Sampling Process

Submitted By vicky12
Words 661
Pages 3
THE SAMPLING PROCESS
Step 1: Define the Population
A population must be defined in terms of elements, sampling units, extent and time. IN relation to these constituent parts, the population of purchasing agent is.
(element)
(sampling unit) companies and governmental agencies that have
(extent) bought any of our products
(time) in the last three years
Step 2: Specify the Sampling Frame
If a probability sample is to be taken, a sampling frame is required. A sampling frame is a means of representing the elements of the population. A sampling frame maybe a telephone book, a city directory, an employee roster, a listing of all students attending a university, or a list of all possible phone numbers.

Maps also serve frequently as sampling frames. A sample of areas within a city may be taken and another sample of households may then be taken within each area. City blocks are sometimes sampled and all households on each sample block given instructions as to how to take “random walks” from the intersection and select the households to be interviewed.

A perfect sampling frame is one in which every element of the population is represented once but only once.
Step 3: Specify Sampling Unit
The sampling unit is the basic unit containing the elements of the population to be sampled. It may be the element itself or a unit in which the element is contained. For example, if one wanted a sample of males over 13 years of age, it might be possible to sample them directly. In this case, the sampling unit would be identical with the element. However, it might be easier to select households as the sampling unit and interview all males over 13 years of age in each household. Here the sampling unit and the population element are not the same.

The sampling unit selected is often dependent upon the sampling frame. If a relatively complete and accurate...

Similar Documents

Free Essay

Qnt 561 Week 5 Sampling Process and Data Analysis

...QNT 561 WEEK 5 SAMPLING PROCESS AND DATA ANALYSIS A+ Graded Tutorial Available At: http://hwsoloutions.com/?product=qnt-561-week-5-sampling-process-and-data-analysis Visit Our website: http://hwsoloutions.com/ Product Description PRODUCT DESCRIPTION QNT 561 Week 5 Sampling Process and Data Analysis, Sampling Process and Data Analysis Surveys are a beneficial when receiving feedback on how a business is doing. When customers complete surveys it helps to identify areas of strength and also areas of growth. Currently, Harmony Grill is experiencing a decline in customers due to customer service issues. Providing customers with the opportunity to give feedback empowers them by making their thoughts heard and helps the management by using the following consumer feedback to identify customer service issues as the restaurant would like to identify key areas which it could make changes to provide better training to improve customer service for all patrons and create a better dining experience. A sample size consists of the amount of people who will be surveyed. Initially, Harmony Grill decided to use the sample process of 200 people, which consisted of 100 patrons during lunch hours, and 100 during the dinner hours. However, after careful consideration, Team A made the decision to lower the sample size in an effort to receive data based on information retrieved in a short amount of time, as the survey was administered to family and friends of team members via the......

Words: 322 - Pages: 2

Marketing

...completely related to the needs of a specific project. Qualitative research: Subjective research where the researcher will ask a customer for their opinion or thoughts. Quantitative research: Research that uses a large sample of people to gather statistical information. Sampling: Sampling is concerned with the selection of a subset of individuals from within a statistical population to estimate characteristics of the whole population. In business and medical research, sampling is widely used for gathering information about a population. Random sampling: In this technique, each member of the population has an equal chance of being selected as subject. The entire process of sampling is done in a single step with each subject selected independently of the other members of the population. Quota sampling: In quota sampling, a population is first segmented into mutually exclusive sub-groups. Then judgment is used to select the subjects or units from each segment based on a specified proportion. Quota sampling is useful when time is limited, a sampling frame is not available, the research budget is very tight or when detailed accuracy is not important. Stratified sampling: Stratification is the process of dividing members of the...

