Free Essay

Saqib

In: English and Literature

Submitted By saqibkhan
Words 17977
Pages 72
500 IELTS Vocabulary (AWL,HK Univ.) 1
By examword.com
The IELTS test AWL(Academic Word List) was rooted from a popular webpage of HONG KONG Univ. We re-organize it with new definitions and examples. In addition original Chinese explanation, more local language explanations are appended to help ESL people. This list is a proven short-cut to pass IELTS exam when your preparation is in a very narrow timeframe.

abandon:
/ə'bændən/ n. Syn. relinquish lacking restraint or control; feeling of extreme emotional intensity; unbounded enthusiasm
With her parents out of town, Kelly danced all night with abandon.

abstract:
/'æbstrækt/ a. Syn. theoretical; abstruse theoretical; not concrete; not applied or practical; difficult to understand
To him, hunger was an abstract concept; he had never missed a meal.

academy:
/ə'kædəmɪ/ n. school for special instruction; society of scholars, scientists, or artists
The mission of our academy is actually to ensure the health and the well-being of all children.

access:
/'æksɛs/ n. Syn. approach approach; entry; entrance
It remains to be seen whether the multinationals like Chevron, Exxon Mobil, and BP will give in to Mr Chavez's brinksmanship as they know he needs them as much as they need access to his oil.

accommodate:
/ə'kɒmədeɪt/ v. Syn. adapt; oblige do a favor or service for; provide for; supply with; make suitable; adapt; allow for
As for the stage in the public auditorium, it can easily be adjusted to accommodate from a full-scale musical production to one by a solo vocalist.

accompany:
/ə'kʌmpənɪ/ v. travel with; be associated with
But the night being wet and inclement, Mr. Rochester did not accompany them.

accumulate:
/ə'kju:mjʊleɪt/ v. Syn. collect pile up; collect; mount up; increase
The tendency of Capital to accumulate is a big threat to the free market.

accurate:
/'ækjʊrət/ a. Syn. precise; correct capable of providing a correct reading or measurement; performing with care and precision
Very Interesting, can anyone tell me, how accurate is the English translation in the posted clip?

achieve:
/ə'tʃi:v/ v. Syn. accomplish; fulfill gain with effort; accomplish; fulfill
Water, energy, health, agriculture, and biodiversity, require the world's scientific community to come up with the means to achieve sustainable development.

acknowledge:
/ək'nɒlɪdʒ/ v. Syn. recognize; admit declare to be true or admit; express obligation, thanks
Although I acknowledge that the Beatles' tunes sound pretty dated today, I still prefer them to the songs my brothers play.

acquire:
/ə'kwaɪə(r)/ v. Syn. obtain; gain gain through experience or effort; gain possession of; locate with tracking system
As Norman Mailer once said to me, "One of the hardest things to acquire is a persona, and you've got one."

adapt:
/ə'dæpt/ v. Syn. alter; modify make fit for; change to suit a new purpose
One way to adapt is to become smaller, generation by generation.

adequate:
/'ædɪkwət/ a. Syn. sufficient; enough sufficient; enough to meet a purpose
England missed key players through injury, lacked adequate preparation and was unable to match Australia's skill.

adjacent:
/ə'dʒeɪsənt/ a. Syn. adjoining; neighboring adjoining; neighboring; close to; lying near
Philip's best friend Jason lived only four houses down the block, close but not immediately adjacent.

adjust:
/ə'dʒʌst/ v. Syn. adapt; regulate adapt; regulate
The opera house was handed over by the builders nearly a year ago, but it's taken many months to install new stage machinery and to adjust the acoustics.

administrate:
/əd'mɪnɪstreɪt/ v. administer; supply
Remember that Democrats want to increase spending and create more laws which in turn create more government to administrate and enforce.

adult:
/'ædʌlt/ n. one who has attained maturity or legal age; fully grown
Not clear from the video if the adult is a man or woman, but he or she is facing charges of endangering the welfare of a child.

advocate:
/'ædvəkət/ v. Syn. urge; support speak, plead, or argue in favour of; plead for; push for something
The some doctors advocate a smoking ban in the entire house.

affect:
/ə'fɛkt/ v. have an emotional or cognitive impact upon
The move is likely to affect women and girls all over the world as international brands such as Mango and Zara have signed up to the agreement.

aggregate:
/'ægrɪgət/ v. Syn. gather; accumulate gather into a mass, sum, or whole; amount to
Before the Wall Street scandals, dealers managed to aggregate great wealth in short periods of time.

aid:
/eɪd/ n. person or thing that promotes or helps in something done; helper; assistant
The company has also asked for an additional 3.50 billion dollars in aid from the government.

albeit:
/ɔ:l'bi:ɪt/ ad. even though; although; notwithstanding
This question bothers me, albeit from a different perspective.

allocate:
/'æləkeɪt/ v. Syn. assign assign; distribute according to plan
Even though the Red Cross did allocate a large sum for the relief of the sufferers of the disaster, many people perished.

alter:
/'ɔ:ltə(r)/ v. Syn. modify; change; convert modify; cause to change; make different; convert
In public neither Mr. Blair's visit nor the regional summit in Nepal has done anything to alter India's position on dialogue with Pakistan.

alternative:
/ɔ:l'tɜrnətɪv/ a. one of two or more things, ideas or courses of action that may be used; option; choice
Electron Instruments believed its desktop SEM was vastly superior to the next best alternative from a Japanese competitor.

ambiguous:
/æm'bɪgjʊəs/ a. unclear or doubtful in meaning
His ambiguous instructions misled us; we did not know which road to take.

amend:
/ə'mɛnd/ v. Syn. correct; improve change for the better; improve; remove faults or errors
Would McCain amend executive orders to ensure that communications between persons outside government and White House staff are disclosed to the public?

analogy:
/ə'nælədʒɪ/ n. Syn. similarity; parallelism similarity in some respects; comparison based on similarity
This analogy is almost always noted without further comment, although in fact it may be taken further.

analyse:
/'ænəlaɪz/ v. resolve anything complex into its elements; separate into parts for purpose of examination of each separately
Better, in my opinion, to acknowledge a particular usage, investigate and analyse it if so inclined, and move on.

analysis:
/ə'næləsɪs/ n. Syn. study; investigation study; investigation; process of breaking down a substance into its constituent parts
You can read more about those studies here, and my analysis is here.

annual:
/'ænjʊəl/ a. occurring or payable every year
It says that the Queen's role in the annual state opening of parliament should be changed.

anticipate:
/æn'tɪsɪpeɪt/ v. Syn. expect; predict act in advance of; deal with ahead of time; predict
Nature seemed to me benign and good; I thought she loved me, outcast as I was; and I, who from man could anticipate only mistrust, rejection, insult, clung to her with filial fondness.

apparent:
/ə'pærənt/ a. Syn. visible capable of being seen, or easily seen; open to view; visible to eye
It was apparent to all that he was guilty.

append:
/ə'pɛnd/ v. Syn. attach attach; add as supplement or appendix
When you append a bibliography to a text, you have just created an supplementary material.

appreciate:
/ə'pri:ʃɪeɪt/ v. Syn. admire; value be thankful for; increase in worth; be thoroughly conscious of
I am truly thankful for the stocks, which would appreciate in value considerably in future years.

