Free Essay

Sampling Procedure

In: Other Topics

Submitted By satw
Words 2747
Pages 11
Sampling is one of the most important factor in educational research, sampling is a way of sele cting a fraction of people in a population of research in order to find the needed information which can generalised and extend their results further than the respondents, The researcher may not manage to collect the information for every individual of interest as it is costly, time consuming and stress nous, as(Mcmillin,1996) stated that when conducting an educational research, it is usually impractical and unnecessary to measure all the elements in the population of interest. The are two main types of sampling procedures suitable for conducting educational research, which is probability also known as random sampling and non-probability or non-random sampling. This paper will further discuss the two categories of sampling procedures that are commonly used in educational research and highlight the strength and weakness of using the discussed sampling procedures.
Probability sampling is the type of research in which the researcher chooses the respondents randomly. In this type of research each respondent has an equivalent possibility of taking part in the research. probability sampling is a way of choosing the respondents randomly as (Mcmillin,1996) highlighted that “this way of random selection implies at least every member of the population or the subgroups has an equal chance of being selected” Each of the population has equal chance of being picked up into the sample, moreover one member does not effect in selection of the other and there is no relation with one another, hence it is free from subjective factor or personal error or bias and prejudices or imagination of the researcher. The researcher makes sure that the sample formed by this method, may be representative of the population. while (Cohen etal.2007) noted that probability sampling is a best procedure for selecting sample he further stated that “they are many types of probability sampling procedure used in educational research, but only four are commonly used, these are simple random, systematic, stratified and cluster random sampling procedures.
A simple random sampling procedure is known to be a classic form of probability. (Mcmillin,1996;p87) defined it as “ In simple random sampling every member of the population has an equal and independent chance of being selected for the sample”.The researcher may write on the pieces of papers with yes and no , then them in a bowl then each member picks up a paper the ones with yes becomes the respondent.( Cohen etal.2007) stated that where this implies and that of ensuring representatives that the population is greatly adverse or heterogeneous. A simple random sampling procedure has it strengths and its weakness. It strength include, it does not have mistakes in classification for its targets the rightful population, (Kombo&Tromp, 2006) identified its strength as “the samples yield research data that can be generalised to a larger population”. It is not biased and prejudice. It allows the researcher to use rational statistics to the information. (Singh, 2006) highlighted some strengths as “It gives each element in the population an equal probability of getting into the sample; and all choices are independent of one another”, hence It gives each possible sample combination an equal probability of being chosen. Its weakness include that it can be very difficult to get a fulfilled information from the categorized wide population, some members may move out and non-response error is high, (Kombo&Tromp, 2006; p79) observed that “it is not the most statistically efficient method of sampling. The researcher may, just because of luck draw, not get good representation of subgroups in population”. The samples can be over presented and underrepresented. (Kothari,2004) noted that cases selected too widely dispersed or even impossible to contact and thus adherence to the whole sample may not be the selection of a given population this translate that the respondents may be too scattered apart hence making the collection too difficult. The respondents may be of the same heterogeneous group or age hence difficult to generalize.

The other probability sampling is the systematic. This is the use of every nth number from the listed number or given numbers of the population. (Singh, 2006) defined systematic sampling as “an improvement over the simple random sampling. This method requires the complete information about the population. There should be a list of information’s of all the individuals
Of the population in any systematic way. Now the researcher decide the size of the sample then selects each /nth individual from the list and thus get the desired size of sample”. Thus for this procedure to be effective, the sampling population are arranged in any systematic way and it involves choosing members from a population list in a systematic manner. For example, if from a population of, say, 1,000, a sample of 150 is needed, then every tenth person can be selected. Strength of systematic sampling is, that it allows a wider range of population to be covered of which there is a greater precision. (Cohen etal.2007) noted that systematic random sampling is easier and faster to draw than simple random sampling and it can be executed without any mistakes”, however, every member of the population has a same probability of taking part and not so biased. (Mcmillin, 1996; p88) noted that “There is a possible weakness in systematic sampling if the list of cases in the population is arranged in a systematic pattern”. For example if a list of grade seven pupils is school are arranged by classroom and pupils are arranged in their ability groups. If every nth pupil that is chosen matches with pattern, the sample would represent only a certain level of ability and would not be representative of the population. And the (Kombo&Tromp, 2006) stated that “the response may be too low since the respondent’s availability is unpredictable”. (Cohen etal.2007; p87) noted that, “This is not free from error, since there is subjectivity due to different ways of systematic list by different individuals”.