Words: 574 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Chapter

...Chapter 1: The Role of BR I. The Nature of Research A. BR defined B. Applied & basic BR C. The scientific method II. Managerial Value of BR A. Identifying problems or opportunities B. Diagnosing & assessing problems or opportunities C. Selecting & implementing a course of action D. Evaluating the course of action III. When is BR Needed? A. Time constraints B. Availability of data C. Nature of the decision D. Benefits vs costs IV. BR In The 21st Century A. Communication technologies B. Global BR Chapter 3: Theory Building I. Introduction A. What is a theory? B. What are the goals of theory? II. Research Concepts, Constructs, Proposition, Variables & Hypotheses A. Research concepts & constructs B. Research proposition & hypotheses III. Understanding Theory A. Verifying theory B. Theory building Chapter 5: The Human Side of BR: Organizational & Ethical Issue I. Introduction II. Ethical issue in BR A. Ethical qs are philosophical qs B. General rights & obligation of concerned parties C. Rights & obligation of the research participant * The obligation to be truthful * Participants’ right to privacy * Active & Passive research * Deception in research designs & the right to be informed * Experiment designs * Descriptive research * Protection from harm D. Rights & obligation of......

Words: 1429 - Pages: 6

Stat

...Tuggeranong; all people who play the flute. Sample: a set of individuals drawn from a population e.g. the female students in STAT1008 are a sample of all female students at ANU. If we have a population…. We can get parameters – true values for things like the centre and spread of the population We know the answers – what proportion are this tall? We look at the population and get the answer. If we have a sample… We can get statistics – these are values that estimate the parameters e.g. sample centre and sample spread used to estimate population centre and population spread We have to use inference to do this estimation – what proportion are this tall? Based on our sample, we would expect…. 1 So, statistical inference… The process of making an estimate, prediction or decision about a population, based on a sample. Note: populations are generally hard to study – large, awkward! So using samples is much more common Sample or Census Population: all elements sharing some set of characteristics; comprises the universe for the...

Words: 1184 - Pages: 5

Research Techniques Including Research Design

...census, less costly to administer than a census and it is possible to obtain statistical results of a sufficiently high precision based on samples. There are two types of sampling techniques, probability and non-probability sampling. Probability Sampling A probability sampling method is any method of sampling that utilizes some form of random selection. In order to have a random selection method, you must set up some process or procedure that assures that the different units in your population have equal probabilities of being chosen. Humans have long practiced various forms of random selection, such as picking a name out of a hat, or choosing the short straw. These days, we tend to use computers as the mechanism for generating random numbers as the basis for random selection. To produce our results, we combine the responses from the sample in a way which takes account of the selection probabilities. Our aim is that, if the sampling were to be repeated many times, the expected value of the results from the repeated samples would be the same as the result we would get if we surveyed the whole population. Because we know the probability of getting each sample we select, we can also calculate a sampling error for the results. The sampling error tells us the amount of variation in the results due to the sampling alone. It gives a measure of the quality of the sample design, and of the survey results. A simple random sample is a sample in which each member of the......

Words: 1150 - Pages: 5

Fundamental Analysis for Vendor Evaluation

...manufacturing companies was facing a problem with the transportation vendors such as not reliable n on time delivery so one of the leading windmill manufacturing companies approached RACE Innovation to carry forward this project on getting the best top 20 vendors throughout the country. * Therefore RACE Innovations helps one of the leading windmill manufacturing company to get the top 20 vendors using various techniques. PROCESS: The process involves two stages: * Stage1: evaluation on the broader guidelines on viability of the vendor to suit one of the leading windmill manufacturing company’s transportation requirements. * Stage2: evaluation in detail on the screened top 20, further rating them on the below evaluation criteria. METHODOLOGY * The analysis is done by using different methods of research techniques such as: * Defining the target population * Develop a sampling framework * Develop measurable targets related to sample * Identifying the sampling method as required * Determining the sample size * Implementing the sampling...

Words: 300 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Competency Mapping

...Table of Contents page no. 1. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 1-2 2. INTRODUCTION 3-7 * PHARMACEUTICAL INDUSTRY IN INDIA 4 * FACTS ABOUT INDIAN PHARMACEUTICAL COMPANY 5-6 3. COMPANY PROFILE 7-12 * HISTORY 8-9 * VALUES, VIEW AND POSITION 10 * RESPONSIBILITY 11 * DISCOVERY AND DEVELOPMENT 12 4. COMPENETCY MAP 13-18 5. HUMAN RESOURCE DEPARTEMENT 19 ...