approach:
/ə'proʊtʃ/ n. Syn. access; method access; method
Faced with an increasingly competitive jobs market and frequent bad publicity over pay and conditions, the army is getting ever more sophisticated and corporate in its approach to recruitment.

appropriate:
/ə'proʊprɪət/ v. Syn. acquire; allocate acquire; take possession of for one's own use; set apart for specific use
The ranch owners appropriate the lands that have originally been set aside for the Indians' use.

approximate:
/ə'prɒksɪmət/ v. Syn. approach approach; come near
The conclusions of yours both approximate to the truth.

arbitrary:
/'ɑrbɪtrərɪ/;/'ɑrrbɪtrɛrɪ/ a. Syn. capricious; impulse randomly chosen; determined by chance or impulse, and not by reason or principle
He threw an arbitrary assortment of clothes into his suitcase and headed off, not caring where he went.

area:
/'ɛərɪə/ n. plane surface, as of the floor of a room; open space in a building; the enclosed space; extent; scope; range
His special interest lies in the area of literature.

aspect:
/'æspɛkt/ n. Syn. respect; facet distinct feature or element in a problem; a way in which something can be viewed by the mind
And I guess as his coming back, the education aspect is more on display than the others.

assemble:
/ə'sɛmb(ə)l/ v. Syn. gather put together; bring or call together into a group or whole
Washington announced its decision to dissolve the core group of nations, the US, India, Japan and Australia, it would assemble to deliver aid.

assess:
/ə'sɛs/ v. Syn. estimate; judge estimate value; judge worth of something
They say that they lack both the money and the resources to deploy officials across the country to assess the safety of each and every ferry.

assign:
/ə'saɪn/ v. Syn. appoint; allot appoint; allot; make over; point out authoritatively or exactly
Never underrate the difficulties which your pupils will have to encounter, or try to persuade them that what you assign is easy.

assist:
/ə'sɪst/ v. Syn. help give help or support to, especially as a subordinate
A good way to assist is to bring entrepreneurial and business skills to them.

assume:
/ə'sju:m/;/ə'su:m/ v. Syn. suppose; presume suppose; presume; take on; bear
He looked at me long and hard: I turned my eyes from him, fixed them on the fire, and tried to assume and maintain a quiet.

assure:
/ə'ʃʊə(r)/;/ə'ʃʊər/ v. Syn. solidify; guarantee; convince solidify; guarantee; convince
I know it, and I don't wish to palliate them, I assure you.

attach:
/ə'tætʃ/ v. Syn. fasten; annex fasten; annex; be in contact with
The anti-nuclear campaigners used concrete blocks and chains to attach themselves to the rails.

attain:
/ə'teɪn/ v. Syn. gain achieve or accomplish; gain
The scarecrow sought to attain one goal: he wished to obtain a brain.

attitude:
/'ætɪtju:d/;/'ætɪtud/ n. posture, action, or disposition of a figure or a statue
One of the major reasons for this change in attitude is that there's more money around.

attribute:
/ə'trɪbju:t/ n. Syn. trait essential quality; reputation; honor
His outstanding attribute was his kindness.

author:
/'ɔ:θə(r)/ n. beginner, former, or first mover of anything; creator; originator; one who composes or writes book or composer
The mayor of the village, in delivering the prize to the author of it, made a warm speech in which he said that it was by far the most "eloquent" thing he had ever listened to.

authority:
/ɔ:'θɒrɪtɪ/ n. Syn. jurisdiction; power jurisdiction; power to enforce laws, exact obedience, command, determine, or judge; government
The laws will reinforce Australia's authority to turn boats away from Australia.

automate:
/'ɔ:təmeɪt/ v. control or operate by automation; replace or enhance human labor with machines
Applications come in every shape and form to automate tasks on the computer.

available:
/ə'veɪləb(ə)l/ a. Syn. free convenient for use or disposal; not busy, free; obtainable; accessible
Vaccines are available but are costly and only offer relatively short-term protection so the animals need regular booster vaccinations.

aware:
/ə'wɛə(r)/ a. knowing; having knowledge or cognizance
BPA, as you're likely aware, is a chemical commonly found in plastics, food cans, and water bottles.

behalf:
/bɪ'hɑrf/ n. Syn. represent represent; advantage, benefit, interest of someone
And I'm going to work to assure that that voice that is heard on their behalf is a roar and not a whisper.

benefit:
/'bɛnɪfɪt/ n. Syn. welfare; gain advantage; something that aids or promotes well-being ; welfare; gain
Another benefit for business is the elimination of currency risk in the Euro area - the possibility that you might lose money in cross border trade because of exchange rate movements.

bias:
/'baɪəs/ n. Syn. prejudice; preference preference or inclination, especially one that inhibits impartial judgment; influence in unfair way
Now that I can daily watch their news reports on Star Choice, I can tell you that the bias is as deep there as anywhere.

bond:
/bɒnd/ n. Syn. link; tie; connection link; connection; uniting force or tie; binding agreement; duty
Last year, the average short-term bond fund gained about 9%, according to Morningstar.

brief:
/bri:f/ a. short in time, duration, length, or extent; concise
When my brief career as a pop star ended, I found I had done fairly well.

bulk:
/bʌlk/ n. Syn. majority; mass majority; main part; volume; mass
Canada's largest bulk food retailer, it has more than 112 stores.

capable:
/'keɪpəb(ə)l/ a. Syn. competent having the ability required for a specific task
Canadian politicians have been in capable of ending this primitive practice.

capacity:
/kə'pæsɪtɪ/ n. Syn. volume; ability; capability mental or physical ability; ability to accommodate
Mike had the capacity to handle several jobs at once.

category:
/'kætɪgərɪ/ n. Syn. group group; class; collection of things sharing a common attribute
Remember, all cars are priced, booked and controlled by car category, not by car maker or model.

cease:
/si:s/ v. Syn. stop; terminate stop; terminate; put an end to; discontinue
We must not only cease from the acts of sin, but we must get the vicious habits and inclinations weakened and destroyed.

challenge:
/'tʃælɪndʒ/ v. assert a right; raise a formal objection; take exception to
Nowadays no one will challenge the fact that the earth is round.

channel:
/'tʃæn(ə)l/ n. passage for water or other fluids to flow through; bed of a stream or river; route of communication or access
You should take her request through official channel, there is no private room for her issue.

chapter:
/'tʃæptə(r)/ n. division of a book or treatise; assembly of monks; bishop's council; organized branch of some society
A new chapter in a novel is something like a new scene in a play.

chart:
/tʃɑrt/ n. Syn. graph; diagram graph; diagram; map showing coastlines, water depths, or other information of use to navigators
A fisherman's chart may be the crucial evidence which finally help to put to rest the mystery of what happened to Roald Amundsen.

circumstance:
/'sɜrkəmstəns/ n. Syn. situation; condition situation; condition; detail accompanying or surrounding an event
Her heart is broken, but then a change in circumstance forces them to be together every day.

cite:
/saɪt/ v. Syn. quote quote; adduce as an instance
She could cite passages in the Bible from memory.

