after, the Russian commander......

Words: 1628 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Internatonal Business

...regional operations. Nearly all the work force will be recruited in Russia as they understand the culture and will be more capable of opening the market and helping to increase consumer confidence in the product. Another point to consider is that, while recruiting and staffing are a fairly straightforward processes for most American companies, some Russian companies have had to actively search for and recruit employees. In one case, a client seemed surprised that he should spend time and money looking for qualified employees. He assumed that prospective employees would come to him . This is not necessarily the case in Russia and is a good reason why a local person should be on ground handling most of the recruiting and staffing stages. Training and Development - Training and development plan should be outsourced to bring the best based on the business , cultural and political environment of Russia . Performance Management – Forty-four percent of Russian managers spend more than one-tenth of their time managing employees' poor performance, which is much less than in the rest of the world, unlike in Western countries, Russian manager have not established the...

Words: 671 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Russians

...DBQ Having lived in multi-national empires in Eastern and Southern Europe during the eighteenth century, the Slavic people began to think about having their own state. Beginning in the early nineteenth century, a movement called Pan-Slavism emerged, which was a movement pushing for just that. In 1848, the movement began to become mainstream and soon became a dominant movement. Many were opposed to Pan-Slavism, however, thus a debate arose which raised political and cultural issues. Those involved in this debate can be placed into four distinct groups: supporters of Pan-Slavic ideals, (Docs 3, 8) those against Pan-Slavism for Nationalist reasons, (Docs 4, 7, 9, 11) Supporters of Pan-Slavism for Imperial reasons, (Docs 1, 2, 5, 6, 10, 13) and those against Pan-Slavism for Empirical reasons. (Docs 11, 14) A discernable change over time is that as time progressed people became more sympathetic to the Slavic people and support for Pan-Slavism increased. Those who identified themselves as Slavs in addition to those who felt that the Slavic people were being oppressed were supporters of Pan-Slavic ideals. (Docs 3, 8) Bronislaw Trentowski, a Polish philosopher, says in a lecture that if he were czar, he would create a Slavic empire and destroy the Ottoman and Austrian empires. (Doc 8) Jan Kollar, a Slovak poet and early advocate of Pan-Slavism, preaches that all Slavs should unite as one nation because that is their true identity. (Doc 3) This opinion is due to a personal bias as...

Words: 335 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Russian Psychotherapy

...An introduction to Russian: History, culture, and psychotherapy. Elms College Maxim M. Arbuzov Spring 2012 Abstract: On March 15, 2012, I landed in Vladivostok, Russia. I was amazed by the diversity and fast growth of the city since my last visit in 2006. Everything has changed the population has quickly grown, and people from around the world are visiting this place that is economically expanding. I seen family, friends, and professionals, which all knew my academic intentions. I talked a lot about social work and counseling, and more specifically: what would they do in times of crisis? Would they seek help? Where? I interviewed a few people of different age brackets, and they all had the same thing to say, for some odd reason; grab a bottle, head over to your best friends house, that is our therapy session. From this I became very interested in one underdeveloped and not heavily researched topic: psychotherapy and counseling in Russia. Introduction It is rather difficult to understand the status of psychotherapy in Russia nowadays, without background information on its history and culture. Russia among other nations has a long history of war and revolutions, which impacted every sphere of life for their populations. Different nations fell under the umbrella of the former “Soviet Union”, which is why Russia is such an interesting country to study because of the vast diversity. Along with diversity the most interesting part researching Russian Psychotherapy is......

Words: 1687 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Managing Cultural Diversity - Russia

...•  Geographically - Biggest country in the world: 17 millions km² - Population: 9th country in the world 143 millions inhabitants - 75% in Asia, 25% in Europe 9th world power, member of the BRICS •  Generalities Language: Russian Money: rouble Political system: federal Republic President/government’s president: Vladimir Poutine/Dimitri Medvedev Capital: Moscow Known for: communism, Cold War, USSR (ended in 1991) Principal religion : orthodox religion •  Culture - Russian culture had a late development because of the totalitarianism/authoritarianism of its political systems - Known for literature: Dostoïevski, Tolstoï - Theater: Tchekhov - Music: Tchaïkovski, Stravinski - Paint: Kandinsky, Chagall - Danse: Bolchoï - XIXth century: bourgeoisie spoke French fluently. •  Traditions and believes - Superstition: you don’t shake a hand through a doorstep - You don’t pour something to drink to someone the hand turned on the outside - A lot of Russians prefer to take a knife and the salt on the table than from your hand - Vodka is the main beverage - In public: Russians aren’t warm, in private sphere it’s the opposite. - They are frank - Don’t kiss women you don’t really know - Celebration’s days France   Russia   Cultural  Essen.als   Food  and  Wine   Family  Ma.ers   Eloquent  Discourse   Rela8onships—Public  and  Private   Gree.ng   Handshakes  are  common   Bisous   Address   Formalty ...

Words: 812 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Sikorsky's Flying Empire

...Igor Sikorsky’s Flying Empire I am Russian-Ukrainian, from an Eastern Ukrainian city of Ivano-Frankovks. My grandparents from my father’s side are from Russia, and my mother’s side of the family is Ukrainian, thus making me a combination of both. Being Russian in the Eastern part of Ukraine is pretty uncommon, as the eastern part closer to Poland speaks Ukrainian, and the Western part of the country mostly speaks Russian. Ukraine was occupied by Poland and Lithuania in the 14th century. Ukrainian peasants who fled the Polish who forced them into slavery came to be known as Cossacks. The Cossacks created their own colonies and led several uprisings against Polish rule, but ultimately they turned to the Russians for security. The country became one of the republics within the Soviet Union in 1922. Ukraine gained independence after the fall of the Soviet Union in 1991. From the nine years that I lived in Ukraine, and the many summers that I’ve spend there after coming to United States, I’ve come to realize that it’s a very beautiful country, with breath taking Carpathian mountains, and the cold Black Sea. Both Ukrainian, and Russian cosines are delicious, with the cultural menus ranging from borsch to the famous pirogues, and my favorite being blini (also known as crepes). Although Ukraine is a wonderful country to spend summers in, but economically and politically the country is currently not doing very well, especially with the ongoing protests that began last...

Words: 1496 - Pages: 6