Stratified sampling procedure is the other probability technique, this is the one modified way of the other sampling procedures.( Mcmillin,1996;p79) explained that “stratified sampling involves dividing your population into homogenous subgroups and then taking simple random sample in each group”, it is a modification of a simple sampling procedure for the first thing to be done is regrouping the members in group for example according to the sex, age and level, then a simple random sampling procedure is applied in selecting the respondents. The strength of this technique is that all groups will be represented that is the sex, age ,level and common characterizes, it is easy to apply and has a good representation of the population, (Kombo&Tromp,2006;p88) identified that “It is an objective method of sampling and Observations can be used for inferential purpose”. Because to it nature it minimizes the cost when conducting it. (Mcmillin, 1996) stated that “the replacement of a unit can be done conveniently, if the originally selected respondents has not availability. Stratified random sampling procedure has its own weaknesses such as it is a complicated method of sampling especially on larger populations. (Cohen etal.2007;p88) recognized that “It involves errors when we consider the primary and secondary stages and It is again a subjective phenomenon”, it can be biased due to the inappropriate grouping of the members and not having the equal numbers, for it becomes difficult to generalized the results.

The last one in the probability is the cluster sampling procedure it is ridiculous to sample individual members large population of interest. Cluster sampling involves a wider and larger target population. This involves random selection of naturally occurring groups or areas and then selecting individual’s elements from the chosen groups or areas. (Cohen etal.2007). For instance listing all the primary schools in Lusaka district then randomly picking 40% of listed primary schools, the researcher will use the selected schools for research instead of all conducting the research in the whole district. The strength of cluster sampling is that it saves time and cost of conducting a research, the results can be generalized. (;Cohen etal.2007p80) recognized that “It is practicable and highly applicable in education and Observations can be used for inferential purpose” it’s weakness is that although it saves and money the results may not be accurate, hence may only benefit the whole area, for sometimes information cannot be generalized for example the research findings of kabulonga schools cannot be of the same solution of kayama school but they are all one district.( Mcmillin,1996;p81) identified that “there is a risk of missing on important sub group”, it may have inadequate representation of the target group. Cluster sampling procedure may be biased because it may not have the equal number of respondents and it may have so many mistakes.

The other type of the sampling is the non-probability, this type of sampling is not random but the researcher chooses who to take part or involve in the research and not all members of a population of interest have an equal chance of taking part in a research.( Cohen etal.2007;p133) indicated that “The selectivity which is built into a nonprobability sample derives from the researcher targeting a particular group, in the full knowledge that it does not represent the wider population; it simply represents itself”. The researcher looks for an individual that can provide the information regardless where they are coming from. In educational research the researcher would use purposive sampling, convenience sampling, quota sampling and snowball sampling procedure.

Snowball sampling procedure is when the researcher identifies an individual who can provide the required information or an individual who can help to identify a rightful respondants; hence it may start with very few respondents as they will increase in due course. (Kombo&Tromp, 2006; p83) defined that “snowball or chain sampling begins by asking a number of people, can you identify specific kinds of cases”. The strength of snowball sampling is that it saves time and money. It allows the researcher gather information to the right people, the results are accurate and can be generalized, and the research is entirely in the researcher’s hand. (Cohen etal.2007; p113) noted that “This method is useful for sampling a population where access is difficult, maybe because it is a sensitive topic (e.g. teenage solvent abusers) or where communication networks are undeveloped”, The weakness of this sampling is that the researcher may choose a wrong respondent or the respondent may invite a friend who may not be a right respondent, it is biased and the researcher may select unreliable respondent which will affect the result.