civil:
/'sɪv(ə)l/ a. Syn. civic having to do with citizens or the state; courteous and polite
Although Internal Revenue Service agents are civil servants, they are not always courteous to suspected tax cheats.

clarify:
/'klærɪfaɪ/ v. Syn. illuminate; elucidate make clear and comprehensible; elucidate
A Japanese delegation has started talks in North Korea to try to clarify the fate of at least ten Japanese citizens who were abducted by the communist state.

classic:
/'klæsɪk/ n. work of acknowledged excellence and authority, or its author; creation of the highest excellence
His face was like a Greek face, very pure in outline: quite a straight, classic nose; quite an Athenian mouth and chin.

clause:
/klɔ:z/ n. Syn. sentence; phrase sentence; phrase; distinct article, stipulation, or provision in a document
Congress insisted on an exclusion clause for seventeen-year-olds.

code:
/koʊd/ n. body of law; system of rules or regulations relating to one subject; system of symbols, letters, or words
Do you know the postal code of this postal district?

coherent:
/koʊ'hɪərənt/ a. Syn. adhesive; cohesive adhesive; cohesive; sticking together ; logical; sound; capable of thinking and expressing yourself in a clear and consistent manner
If the EU is to form any kind of coherent common foreign policy, it needs France and Britain singing from the same song sheet.

coincide:
/koʊɪn'saɪd/ v. Syn. correspond occur at the same time as; correspond
To coincide with World AIDS Day, the World Health Organization and UN AIDS are launching a campaign to treat three million HIV sufferers by the year 2005.

collapse:
/kə'læps/ v. breakdown; failure
The streets of Baghdad are littered with putrefying mounds of rubbish that have been accumulating since the collapse of municipal services in March, with the arrival of coalition forces.

colleague:
/'kɒli:g/ n. Syn. associate fellow worker; associate; co-worker
The abduction of the Italians, along with one Iraqi colleague, was claimed by several organizations.

commence:
/kə'mɛns/ v. Syn. originate; start; begin have a beginning or origin; originate; start; begin
Mrs. Fairfax swallowed her breakfast and hastened away to commence operations.

comment:
/'kɒmɛnt/ v. Syn. remark; judgment express an opinion; remark
She refused to comment about David Beckham's eye injury.

commission:
/kə'mɪʃ(ə)n/ n. fee for services; group of people appointed to find out about something; authorize
China has hit back, its foreign ministry urging the Congressional commission to wipe out its prejudice, respect the truth.

commit:
/kə'mɪt/ v. do something that cannot be changed; cause to be admitted
And small bands of extremists may again commit heinous crimes in the name of faith.

commodity:
/kə'mɒdɪtɪ/ n. Syn. goods goods; article of trade; advantage; benefit.
While some world stock and commodity markets show signs of calming down, China is usually an exception.

communicate:
/kə'mju:nɪkeɪt/ v. Syn. convey; inform; correspond send information about; make known; impart; reveal clearly
Well, it came to me that the best way to communicate is to have direct, personal contact with people.

community:
/kə'mju:nɪtɪ/ n. Syn. society; district society; a group of people living in the same locality and under the same government
Where governments manage public life, human freedom in community is compromised.

compatible:
/kəm'pætɪb(ə)l/ a. Syn. harmonious harmonious; having similar disposition and tastes
They were compatible neighbors, never quarreling over unimportant matters.

compensate:
/'kɒmpɛnseɪt/ v. Syn. make up; reimburse make amends for; reimburse
He said improved trade would compensate for the jobs lost to competition from India's world beating out-sourcing and computer software industries.

compile:
/kəm'paɪl/ v. Syn. assemble; gather; accumulate put together or compose from materials gathered from several sources
We planned to compile a list of the words most frequently used on these examinations.

complement:
/'kɒmpləmənt/ v. Syn. complete; consummate complete; consummate; make perfect
The waiter recommended a glass of port to complement the cheese.

complex:
/'kɒmplɛks/ a. Syn. intricate; compound complicated in structure; a whole structure, as a building, made up of interconnected or related structures
Prescott's speech comes as ministers from around the world struggle to overcome complex arguments about how the Kyoto agreement on cutting greenhouse gas emissions should work.

component:
/kəm'poʊnənt/ n. Syn. element; ingredient element; ingredient; abstract part of something
I wish this component like all others of my stereo system is working at the same time.

compound:
/kɒm'paʊnd/ v. Syn. combine; constitute combine; mix; constitute; pay interest; increase
The makers compound the ingredients by design.

comprehensive:
/kɒmprɪ'hɛnsɪv/ a. Syn. thorough; inclusive thorough; including all or everything; broad in scope
Mr. Skubel has since completed what he describes as a comprehensive two-week training program and is now setting up his franchise in his hometown.

comprise:
/kəm'praɪz/ v. Syn. include include; consist of; be composed of
If the District of Columbia were to be granted statehood, the United States of America would comprise fifty-one states, not just fifty.

compute:
/kəm'pju:t/ v. Syn. reckon; calculate reckon; make mathematical calculation
He failed to compute the interest, so his bank balance was not accurate.

conceive:
/kən'si:v/ v. Syn. design; consider form or develop in the mind; devise; become pregnant with; begin or originate in a specific way
I asked was it a mere nervous impression--a delusion? I could not conceive or believe: it was more like an inspiration.

concentrate:
/'kɒnsəntreɪt/ v. bring to or direct toward a common center; unite more closely; gather into one body
I was now able to concentrate my attention on the group by the fire.

confine:
/kən'faɪn/ v. Syn. limit; circumscribe restrict in movement; circumscribe
You may take the maniac with you to England; confine her with due attendance and precautions at Thornfield.

confirm:
/kən'fɜrm/ v. Syn. verify; corroborate support or establish the certainty or validity of; verify
In the aftermath of Saturday's mass poisoning, the authorities imposed a virtual news blackout, refusing even to confirm how many people had died.

conflict:
/'kɒnflɪkt/ n. Syn. fight; struggle fight; struggle; incompatibility of dates or events
Malnutrition rates have now been cut by half since the start of the conflict, according to the United Nations.

conform:
/kən'fɔ:m/ v. comply with; follow; fit; meet
Why, in defiance of every precept and principle of this house, does she conform to the world so openly--here in an evangelical, charitable establishment--as to wear her hair one mass of curls?

consent:
/kən'sɛnt/ v. Syn. accord; concur; allow agree in opinion or sentiment; be of the same mind; accord; concur; allow
"And will you consent to dispense with a great many conventional forms and phrases, without thinking that the omission arises from insolence?"

consequent:
/'kɒnsɪkwənt/ a. Syn. resulting resulting; following as a logical conclusion
His retirement and consequent spare time enabled him to travel more.

considerable:
/kən'sɪdərəb(ə)l/ a. Syn. significant worthy of consideration; large in amount, extent, or degree
The Tigers are insisting on an interim administration for the north east of the island, giving them considerable powers.

consist:
/kən'sɪst/ v. stand firm; be in a fixed or permanent state; be supported and maintained
If his notions of hidden treasure had been analyzed, they would have been found to consist of a handful of real dimes and a bushel of vague, splendid, ungraspable dollars.