Words: 8260 - Pages: 34

Free Essay

Ch.4 Review

...Chapter 4 Review Question 1 The process of stating the basic dilemma and then developing other questions by progressively breaking down the original question into more specific ones is called the _____. research question management-research-question hierarchy management dilemma management question investigative question Question 2 Which of the following statements is false regarding the evaluation of alternatives? The selection of alternatives is determined by the decision variable chosen and the decision rule used Each alternative must be explicitly stated A decision variable is defined by an outcome that may be measured A decision rule is determined by which outcomes may be compared all of the above are true Question 3 Apple plans to survey every customer who has purchased an Apple computer in the last 5 years. Apple plans to use a _____. convenience sample snowball sample systematic sample census random sample Question 4 Ensuring consistency among respondents, locating omissions, and reducing errors in recording are all benefits of data collection data editing sampling coding data analysis Question 5 Reducing data to a manageable size, developing summaries, and applying statistical techniques are all aspects of sampling data collection pilot testing data analysis data transformation Question 6 A synopsis of the problem, findings, and recommendations are provided in the ____ section of a research report. executive......

Words: 332 - Pages: 2

Preparing to Conduct Business Research: Part 4

...Kathy Santiago University of Phoenix Business Research RES/351 Philip Ingraham January 3, 2013 Introduction This paper will address the following questions as it pertains to data analysis approach and quantitative and qualitative result reporting for BP. “How will you have access to the population to be sampled or interviewed? What are the instruments you will use to collect data or qualitative information? What is the appropriate sampling method? What sampling frame will be used? What is the appropriate sampling size? How will the sample size be determined? Which qualitative methods will be used and why? Which statistical tests will be used and why? How will the results and insights be displayed? What conclusions should be made if the hypothesis is found to be correct or if it is incorrect?” (University of Phoenix, 2014) The paper will also “discuss the timing and resources required to conduct this research effort and how you will use the insights developed from the study to influence an improvement in the business process or attempt further research”. (University of Phoenix, 2014) Access to the Population BP has access to a large population. With the thousands of employees to the hundreds of franchise owners, BP will be able to conduct a wide variety of surveys, interviews, and focus groups. The participants will have the benefits of the study explained to them, have their rights and protections explained to them, and the conductors of the research......

Words: 1203 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

Communication Technology

...Facilitators/Tutors and Tutorials Summary . . . . INTRODUCTION Data collection methodology is a two credit unit first semester course available to first semester course available to students of Bachelor of Education (B.Ed) Library and Information science. 4 Research involves data collection, any discipline of the social sciences, education and even the sciences needs a sound knowledge of research; how to conduct research, ethics of research and generally to write a report or design a study. The use and importance of research cannot be overemphasized. All students undergoing any form of degree programme is required to write a project, thesis or dissertation. This course offers a complete guide to such write ups including statistical techniques in sampling measurements and ethics of research. What you will learn in this course The course consist of units and a course guide which informs you briefly...

Words: 19411 - Pages: 78

Research

...Module 1 The Research Process * Is a scholarly activity aimed at finding new truths about a specific discipline basically designed to find solution to a problem. * Done in various fields of studies. * May be done in natural sciences like Biology, Chemistry and Physics. And in the field of social sciences such as Sociology, Psychology, Education, Anthropology, Industry and the like. Definitions of Research * a systematic patient study and investigation in some field of knowledge undertaken to discover or establish facts or principles (Webster’s New World Dictionary, 1994) * a systematic investigation in order to establish facts and new conclusions (Oxford, 1996) Definitions of Research * a systematic and objective analysis and recording of controlled observations that may lead to the development of generalizations, principles or theories resulting in prediction and possibly ultimate control of events (Best & Kahn, 1998) * purposive, systematic and scientific process of gathering, analyzing, classifying, organizing, presenting and interpreting data for the solution of a problem, for prediction, for invention, for the discovery of truth, or for the expansion or verification of existing knowledge, all for the preservation and improvement of the quality of life (Calderon, 2000) * a process of systematically examining and explaining the observables. It seeks to generate answers to questions but it also generates further questions for study....