Purposive sampling is another non probability procedure. This is so close to snowball sampling but this one the researcher identifies people that has the characteristics needed for the study, for example if the is about “poor performance in reading” the teacher of English should be the priority.(Mcmillin.1996) identified that “In purposive sampling (sometimes referred to as sampling judgmental sampling) the researcher selects par- Particularly informative or useful elements from the population that will be representative or in- formative about the topic”. Purposive sampling has its own strength such as it is cheap and easier to execute, the researcher is able to include what he has perceived. In many cases purposive sampling is used in order to access ‘knowledgeable people’, i.e. those who have in-depth knowledge about particular issues, maybe by virtue of their professional role, power, access to networks, expertise or experience (Cohen etal.2007).the researcher understands the research it hence selecting right people and gets rightful information and be generalization and problem solving. The researcher is able to Use of the best available knowledge concerning the sample subjects and Better control of significant variables (Singh, 2006). It enables the researcher to use judgment and choose people that are presented or are available that best meet research objectives and the target groups, which make it for the researcher to successfully correct accurate information. The weaknesses of the purposive sampling include be biased because the respondents are handpicked and the respondents may not be interested or cannot be reliable hence can affect the results. (Singh, 2006) noted that “Inability to utilize the inferential parametric statistics and Inability to make generalization concerning total population”. In purposive sampling consistency of the standard information are not reliable especially if the researcher does not have the Knowledge of population.

Convenience sampling is also a non-probability .the researcher chooses respondents to those who are nearest to them. (Mcmillin,1996) illustrated that “A convenience sample is a group of subjects selected because of availability, for example, a university class of a professor conducting some research” whilst (Kombo&Tromp,2006) stated that “in this method is based on using people who are a captive audience, people the researcher meet haphazardly or accidently”. The researcher collects information from different types of people those who maybe just passing by the use of procedure, further more (Kothari, 2004) states clearly that Although we need to be very way of convenience samples, often this is the only type of sampling possible, and the primary purpose of the research may not be to generalize but to better understand relationships that may exist. The strength of this type of non-probability is that it targets the people who are the nearest hence reducing on transport and logistics, it is cheap and it easily done for it is not complicated to find the respondents. The weaknesses of this sampling procedure are that, it is not a representative of the population, it is not free from error and parametric statistics cannot be (Singh, 2006). The researcher may not collector accurate information as the respondent may not have detailed information or ignorant about the research topic. The last one in educational researcher is the quote sampling procedure. (Kothari.2004) identified it as “Quota sampling is used when the researcher is unable to take a probability sample but still wants a sample that is representative of the entire population”. This dividing the respondents in relevant strata such as age, gender of geographical. The strength of this sampling is that It is an improvement over the judgment sampling (Singh, 2006).it is easy and not complicated. It is most frequently used in social surveys Quota sampling has been described as the non-probability equivalent of stratified sampling. Like a stratified sample, a quota sample strives to represent significant characteristics (strata) of the wider population; unlike stratified sampling it sets out to represent these in the proportions in which they can be found in the wider population (Singh,2006). However the weakness of quota sampling includes it is not a representative sample, it is not free from error and it has the influence of regional geographical and social factors.

In conclusion probability sampling is also known as random sampling in which the all the member of the population of interest is given equal opportunities to take part in the research Random sampling techniques are based on the theory of probability and usually produce “good” samples [because it] is representative of the population that is being studied(Mcmillin,1996), there four types of probability sampling commonly used in educational research these are simple random, systematic, stratified and cluster sampling procedure. On probability known as nonrandom, Non-random samples are said to be bias samples because they are almost always systematically different from the population on certain characteristics (Kothari, 2004), the respondents are had picked. The four sampling procedure include purposive, snowball, convenience and quota sampling. These procedures have its strength and weakness, as most of them are easy, and cheap. These are very important to educational research to understand how sampling may affect research it is essential to know the characteristics of different sampling procedures. This knowledge will help the researcher interpret the sample that is used. It will be helpful to know the strengths and weaknesses of each sampling procedure, hence choosing right one when conducting the research.