constant:
/'kɒnstənt/ a. Syn. invariable; repeating invariable; repeating; continually occurring; persistent
Yemen's state news agency says the president visited the three wounded officials at the Saudi hospital, and expressed happiness about constant progress in their health.

constitute:
/'kɒnstɪtju:t/ v. Syn. form make up; form something
"I never did see the beat of that boy!" She went to the open door and stood in it and looked out among the tomato vines that would constitute the garden.

constrain:
/kən'streɪn/ v. Syn. restrain; confine restrain; keep within close bounds; confine
His idea is to constrain commercial banks' lending.

construct:
/kən'strʌkt/ v. Syn. erect; build form by assembling or combining parts; build; create
After all, perhaps there were different ways to construct machines that would have different properties.

consult:
/kən'sʌlt/ v. seek advice or information of; take into account; consider
I will consult with our friends, but it's going to be what's in the interests of our country first and foremost.

consume:
/kən'sju:m/;/kən'su:m/ v. Syn. devour; eat devour; eat
It is particularly an issue for those that have made large strides in industrial development, the sector of the economy that tends to consume the most energy.

contact:
/'kɒntækt/ v. get in touch with; reach
But Britney, 21, says he called her at two of her homes, and even tried to contact her at her parents' house.

contemporary:
/kən'tɛmpərərɪ/;/kən'tɛmpərɛrɪ/ a. modern; belonging to the same period of time
The Danes have now taken the top drama award at the Emmys for three out of the past four years with contemporary drama set in Denmark.

context:
/'kɒntɛkst/ n. Syn. circumstance; setting circumstance Last week the Italian Prime Minister apologized to parliament in Rome for his alleged remarks about the superiority of western culture over that of Islam, claiming his words had been taken out of context.

contract:
/'kɒntrækt/ v. Syn. shrink; constrict constrict; make smaller; compress or concentrate
The heat will contract the woollen garment.

contradict:
/kɒntrə'dɪkt/ v. Syn. confront; oppose confront; oppose
Now act as you please: write and contradict my assertion--expose my falsehood as soon as you like.

contrary:
/'kɒntrərɪ/;/'kɒntrɛrɪ/ a. Syn. opposite relation of direct opposition; very opposed in nature or character or purpose
Our boat took a course contrary to theirs.

contrast:
/'kɒntrɑrst/;/'kɒntræst/ n. act of distinguishing by comparing differences
In contrast, the Prime Minister's aides are preparing his defense, saying that at the time, the entire cabinet backed the move to war, and that he's willing to implement all the committee's recommendations.

contribute:
/kən'trɪbju:t/ v. provide; bestow a quality on
Throughout the developed world, many companies provide a fund, which they and their staff contribute to, which is then invested in shares, bonds and other assets.

controversy:
/'kɒntrəvɜrsɪ/ n. Syn. contention; argument contentious speech act; argument
Information minister Jerry Gana released a statement in which he says there has been an international media conspiracy against Nigeria, to highlight the controversy surrounding the beauty pageant and fanning the flames of violence.

convene:
/kən'vi:n/ v. Syn. assemble cause to come together formally
Six days 'public notice must be given when announcing HTA meeting schedules, meaning the earliest the board can next convene is July 24.

converse:
/kən'vɜrs/ v. Syn. chat chat; talk informally; engage in a spoken exchange of thoughts
Eva is all ears while Lulu and Lola converse.

convert:
/kən'vɜrt/ n. Syn. transform change something into another form; transform
However, he suggests that this only be done if the convert is also willingly accepted into his position by the community.

convince:
/kən'vɪns/ v. overpower; force to yield assent to truth; satisfy by proof; prove guilty
Your argument is too weak to convince me; we need more evidence.

cooperate:
/koʊ'ɒpəreɪt/ v. Syn. collaborate work or act together toward a common end or purpose
The best way to get Pakistan to cooperate is to find the reasons why it is so keen to retain influence in Afghanistan and try to meet its concerns.

coordinate:
/koʊ'ɔ:dɪneɪt/ v. Syn. integrate; harmonize bring order and organization to; harmonize
The second way of specifying star positions is the equatorial coordinate system.

core:
/kɔ:(r)/ n. Syn. center; essence basic, center, or most important part; essence
But at the core is a story about two men who can't let go of the sense that they are dreaming their way through what might be an ultimately meaningless life.

corporate:
/'kɔ:pərət/ a. united or combined into one body; collective; belonging to corporation or incorporated body
The demonstrators inspired thousands of allies to take to the streets to protest economic inequality and corporate greed.

correspond:
/kɒrɪ'spɒnd/;/kɔ:rə'spɒnd/ v. be compatible, similar or consistent; exchange messages
My Russian pen pal and I correspond for several years.

couple:
/'kʌp(ə)l/ n. Syn. pair a male and female associated together; a pair who associate with one another
He catched amarried couple from Chicago.

create:
/kri:'eɪt/ v. make or cause to be or to become; invest with a new thing
He plans to create a new company next year.

credit:
/'krɛdɪt/ n. Syn. reputation; prestige arrangement for deferred payment for goods and services; money available for a client to borrow
The proposed treaty would give credit to peasant farmers who developed the crops in the first place.

criteria:
/kraɪ'tɪərə/ n. standard, rule, or test on which a judgment or decision can be based
This spring, the health department established a set of criteria for such clinics, including an offer of primary-care appointments within 24 hours of first contact.

crucial:
/'kru:ʃ(ə)l/ a. of extreme importance; vital to the resolution of a crisis; of the greatest importance
The meeting of today is the crucial moment in his career.

culture:
/'kʌltʃə(r)/ n. Syn. civilization all the knowledge and values shared by a society ; foster; raising of plants or animals
Last week the Italian Prime Minister apologised to parliament in Rome for his alleged remarks about the superiority of western culture over that of Islam, claiming his words had been taken out of context.

currency:
/'kʌrənsɪ/ n. Syn. money money; general acceptance or use
It now ranks along with oil and tourism as Mexico's biggest foreign currency earner.

cycle:
/'saɪk(ə)l/ n. periodically repeated sequence of events; long period of time; entire round in a circle or a spire
Do they not understand that the spin cycle is an important part of the washing machine?

data:
/'deɪtə, 'dɑrtə/;/'dætə/ n. collection of facts, observations, or other information related to a particular question or problem
Now that data is required from around the world, the IEA must obtain them from a wide variety of sources.

debate:
/dɪ'beɪt/ n. Syn. argument discussion; dispute; discussion involving opposing points
Robert Potts, who recently retired as chancellor at Arkansas State University, witnessed the nickname debate in two states.

decade:
/'dɛkeɪd/ n. a group or division of ten, especially a period of ten years
Only very, very rarely does someone so far out of the political swim as Jerry Brown, who last held political office almost a decade ago, manage to win the presidential nomination of a major party.

decline:
/dɪ'klaɪn/ n. Syn. deterioration; decay change toward something smaller or lower ; gradual falling off from a better state
Dustan has a record of switching sides when convenient, and there are many Taliban supporters who would do likewise if the fortunes of the puritan militia are on the decline.

deduce:
/dɪ'dju:s/ v. lead forth; reach a conclusion by reasoning; trace the origin or derivation of
Our investor and our employee deduce from the figures that the report shows that the Company handled a lot of money during the year, and made a bigger profit than ever before.