Words: 7848 - Pages: 32

Free Essay

Critical Behavior in Research

...critical behavior in research analysis will analyze an ethical issue raised in the article, The Causal Generalization Paradox: The Case of Treatment Outcome Research, written by Graham L. Staines. The article by Staines discusses the causal generalization paradox. The ethical issue at the heart of the article is the use of improper sampling procedures. With the vast amount of research taking place and random assignment techniques, less of a priority is being placed upon random sampling. According to Staines,2008 experimental research typically selects units, in part or in whole, at the convenience of the researcher. The researcher then makes no attempt, or often times only a limited attempt, to ensure that this sample is an accurate representation of some larger group or population. This form of convenience sampling is an ethical issue simply because experimental data based upon the use of “convenience samples rather than probability based samples, there is almost never a formal justification, or set of rigorous guidelines, for generalizing the study’s findings to other populations” (Staines, 2008). The generalization paradox and improper sampling procedures may often cause...

Words: 778 - Pages: 4

Understanding Business Research Terms and Concepts: Part 2

...methodologies usually measure consumer behavior, knowledge, opinions, or attitudes. Such methodologies answer questions related to how much, how often, how many, when, and who” (Cooper & Schindler, 2014), one main quantitative data collection instrument is survey which is considered a major among other ones because it throws exact measures of opinions and consumer behavior. The nature of sampling is “that by selecting some of the elements in a population, we may draw conclusions about the entire population” (Cooper & Schindler, 2014). Some examples of sampling methods available to researchers include: “Purposive sampling where Researchers choose participants arbitrarily for their unique characteristics or their experiences, attitudes, or perceptions; as conceptual or theoretical categories of participants develop during the interviewing process, researchers seek new participants to challenge emerging patterns, Snowball sampling where Participants refer researchers to others who have characteristics, experiences, or attitudes similar to or different from their own and finally Convenience sampling where Researchers select any readily available individuals as participants. Descriptive statistical methods are used to “display characteristics of the location, spread, and shape of a data array, it attempts to describe or define a subject ,often by creating a profile of a group of problems, people, or events, through the collection of data and the tabulation of the......

Words: 1115 - Pages: 5

Methodology

...Research Methodology Report for the Modular Grants Application Process Outcome Evaluation Study 1. Introduction This report describes the research methodology used for the Modular Grants Application Process Outcome Study. More specifically, this paper is divided into three sections that describe the sampling, data collection, and response rates for the five stakeholder groups involved in the outcome study. The five stakeholder groups are: 1) principal investigators, 2) peer reviewers, 3) NIH scientific review administrators, 4) NIH program and grants management staff, and institutional officials. The first section includes information on the size and origin of the sampling frames (population files), the sample sizes, sampling methods, and margins of error (confidence intervals) around the population estimates. The second section describes the data collection procedures and the last section provides the study response rates and calculations. 2. Sampling 1. Population The size and origin of each of the sampling frames, or population files, is described in detail below. 1. Principal Investigators In March 2004, NIH provided Westat with a population file that consisted of all people who had applied for a modular grant since its inception in June 1999. The population file contained a flag indicating whether or not the individual had ever been awarded a modular grant. The file also contained the principal investigators’ mailing address, telephone......

Words: 2627 - Pages: 11

Free Essay

Lunary Review

...ends with facts. | Concepts or Constructs | Abstract terms people use to describe reality. People may share general definitions or understandings of a concept, but because they are abstract, the specific interpretation of these concepts among many people may differ. An abstraction. Cannot be measured directly. | Dimensions | A theoretical term used to describe clusters of concepts that together represent a broader, more complex concept. | Conceptual Definition | Is the working or “dictionary type” definition a researcher uses for a concept. It tends to be nonspecific | Operational Definition | Is used to define something (e.g. a variable, term, or object) in terms of a process (or set of validation tests) needed to determine its existence, duration, and quantity. | Measurement | The process of observing concepts, as indicated by their operational definitions, and assigning some type of score or meaning to responses. | Nominal Measure | Low level of measurement, answer choices are exhaustive as well as mutually exclusive. (Exhaustive means there is an answer choice for everyone, and mutually exclusive means the participant selects one and only one choice unless otherwise instructed). Associating a name with something. No ordering or rank, just a name. (e.g., numbers...

Words: 5023 - Pages: 21