Cohen. Mainly. And Morrison. (2007). Research Methods in Education6th Ed. New York. Rutledge.

Komba and Tromp. (2006).proposal and thesis writing; an introduction. Nairobi. Pauline’s.

Kothari.c.R. (2004). Research Methodology and Techniques 2ed.New Delhi. New age international Inc.

Singh.Y.K. (2006). Fundamentals of Research Methodology and Statistics. New Delhi.

Mcmillin, J.H. (1996).Edcational Research; fundamental for the Consumers 2ed. New York. Harper Collins.

Similar Documents

Free Essay

Critical Behavior in Research

...behavior in research analysis will analyze an ethical issue raised in the article, The Causal Generalization Paradox: The Case of Treatment Outcome Research, written by Graham L. Staines. The article by Staines discusses the causal generalization paradox. The ethical issue at the heart of the article is the use of improper sampling procedures. With the vast amount of research taking place and random assignment techniques, less of a priority is being placed upon random sampling. According to Staines,2008 experimental research typically selects units, in part or in whole, at the convenience of the researcher. The researcher then makes no attempt, or often times only a limited attempt, to ensure that this sample is an accurate representation of some larger group or population. This form of convenience sampling is an ethical issue simply because experimental data based upon the use of “convenience samples rather than probability based samples, there is almost never a formal justification, or set of rigorous guidelines, for generalizing the study’s findings to other populations” (Staines, 2008). The generalization paradox and improper sampling procedures may often cause...

Words: 778 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay


...Variables Sampling 689 I have edited a portion of Module G from your textbook so that it more closely follows my lecture. I need to acknowledge that this is not my original work and much of it is taken word for word from the 2nd edition of Auditing & Assurance Services by Louwers, Ramsay, Sinason and Strawser. Tad Miller Classical Variables Sampling LEARNING OBJECTIVE Understand the basic process underlying classical variables sampling in an audit examination. When performing substantive procedures, one approach is classical variables sampling. Classical variables sampling methods use normal distribution theory and the Central Limit Theorem to provide a range estimate of the account balance. The auditor uses the sample estimates to determine whether the account balance is fairly stated. The Central Limit Theorem indicates larger sample sizes provide a sampling distribution that more closely reflects a normal distribution. Therefore, larger sample sizes will yield a lower level of sampling risk. In this section, we briefly illustrate mean-per-unit classical variables sampling. We illustrate the manual calculations necessary to determine sample size and evaluate sample results. However, if clients maintain records in electronic format, auditors typically use computer software to perform these tasks. Classical Variables Sampling: Planning In the planning stages of classical variables sampling, the auditor determines the objective of sampling, defines the......

Words: 2468 - Pages: 10

Premium Essay

Research Techniques Including Research Design

...census, less costly to administer than a census and it is possible to obtain statistical results of a sufficiently high precision based on samples. There are two types of sampling techniques, probability and non-probability sampling. Probability Sampling A probability sampling method is any method of sampling that utilizes some form of random selection. In order to have a random selection method, you must set up some process or procedure that assures that the different units in your population have equal probabilities of being chosen. Humans have long practiced various forms of random selection, such as picking a name out of a hat, or choosing the short straw. These days, we tend to use computers as the mechanism for generating random numbers as the basis for random selection. To produce our results, we combine the responses from the sample in a way which takes account of the selection probabilities. Our aim is that, if the sampling were to be repeated many times, the expected value of the results from the repeated samples would be the same as the result we would get if we surveyed the whole population. Because we know the probability of getting each sample we select, we can also calculate a sampling error for the results. The sampling error tells us the amount of variation in the results due to the sampling alone. It gives a measure of the quality of the sample design, and of the survey results. A simple random sample is a sample in which each member of the......