define:
/dɪ'faɪn/ v. determine the nature of; give a definition; describe the nature or basic qualities of; explain
That argument may define the political parties and help shape the 2012 elections.

definite:
/'dɛfɪnɪt/ a. Syn. fixed; exact fixed; exact; having distinct limits
He introduced the closed circuit of oscillation into wireless telegraphy, and was one of the first to send electric waves in definite directions.

demonstrate:
/'dɛmənstreɪt/ v. Syn. show; confirm; prove; manifest show clearly and deliberately; manifest; confirm; prove
After a series of drug scandals, this was Major League Baseball's chance to demonstrate its determination to crack down on the cheats.

denote:
/dɪ'noʊt/ v. Syn. signify; indicate; show indicate; signify directly; refer to specifically
The word “sex” is simply that—a word to denote whether a person is male or female.

deny:
/dɪ'naɪ/ v. Syn. disagree; disavow disagree with; refuse; declare untrue
What I do deny is that we have been inconsistent with respect to our view of the Constitution

depress:
/dɪ'prɛs/ v. Syn. lower lower in spirits; press down
There are hopes that this could help to revive the internet and technology sector which has shown to depress since the dotcom crash of 2000.

derive:
/dɪ'raɪv/ v. Syn. obtain; extract obtain or receive from a source; trace the origin or development of
For I knew Diana and Mary would derive more pleasure from seeing again the old homely tables than from the spectacle of the smartest innovations.

design:
/dɪ'zaɪn/ n. Syn. devise act of working out the form of something; creation of something in the mind; formulate a plan for
He is hired to design a marketing strategy for the new product.

despite:
/dɪ'spaɪt/ n. lack of respect accompanied by a feeling of intense dislike; disdain, contemptuous feelings, hatred
He didn't hide his despite in the party because he believed the host cheated.

detect:
/dɪ'tɛkt/ v. Syn. feel; discover the presence of; discern; sense; identify feel; discover the presence of; identify
They won't detect prescription drugs or medication such as cold or flu tablets.

deviate:
/'di:vɪeɪt/ v. Syn. depart; diverge turn away from a principle, norm; depart; diverge
Richard did not deviate from his daily routine: every day he set off for work at eight o'clock, had his sack lunch at 12:15, and headed home at the stroke of five.

device:
/dɪ'vaɪs/ n. Syn. instrument technique or means; instrument; machine used to perform one or more relatively simple tasks
Anti-gravity device could change air travel.

devote:
/dɪ'voʊt/ v. Syn. dedicate; contribute dedicate; contribute
Those who trade them hunt out the fiercest insects and devote many hours to training them.

differentiate:
/dɪfə'rɛnʃɪeɪt/ v. Syn. distinguish; discriminate set apart; distinguish; perceive or show difference in or between
You can differentiate car parts by using different color markers; maybe you use one color for the left side and another for the right.

dimension:
/dɪ'mɛnʃ(ə)n/ n. Syn. measure; size measure of spatial extent, especially width, height, or length; size; aspect; element
Describing time as a dimension is a natural assumption.

diminish:
/dɪ'mɪnɪʃ/ v. Syn. dwindle; reduce; decrease dwindle; reduce; make smaller or less or to cause to appear so
The only way to diminish mistakes is to bring competitors into the game.

discrete:
/dɪ'skri:t/ a. Syn. separate; distinct separate; consisting of unconnected distinct parts
The universe is composed of discrete bodies.

discriminate:
/dɪ'skrɪmɪneɪt/ v. make a clear distinction; distinguish; make sensible decisions; judge wisely
It's not just a notion when 46 states can still discriminate against same-sex couples getting married.

displace:
/dɪs'pleɪs/ v. Syn. move; replace; substitute move or shift from the usual place or position, especially to force to leave a homeland
This war will displace lots of refugees from their villages.

display:
/dɪ'spleɪ/ v. Syn. exhibit; present; show exhibit; present or hold up to view; show; demonstrate; give evidence of; manifest
The airport authorities decided to remove all Christmas trees because a Jewish rabbi threatened to sue them if they didn't also display a menorah.

dispose:
/dɪ'spoʊz/ v. get rid of; settle or decide a matter; place or set in a particular order; arrange
Do not use them to dispose of household trash.

distinct:
/dɪ'stɪŋkt/ a. Syn. definite; separate; different definite; separate; different
The UN has always been at pains to say that its role in occupied Iraq is distinct from that of the US-led forces, and many ordinary Iraqis appreciated that the primary UN role was humanitarian.

distort:
/dɪ'stɔ:t/ v. Syn. deform; twist twist out of proper or natural relation of parts; misshape; misrepresent
It is difficult to believe the newspaper accounts of the riots because of the way some reporters distort and exaggerate the actual events.

distribute:
/dɪ'strɪbju:t/ v. Syn. disseminate; allocate hand out; disseminate; allocate
They are planning to buy some main firms that distribute gas to European consumers.

diverse:
/daɪ'vɜrs/ a. Syn. various differing in some characteristics; various
The professor suggested diverse ways of approaching the assignment and recommended that we choose one of them.

document:
/'dɒkjʊmənt/ v. Syn. record provide written evidence; record in detail
She kept all the receipts from her business trip in order to document her expenses for the firm.

domain:
/də'meɪn/ n. Syn. field field; territory over which rule or control is exercised; networked computers that share a common address
Our cat knows who the queen of the domain is.

domestic:
/də'mɛstɪk/ a. Syn. house-hold; tame house-hold; of or relating to the home ; within the country or home
Only a substantial increase in the price of domestic fuel will make local refineries more profitable.

dominate:
/'dɒmɪneɪt/ v. Syn. monopolize; command; rule monopolize; command; rule; prevail; be prevalent in
People tend to have one side of their brain dominate their thought patterns.

draft:
/drɑrft/;/dræft/ n. Syn. sketch rough outline; draw up an outline; sketch
Now governments are re-writing the EU's governing treaty and the draft version is considered by the EU's leaders in Brussels.

drama:
/'drɑrmə/ n. Syn. play play; literary work intended for theater
The Danes have now taken the top drama award at the Emmys for three out of the past four years.

duration:
/djʊə'reɪʃ(ə)n/;/dʊ'reɪʃn/ n. Syn. length; period length of time something lasts
Because she wanted the children to make a good impression on the dinner guests, Mother promised them a treat if they'd behave for the duration of the meal.

dynamic:
/daɪ'næmɪk/ a. Syn. energetic energetic; vigorously active
The dynamic aerobics instructor kept her students on the run.

economy:
/ɪ'kɒnəmɪ/ n. efficient use of resources; reduction in cost; specific type of economic system
The tribe's main economy is primitive agriculture and its wealth is sometimes counted in people as well as animals.

edit:
/'ɛdɪt/ v. revise and prepare for publication; select, correct, arrange matter of, for publication
In word processing, the ability to define information so as to move it from one point to another within a text element or into another text element, or to edit it.

element:
/'ɛlɪmənt/ n. Syn. component fundamental or essential constituent of a composite entity; basic assumptions or principles of a subject
There's always an element of danger in mountain climbing.

