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WATER MANAGEMENT IN ARID CLIMATES

Suleiman Mohammed Al Belushi

A thesis submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree Master of Science in Soil and Water Management

Department of Soil and Water Sciences College of Agriculture Sultan Qaboos University Sultanate of Oman

2006

Layout 1b. Title Page

WATER MANAGEMENT IN ARID CLIMATES

Suleiman Mohammed Al Belushi

A thesis submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree

Doctor of Philosophy in Soil and Water Management

Department of Soil and Water Sciences College of Agriculture Sultan Qaboos University Sultanate of Oman

2006

©

Layout 2. Thesis Committee Thesis of…………………………………………………………(I.D. #)………………... Title of Thesis…………………………………………………………………………….. Thesis Committee: 1. Supervisor……………………………………………………………………………. Title…………………………………………………………………………………… Department………………………………………………………………………….. Institution…………………………………………………………………………….. Signature………………………………………………Date……………………….. 2. Member………………………………………………………………………………. Title…………………………………………………………………………………… Department…………………………………………………………………………… Institution…………………………………………………………………………….. Signature……………………………………………….Date………………………. 3. Member……………………………………………………………………………….. Title……………………………………………………………………………………. Department…………………………………………………………………………… Institution…………………………………………………………………………….. Signature……………………………………………….Date……………………….

Layout 3. Thesis Examining Committee Thesis Examining Committee: 1. Chair……………………………………………………………………………… Title……………………………………………………………………………….. Department………………………………………………………………………. Institution…………………………………………………………………………. Signature……………………………………………Date…………………….... 2. Supervisor………………………………………………………………………... Title……………………………………………………………………………….. Department………………………………………………………………………. Institution…………………………………………………………………………. Signature……………………………………………Date…………………….... 3. Member (HoD representative)…………………………………………………. Title……………………………………………………………………………….. Department………………………………………………………………………. Institution…………………………………………………………………………. Signature……………………………………………Date…………………….... 4. External Examiner………………………………………………………………. Title……………………………………………………………………………….. Department………………………………………………………………………. Institution…………………………………………………………………………. Signature……………………………………………Date……………………....

Layout 4. Abstract Efficacy of Different Control Measures for the Management of Muskmelon Late Vine Decline in Oman Mahmoud Al-Nabhani Abstract Muskmelon late season vine decline (MLVD) has become the predominant disease in muskmelon cultivation in Oman. A survey conducted in the Al Batinah region showed that more than one soil borne pathogen is associated with MLVD disease. Pythiumaphanidermatum, Fusarium spp., Rhizoctonia sp. And nematodes were isolated from infected roots, crowns and stem tissues. Disease symptoms were similar in all fields included in the survey. Wilting of the plant canopy about two weeks before harvest was common. Brown to dark brown lesions were scattered over primary, secondary and tap roots. Sloughing-off of cortical tissues of the root system in advanced disease stages was associated mainly with P.aphanidermatum. Fusarium sp. were involved in strangled crown areas and with discolored vascular tissue of roots, crowns and stems. In most cases, a short tap root was distinctive symptom. Two field experiments were conducted in locations with different soil characteristics. These aimed to increase yield by evaluating the efficacy of some control measures in reducing both the density of inoculum and the under disease progress curve (AUDPC). At Al Sawadi, metalaxyl was added at the rate of 100ml/plant via a separate drip irrigation system throughout the growing season. Metam sodium was applied as preplant treatment in aqueous form at the rate of 226ml/m² using a drench method. Cabbage residue was buried as a preplanttreatment at the rate of 20 kg/ m². At Wadi Al Abiath, cabbage residue was added at the same rate (250ml/m²). A fungicide mixture (Tachigaren, Hymexazole, Tolclfos S-methyl and Thiraml) was applied via a drench method around the root zone. Oxamyl 10% was added as granules prior to and after sowing. In both trials, metam sodium showed the best results in reducing inoculum levels. At Wadi Al Abiath, metam sodium significantly reduced AUDPC. In both trials, none of the treatments showed a significant impact in increasing fruit yield. Moreover, both varieties examined were susceptible to MLVD disease. Out of 32 exotic varieties evaluated, Panna, Canal261 and Kurooger showed tolerance to MLVD. It is concluded that metam sodium is the most effective treatment but more research is needed on alternative methods of dealing with MLVD.

Layout 5. Table of Contents TABLE OF CONTENTS List of Figures List of Tables CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION 1.1 Sub Heading 1.2 Sub Heading vii ix 1 2 5 12 14 16 17 20 22 25 27 30 50 52 58

CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1 Sub Heading 2.2 Sub Heading

CHAPTER 3: METHODOLOGY 3.1 Sub Heading 3.2 Sub Heading

CHAPTER 4: ANALYSIS (MAIN TEXT) 4.1 Sub Heading 4.2 Sub Heading

CHAPTER 5: CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 5.1 Sub Heading 5.2 Sub Heading

REFERENCES The chapters, titles, and page numbers used above are examples. The Table of Contents of each thesis will differ depending on the nature of the work.

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Suliman Moh’d Al Belushi

PhD/MSc

2009

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