Words: 1150 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay


...THE ELEMENTARY OF A PROPOSAL 1. Introduction The introduction is the part of the paper that provides readers with the background information for the research reported in the paper. Its purpose is to establish a framework for the research, so that readers can understand how it is related to other research. In an introduction, the writer should create reader interest in the topic, lay the board foundation for the problem that leads to the study, place the study within the larger context of the scholarly literature, and reach out to a specific audience. 2. Statement of the Problem State the problem in terms intelligible to someone who is generally sophisticated but who is relatively uninformed in the area of your investigation. A problem statement should be presented within a context, and that context should be provided and briefly explained, including a discussion of the conceptual or theoretical framework in which it is embedded. Clearly and succinctly identify and explain the theoretical framework that guides your study. This is of major importance in nearly all proposals and requires careful attention. 3. Purpose of the Study The purpose statement should provide a specific and accurate synopsis of the overall purpose of the study. If the purpose is not clear to the writer, it cannot be clear to the reader. Briefly define and delimit the specific area of the research. Foreshadow the hypotheses to be tested or the questions to be raised,......

Words: 1431 - Pages: 6

Free Essay

Psychology and Education

...main purpose of the study is to centre on the benefits of psychology and education In addition the research study tries to respond on alternate issues regarding psychology as well as education. The research study also focuses on demonstrating more concerning the needed researches that could be conducted on psychology and education. Although not a clear explanation the study defines more on this. Consequently, the technique that used in undertaking the study involves the use of questionnaires along with descriptive figures. Key words R.D: Research design S.Z: Sample size S.M: Sampling method Table of contents Contents Aim 2 Abstract 3 Key words 4 1.0 Introduction 7 1.2 The problem 10 1.4 Specific Objectives 10 1.5 Background to the problem 11 2.0 Method (Research Design) 13 2.1 participants 13 2.2 Sampling procedures 13 2.3 Sampling Technique 14 2.4 Sampling size 14 2.5 Target Behaviour 15 2.6 Ethical, legal and socio cultural concerns 16 2.7 Methods of recording the behaviours 16 3.0 Results 17 3.1 Mock data 17 Table 3.1.1 gender of the Participants 17 Figure 3.3.1 shows the number of participants who were 1o males and 10 females. 17 Figure 3.3.2 shows the age groups of the participants 18 Figure 3.3.2...

Words: 3720 - Pages: 15

Premium Essay


...Research Methodology Report for the Modular Grants Application Process Outcome Evaluation Study 1. Introduction This report describes the research methodology used for the Modular Grants Application Process Outcome Study. More specifically, this paper is divided into three sections that describe the sampling, data collection, and response rates for the five stakeholder groups involved in the outcome study. The five stakeholder groups are: 1) principal investigators, 2) peer reviewers, 3) NIH scientific review administrators, 4) NIH program and grants management staff, and institutional officials. The first section includes information on the size and origin of the sampling frames (population files), the sample sizes, sampling methods, and margins of error (confidence intervals) around the population estimates. The second section describes the data collection procedures and the last section provides the study response rates and calculations. 2. Sampling 1. Population The size and origin of each of the sampling frames, or population files, is described in detail below. 1. Principal Investigators In March 2004, NIH provided Westat with a population file that consisted of all people who had applied for a modular grant since its inception in June 1999. The population file contained a flag indicating whether or not the individual had ever been awarded a modular grant. The file also contained the principal investigators’ mailing address, telephone......

Words: 2627 - Pages: 11

Free Essay

My Favorites

...84 CHAPTER 3 Research design, research method and population 3.1 INTRODUCTION Chapter 3 outlines the research design, the research method, the population under study, the sampling procedure, and the method that was used to collect data. The reliability and validity of the research instrument are addressed. Ethical considerations pertaining to the research are also discussed. 3.2 RESEARCH DESIGN It is the blueprint for conducting the study that maximises control over factors that could interfere with the validity of the findings. Designing a study helps the researcher to plan and implement the study in a way that will help the researcher to obtain intended results, thus increasing the chances of obtaining information that could be associated with the real situation (Burns & Grove 2001:223). 3.3 RESEARCH METHOD A quantitative, descriptive approach was adopted to investigate reasons why women who requested TOP services failed to use contraceptives effectively. 3.1 Quantitative This is a quantitative study since it is concerned with the numbers and frequencies with which contraceptive challenges were experienced by women who requested TOP services in terms of the 85 CTOP Act (no 92 of 1996) in the Gert Sibande District of the Mpumalannga Province of the RSA, during August and September 2003. 3.2 Description This study was descriptive because it complied with the characteristics of descriptive research as stipulated by Brink and Wood (1998: 283). • Descriptive......