eliminate:
/ɪ'lɪmɪneɪt/ v. Syn. eradicate; abolish eradicate; abolish; rule out
So the EU’s offer to eliminate the subsidy was almost universally welcomed.

emerge:
/ɪ'mɜrdʒ/ v. Syn. appear come into prominence; spring up; appear
New cases continue to emerge on an almost daily basis.

emphasis:
/'ɛmfəsɪs/ n. special attention or effort directed toward something; stress
They also said that there was too much emphasis placed on protecting the liberty of individuals at the expense of broader social justice.

empirical:
/ɛm'pɪrɪk(ə)l/ a. derived from experiment and observation rather than theory
He distrusted hunches and intuitive flashes; he placed his reliance entirely on empirical data.

enable:
/ɪ'neɪb(ə)l/ v. supply with the means, knowledge, or opportunity; make able; make feasible or possible
And the time will come with we shall have become so unfit that nothing we can do will enable us to survive.

encounter:
/ɪn'kaʊntə(r)/ v. Syn. face; confront; meet face; confront; meet, especially unexpectedly; come upon
Even children who can swim are at risk as they often move too far away from their families and then encounter difficulties getting back to dry land.

energy:
/'ɛnədʒɪ/ n. Syn. vigor; power exertion of force; capacity for work or vigorous activity; usable heat or power
Each year Americans consume a high percentage of the world's energy.

enforce:
/ɪn'fɔ:s/ v. Syn. force; constrain; compel put force upon; force; constrain; compel; put in motion or action by violence
Can the police enforce the same rule to avoid another Rodney King incident?

enhance:
/ɪn'hɑrns/;/ɪn'hæns/ v. Syn. increase; improve make better or more attractive; increase; improve
This sauce will enhance the flavor of the meat.

enormous:
/ɪ'nɔ:məs/ a. Syn. tremendous; huge; massive very great in size, extent, number, or degrees; huge; massive
An enormous puppy was looking down at her with large round eyes, and feebly stretching out one paw, trying to touch her.

ensure:
/ɪn'ʃʊə(r)/;/ɪn'ʃʊər/ v. make sure or certain; insure; assure
For example, to ensure data security, a publicly held company will need to control who has access to financial records.

entity:
/'ɛntɪtɪ/ n. real being; something that exists as a particular and discrete unit; fact of existence
Persons and corporations are equivalent entity under the law.

environment:
/ɪn'vaɪərənmənt/ n. Syn. circumstance surroundings; totality of surrounding conditions
We shall never understand the natural environment until we see it as a living organism.

equate:
/ɪ'kweɪt/ v. make equal or equivalent; reduce to a standard or an average; equalize
Most Americans equate success with wealth and fame.

equip:
/ɪ'kwɪp/ v. supply with necessities such as tools or provisions; furnish with the qualities necessary for performance
Escort ships are also the only ships on which you can equip cannons.

equivalent:
/ɪ'kwɪvələnt/ a. Syn. interchangeable; comparable; tantamount interchangeable; comparable; equal, as in value, force, or meaning
The Clinton campaign has raised more money in the first three months than all nine Democratic candidates in the equivalent period for the 2004 election.

erode:
/ɪ'roʊd/ v. Syn. corrode eat away; wear away by abrasion; become worn
The film shows how dripping water to erode the limestone until only a thin shell remained.

establish:
/ɪ'stæblɪʃ/ v. set up or found; build
His first novel did not establish his fame as a writer, but second one did.

estate:
/ɪ'steɪt/ n. Syn. property extensive landed property; everything you own; all of your assets
Jackson's estate is also subject to federal inheritance taxes.

estimate:
/'ɛstɪmət/ v. Syn. assess; appraise; evaluate judge to be probable; form an opinion about; evaluate
The insurance industry is well prepared to estimate of the loss it will suffer.

ethic:
/'ɛθɪk/ n. a set of principles of right conduct; theory or a system of moral values
Do these clowns want us to emulate the Japanese "work until you die" ethic?

ethnic:
/'ɛθnɪk/ a. Syn. racial relating to races; group of people sharing common racial, national, or religious heritage
But guess why they stay home and suppress what they call ethnic unrest?

evaluate:
/ɪ'væljʊeɪt/ v. Syn. judge; appraise; estimate judge; examine and judge carefully; appraise
They saw several oil slicks but could not evaluate their size.

eventual:
/ɪ'vɛntjʊəl/ a. Syn. ultimate; final; inevitable ultimate; occurring at an unspecified time in the future
One of Mr. Barak's legacies is that more Israelis now know that an eventual peace agreement with the Palestinians will have to involve a deal on Jerusalem. evident: /'ɛvɪdənt/ a. Syn. obvious; apparent; clear easily seen or understood; obvious; apparent; clear
He was lying on his left side at the time, and in evident pain.

evolve:
/ɪ'vɒlv/ v. Syn. develop; grow develop; grow
They want to evolve a joint strategy for the next round of WTO related trade negotiations scheduled to be held in Geneva in mid December.

exceed:
/ɪk'si:d/ v. go beyond; be or do something to a greater degree
This will exceed all my expectations.

exclude:
/ɪk'sklu:d/ v. leave out of; keep out of; reject
A decision to exclude a third of the countries on that initial list would be controversial, as debt cancellation is a key element to alleviate global poverty.

exhibit:
/ɪg'zɪbɪt/ v. Syn. display; show show, make visible or apparent
The Metropolitan Museum plans to exhibit Goya's works this month.

expand:
/ɪk'spænd/ v. Syn. dilate; extend become larger in size or volume; grow stronger; add details
China wants to learn from India's success in IT and expand international outsourcing, such as call centers, a booming sector in India.

expert:
/'ɛkspɜrt/ n. person with a high degree of skill in or knowledge of a certain subject
If this expert is as good as Foote says, he can tie up the process for a long time.

explicit:
/ɪk'splɪsɪt/ a. Syn. definite; outspoken precisely and clearly expressed; definite; outspoken
Don't just hint around that you're dissatisfied: be explicit about what's bugging you.

exploit:
/ɛk'splɔɪt/ v. make use of, sometimes unjustly
Cesar Chavez fought attempts to exploit migrant farm workers in California.

export:
/ɪk'spɔ:t/ v. sell or transfer abroad
They impose limits on how much developing nations can export to rich countries.

expose:
/ɪk'spoʊz/;/ɛkspə'zeɪ/ v. Syn. exhibit; show; display set forth; set out to public view
It will once again expose their intent to prevent an agenda that people clearly want.

external:
/ɛk'stɜrn(ə)l/ a. Syn. exterior; outer exterior; outer; suitable for application to the outside
There is, said the external relations commissioner, a lot of broken crockery on the floor, and we're going to have to work hard to put the pieces together again.

extract:
/ɪk'strækt/ v. Syn. derive; remove; squeeze draw or pull out, usually with some force or effort; remove; get despite difficulties or obstacles
He is not planning to expel foreign companies as he needs their expertise and technology to extract and upgrade Venezuela's heavy crude.

facilitate:
/fə'sɪlɪteɪt/ v. Syn. promote; expedite help bring about; make less difficult
Rest and proper nourishment should facilitate the patient's recovery.