Words: 4062 - Pages: 17

Free Essay

Communication Technology

...Facilitators/Tutors and Tutorials Summary . . . . INTRODUCTION Data collection methodology is a two credit unit first semester course available to first semester course available to students of Bachelor of Education (B.Ed) Library and Information science. 4 Research involves data collection, any discipline of the social sciences, education and even the sciences needs a sound knowledge of research; how to conduct research, ethics of research and generally to write a report or design a study. The use and importance of research cannot be overemphasized. All students undergoing any form of degree programme is required to write a project, thesis or dissertation. This course offers a complete guide to such write ups including statistical techniques in sampling measurements and ethics of research. What you will learn in this course The course consist of units and a course guide which informs you briefly...

Words: 19411 - Pages: 78

Free Essay

Competency Mapping


Words: 8260 - Pages: 34

Premium Essay


...Business Statistics SCMA 1000 Winter 2015 Section 2 Assignment 1 Due Tuesday February 25, 2015 Sampling exercise The purpose of this exercise is to convey some basic concepts in regards to sampling while at the same time deriving sampling distributions empirically. Deriving sampling distributions empirically works best when there are a large number of samples. The idea here is that each student in the class will create 20 samples for two populations, using two different sampling procedures, for a total of 80 samples. These samples will be combined into common datasets which will be used in class (and made available to all students in the class. The four sampling contexts will be: 1. Discrete numerical population, sampling without replacement (DNWITHOUT) 2. Discrete numerical population, sampling with replacement (DNWITH) 3. Dichotomous population, sampling without replacement (DWITHOUT) 4. Dichotomous population, sampling with replacement (DWITH) You will generate 20 samples of 5 observations for each of the four sampling contexts above for a total of 80 samples. The deliverable for this exercise will be an Excel spreadsheet. The samples from all four sampling contexts are to be recorded and submitted on the same spreadsheet. The exact details of which will be described below. The spreadsheet will be used to record your samples. The spreadsheet will have 80 rows, one row for each sample. The first two columns (Columns A and B) will be your......

Words: 990 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Determinants of Alcoholic Beverages

...DETERMINANTS OF DRINKING ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES AMONG OLOPSC STUDENTS In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Bachelor of Science in Hotel and Restaurant Management A Thesis Presented to the Panelists and Participants of the Course Hotel Restaurant Management Department Our Lady of Perpetual Succor College Ordonez St. Concepcion, Marikina City CHRISTAL ANNE A. QUIRANTE CHRISTINE MAGSINO March 2012 I. INTRODUCTION A. Background of Study This study covers the determinants of alcohol drinking among students. From researcher‟s observation, alcohol drinking is a big part of college student‟s merry-making activities. Some considered it is an essential part of fiestas, birthdays, and parties. Even when there is no special occasion, many college students hang out together in their homes, pubs, bars, clubs, friend‟s houses and the likes. Observing and describing the behavior of the students in relation to alcohol drinking will help us understand and determine the influences of factors of drinking alcohol. B. Statement of the Problem The study examines to identify the determinants of drinking alcohol among OLOPSC students: 1. College students learned to drink alcoholic beverages because of their parents or relatives approval. 2. Social gatherings provoke alcohol drinking to students. 3. Influences of friends pushed students to drink alcohol. C. Significance of the Study This study was conducted to identify the main influences of factors of......