factor:
/'fæktə(r)/ n. Syn. variable; element; component anything that contributes causally to a result; element; variable
The Federation warns that unless the world's population acts now to eat a healthier diet and to take more exercise, obesity will rapidly overtake smoking as the leading lifestyle risk factor for heart disease and strokes.

feature:
/'fi:tʃə(r)/ n. prominent aspect of something
No feature in the scene was extraordinary, but all was pleasing.

federal:
/'fɛdər(ə)l/ a. of or relating to central government; national
The new president has to face current and long term federal deficits.

fee:
/fi:/ v. give a tip beyond the agreed-on compensation
Please remember to fee the steward.

file:
/faɪl/ v. line; proceed in line
The students file into the classroom.

final:
/'faɪn(ə)l/ a. Syn. last forming or occurring at the end; terminating; ultimate; conclusive
The game is now in its final stages, I can see its result already.

finance:
/'faɪnæns/ n. Syn. fund management of money and credit and banking and investments; subsidizing; fund
Mr. Brown's views on economic matters are pretty well established and internationally he's known among finance ministers for his grasp of detail.

finite:
/'faɪnaɪt/ a. having a limit; limited in quantity, degree, or capacity; bounded
By the way, it's wrong to think a single individual can overtake a population of size infinity in finite time.

flexible:
/'flɛksɪb(ə)l/ a. Syn. pliant; elastic; docile pliant; elastic; capable of being bent or flexed; pliable
The way of life is very beautiful for those people, who work from home, enjoys having less pressure and they can work in flexible hours at their own convenience.

fluctuate:
/'flʌktjʊeɪt/ v. Syn. waver; shift rise and fall in or as if in waves; shift; vary irregularly
The water pressure in our shower does fluctuate wildly.

focus:
/'foʊkəs/ n. most important thing; a fixed reference point; center of interest or activity
Who is responsible and who coordinates the attack is now the focus of discussion.

format:
/'fɔ:mæt/ v. Syn. pattern; design pattern; design; set into a specific pattern
Please format this letter so it can be printed out.

formula:
/'fɔ:mjʊlə/ n. plan; directions for making something; a group of symbols that make a mathematical statement
He gave us a general formula for attacking polynomials.

forthcoming:
/fɔ:θ'kʌmɪŋ/ a. ready or about to appear; making appearance
The forthcoming talks hold out the hope of real arms reductions.

foundation:
/faʊn'deɪʃ(ə)n/ n. basis on which something is grounded
There is little foundation for his objections, nobody follow him.

framework:
/'freɪmwɜrk/ n. Syn. structure; skeleton fundamental structure, as for a written work; skeleton
If they're given a draft framework for such a body, the rebels say they are willing to resume negotiations.

function:
/'fʌnkʃən/ n. act of executing or performing any duty; assigned duty or activity
The function of an adjective is to describe or add to the meaning of a noun.

fund:
/fʌnd/ n. Syn. money; capital money; capital; a reserve of money set aside for some purpose; finance; subsidize
An activist from Burundi lambasted the world's richer nations for not putting money into the global fund to fight AIDS.

fundamental:
/fʌndə'mɛnt(ə)l/ a. Syn. primary; essential relating to foundation or base; elementary; primary; essential
El Niao is a natural phenomenon, but some are worried that climate change could now be altering the cycle in fundamental ways.

furthermore:
/fɜrðə'mɔ:(r)/ ad. in addition; moreover
The guy was about forty, Reacher guessed, and furthermore Reacher guessed he had gotten to be about forty by staying relentlessly aware of everything that was happening around him.

gender:
/'dʒɛndə(r)/ n. sexual identity, especially in relation to society or culture; category
New reforms are largely uncontroversial, such as gender equality measures and improved rights of privacy.

generate:
/'dʒɛnəreɪt/ v. Syn. cause; produce; create bring into being; give rise to; produce
Their primary concern is not the health of the American people it is to maximize the revenue they can generate from the American people.

generation:
/dʒɛnə'reɪʃ(ə)n/ n. all offspring at same stage from common ancestor; interval of time between the birth of parents and their offspring
They lived a long time, their generation is 100 years to us.

globe:
/gloʊb/ n. body with the shape of a sphere, especially a representation of the earth in the form of a hollow ball
Throw in the explosion of broadband over the past decade connecting people around the globe and small cities look more attractive than ever.

goal:
/goʊl/ n. Syn. end; objective; aim end; objective; final purpose or aim
My goal, said one, is to share this knowledge with other Afghans, especially Afghan women.

grade:
/greɪd/ n. Syn. rank step or degree in any series, rank, quality, order; relative position or standing
He's not in the first grade as a musician, why do you want to learn piano from him?

grant:
/grɑrnt/ v. allow to have; give on the basis of merit; be willing to concede
I grant the genius of your plan, but you still will not find backers.

guarantee:
/gærən'ti:/ n. Syn. assure; ensure pledge that something will happen or that something is true
If it has decided to build a stockpile of nuclear weapons as the best guarantee of its security, then a more dangerous confrontation will be unavoidable.

guideline:
/'gaɪdɪlaɪ/ n. statement or other indication of policy; light line, used in lettering, to help align the text
A good guideline is to post enough to keep your page fresh, but there is such a thing as overkill!

hence:
/hɛns/ ad. from this place; from this time; from this reason; as an inference or deduction
We have no chance to meet each other a week hence.

hierarchy:
/'haɪərɑrkɪ/ n. Syn. class; order arrangement by rank or standing; series in which each element is graded or ranked
To be low man on the totem pole is to have an inferior place in the hierarchy.

highlight:
/'haɪlaɪt/ v. Syn. emphasize; stress make prominent; emphasize; stress
He said it was time to highlight the danger of the possibility of smaller radioactive sources falling into the hands of terrorists.

hypothesis:
/haɪ'pɒθəsɪs/ n. Syn. assumption; theory assumption; theory
A hypothesis is a tentative statement that proposes a possible.

identical:
/aɪ'dɛntɪk(ə)l/ a. Syn. duplicate; alike duplicate; alike; being the exact same one
This is the identical room we stayed in before.

identify:
/aɪ'dɛntɪfaɪ/ v. Syn. detect; spot; find out; discover detect; find out; discover
Together they intercept millions of telephone calls, emails and faxes, and with special software, searching for key words and numbers, attempt to identify threats from terrorists, arms proliferators and so on.

ideology:
/aɪdɪ'ɒlədʒɪ/ n. Syn. belief; idea; philosophy study of origin and nature of ideas
For people who had grown up believing in the communist ideology, it was hard to adjust to capitalism.

ignorant:
/'ɪgnərənt/ a. Syn. unlearned; uneducated; unaware lacking education or knowledge; unaware
And what an ignorant little girl she'll think me for asking!

illustrate:
/'ɪləstreɪt/ v. Syn. represent; demonstrate; depict represent; demonstrate; depict; clarify, as by use of examples or comparisons
The editor will illustrate the definition with an example sentence.

image:
/'ɪmɪdʒ/ n. Syn. picture; figure visual representation; representation of a person
The emperor's tomb had his image carved in stone.

immigrate:
/'ɪmɪgreɪt/ v. move into another country to stay there permanently
Amnesty is not deserved for those in the country illegally, though the cost to immigrate legally also needs to be lowered.