Words: 1623 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay


...What is “Statistics”? Data collection Chapter 1 of text “a way to get information from data” A framework for dealing with variability A way to make decisions under uncertainty Statistical inference: the problem of determining the behaviour of a large population by studying a small sample from that population Why is statistics important in business? Financial management (capital budgeting) Marketing management (pricing) Marketing research (consumer behaviour) Operations management (inventory) Accounting (forecasting sales) Human resources management (performance appraisal) Information systems Economics (summarising, predicting) See What is a population? What is a sample? Population: a collection of the whole of something – e.g. all female students of ANU; all people who live in Tuggeranong; all people who play the flute. Sample: a set of individuals drawn from a population e.g. the female students in STAT1008 are a sample of all female students at ANU. If we have a population…. We can get parameters – true values for things like the centre and spread of the population We know the answers – what proportion are this tall? We look at the population and get the answer. If we have a sample… We can get statistics – these are values that estimate the parameters e.g. sample centre and sample spread used to estimate population centre and population spread We have to use inference to do this estimation – what proportion are......

Words: 1184 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay


...Sampling Sampling Third Edition STEVEN K. THOMPSON Simon Fraser University A JOHN WILEY & SONS, INC., PUBLICATION Copyright © 2012 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, New Jersey. Published simultaneously in Canada. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, scanning, or otherwise, except as permitted under Section 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act, without either the prior written permission of the Publisher, or authorization through payment of the appropriate per-copy fee to the Copyright Clearance Center, Inc., 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA 01923, (978) 750-8400, fax (978) 750-4470, or on the web at Requests to the Publisher for permission should be addressed to the Permissions Department, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 111 River Street, Hoboken, NJ 07030, (201) 748-6011, fax (201) 748-6008, or online at Limit of Liability/Disclaimer of Warranty: While the publisher and author have used their best efforts in preparing this book, they make no representations or warranties with respect to the accuracy or completeness of the contents of this book and specifically disclaim any implied warranties of merchantability or fitness for a particular purpose. No warranty may be created or extended by sales representatives......

Words: 10191 - Pages: 41

Premium Essay

Hr Policies and Procedure.

...A PROJECT REPORT ON “HR POLICIES AND ITS IMPLEMENTATION” AT “HERITAGE FOODS INDIA LIMITED” PREFACE Human resource management is concerned with people element in management. Since every organization is made up of people, acquiring their services, developing their skills/ motivating to high level of performances and ensuring that they continue to maintain their commitments to the organization which are essential to achieve organizational objectives. This project is meant to know the Human Resource Policies in the organization. The HR Policies are a tool to achieve employee satisfaction and thus highly motivated employees. The main objective of various HR Policies is to increase efficiency by increasing motivation and thus fulfill organizational goals and objectives. The objective is to provide the reader with a framework of the HR Policy Manual and the various objectives that the different policies aim to achieve. The main focus was on the managerial levels of employees in HERITAGE FOODS INDIA LIMITED. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT This report is an outstanding prospect to convey my gratefulness to those many people whose timely help and guidance went a long way in finishing this project work from commencement to achievement. I would like to express my sincere thanks to Mr. Nitin V Asalkar (Sr. Manager-Human Resource and Administration) for giving me an opportunity to explore the practical knowledge practiced......

Words: 14692 - Pages: 59

Premium Essay


...Car sales 27 percent up he study will have irregular students of CFAD in all levels. All of these participants were selected through random sampling. This sampling method is conducted where each member of a population has an equal opportunity to become part of the sample. As all the participants have an equal chance of becoming a research participant, this is to be the most efficient sampling procedure. In order to conduct this sampling strategy, the researcher defines the population first, lists down all the members of the population, and then selects members to make the sample. For this purpose, a self-administered survey questionnaire is given to the respondents to answer. The irregular students assessed to answer the following questionnaire. No inclusion criteria were applied for the individual applicants; hence, all were made part of the population. However, due to time and budget constraints, the researcher opted for a smaller sample size. Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations Summary A survey will be conducted to determine the main cause of being an irregular. There has always been one initial reaction regarding this topic and this research aims to give answers to the many questions that go on concerning a position that irregular student are put into. Irregular students are oftentimes stereotyped. And as a result, they begin to stereotype. As this certain situation is being explained, other people outside the group of irregular students and irregular......

Words: 556 - Pages: 3