impact:
/'ɪmpækt/ n. Syn. influence; effect forceful consequence; strong effect; influencing strongly
It's hard to characterize the cultural effects, although easier to the vital economic impact on China's neighbors.

implement:
/'ɪmplɪmənt/ v. Syn. execute; perform put into effect; supply with tools
The mayor was unwilling to implement the plan until she was sure it had the governor's backing.

implicate:
/'ɪmplɪkeɪt/ v. Syn. incriminate incriminate; involve or imply as necessary accompaniment or result
The suspicions again implicate high government officials to the point where 911 could well have been an inside job.

implicit:
/ɪm'plɪsɪt/ a. Syn. implied; suggested implied or understood though not directly expressed
Jack never told Jill he adored her; he believed his love was implicit in his actions.

imply:
/ɪm'plaɪ/ v. Syn. signify express or indicate indirectly; signify
Why does the word imply male siblings and not female as well?

impose:
/ɪm'poʊz/ v. Syn. demand; force; inflict demand; force; compel to behave in a certain way
In the past the courts have treated similar cases with great leniency but there's been growing pressure from the government and the public to impose stiffer penalties.

incentive:
/ɪn'sɛntɪv/ n. Syn. spur; motive something, such as the fear of punishment or the expectation of reward
Another incentive is the tax and duty-free importation of raw materials to be used for book publishing.

incidence:
/'ɪnsɪd(ə)ns/ n. Syn. occurrence rate of occurrence; particular occurrence
The highest incidence is found in Britain, Australia and Belgium: 30 per 1,000,000 per year.

incline:
/ɪn'klaɪn/ n. Syn. slope; slant cause to lean, slant, or slope; deviate from the horizontal or vertical
The architect recommended that the nursing home's ramp be rebuilt because its incline was too steep for wheelchairs.

income:
/'ɪnkʌm/ n. gain from labor, business, property, or capital
I can never do that again, two-thirds of my income goes in paying the interest of mortgages.

incorporate:
/ɪn'kɔ:pəreɪt/ v. Syn. combine; unite combine something into a larger whole; unite
I will provide the template for the website but will need someone in incorporate the matrix along with the members area and a few other aspects to go along with the members area.

index:
/'ɪndɛks/ n. anything which shows, indicates, manifests, or discloses; prologue indicating what follows; second digit
Do you know the price index in the city?

indicate:
/'ɪndɪkeɪt/ v. Syn. show; reflect; evidence; imply; suggest point out; direct to a knowledge of
Researchers indicate that men find it easier to give up smoking than women.

individual:
/ɪndɪ'vɪdjʊəl/ n. single person or thing; human regarded as a unique personality
If this individual is to be the leader of this country, she will lead us to total defeat.

induce:
/ɪn'dju:s/;/ɪn'du:s/ v. Syn. persuade persuade; bring about; reason or establish by induction
He was as a dog that had been terribly scorched, and nothing would again induce him to go near the fire.

inevitable:
/ɪn'ɛvɪtəb(ə)l/ a. Syn. unavoidable unavoidable; incapable of being avoided or prevented
Though taxes are supposedly inevitable, some people avoid paying taxes for years.

infer:
/ɪn'fɜr(r)/ v. Syn. deduce; conclude deduce; conclude from evidence or premises; lead to as a consequence or conclusion
From the students' glazed looks, it was easy for me to infer that they were bored out of their minds.

infrastructure:
/'ɪnfrəstrʌktʃə(r)/ n. underlying base or foundation especially for an organization or system
Mexican federal aviation officials have indicated a substantial investment in infrastructure is needed for the airline to comply and be viable.

inherent:
/ɪn'hɪərənt/ a. Syn. intrinsic; natural firmly established by nature or habit
Each branch of the federal government has certain inherent powers.

inhibit:
/ɪn'hɪbɪt/ v. Syn. restrain; prevent restrain; prevent or forbid; hold back
Only two things inhibit him from taking a punch at Mike Tyson: Tyson's left hook, and Tyson's right jab.

initial:
/ɪ'nɪʃ(ə)l/ a. Syn. preliminary early; preliminary; occurring at the beginning
An initial study will look at the terrorist threat to peace-keeping forces in the Balkans.

initiate:
/ɪ'nɪʃɪeɪt/ v. Syn. begin; originate begin; originate; admit into membership
The college is about to initiate a program in reducing math anxiety among students.

injure:
/'ɪndʒə(r)/ v. do harm to; inflict damage; do injustice to
Generally people who injure limbs have bad arthritis as they mature.

innovate:
/'ɪnəveɪt/ v. change or alter by bringing in something new
For many in our industry, the capacity to innovate is closely tied to developing human resources.

insert:
/ɪn'sɜrt/ v. Syn. input; enter input; enter; put or set into, between, or among
The proposal for genetic modification involves to insert a fluorescent protein into the virus.

insight:
/'ɪnsaɪt/ n. Syn. understanding understanding; grasping the inner nature of things intuitively
This insight is then applied to three prominent proposals.

inspect:
/ɪn'spɛkt/ v. Syn. examine look over; examine carefully and critically, especially for flaws
Please inspect your father's letter carefully.

instance:
/'ɪnstəns/ n. Syn. example example that is cited to prove a contention or illustrate a point; case or occurrence
The framework applies equally to all ecosystems and in this instance is adapted for wetlands.

institute:
/'ɪnstɪtju:t/;/'ɪnstətu:t/ n. advance or set forth in court; association organized to promote art or science or education
The institute for biomedical research is a non-profit, independent research and educational organization known as a world leader in its field.

instruct:
/ɪn'strʌkt/ v. Syn. teach teach; make aware of
She had to instruct the students to work on their pronunciation.

integral:
/'ɪntɪgr(ə)l/ a. Syn. complete; entire essential or necessary for completeness; entire
Despite the ratings agencies' spectacular failures during the recent crisis, their assessments remain integral to the structure of the financial system.

integrate:
/'ɪntɪgreɪt/ v. Syn. combine make whole; combine; make into one unit
She tried to integrate all their activities into one program.

integrity:
/ɪn'tɛgrɪtɪ/ n. Syn. uprightness; wholeness quality or condition of being whole or undivided; completeness
Protecting global supply chain integrity is of the utmost importance for manufacturers.

intelligence:
/ɪn'tɛlɪdʒəns/ n. ability to comprehend; understand and profit from experience; intellect; power of cognition
More than half the variance between people in intelligence is also genetic, Mr. Shane reports, adding that smarter people "tend to be less satisfied with their jobs."

intense:
/ɪn'tɛns/ a. Syn. extreme; acute extreme; acute; in an extreme degree
The Israeli and Palestinian girls engage in intense discussions and heated arguments.

interact:
/ɪntər'ækt/ v. Syn. interplay interplay; act together or towards others or with
Only two months ago, there was much criticism of the founders who organized the floatation and continued to interact with Wall Street.

intermediate:
/ɪntə'mi:dɪət/ a. middle; lying between two extremes
They are all from sitting to standing without intermediate pushes with the hands.

internal:
/ɪn'tɜrn(ə)l/ a. Syn. inside; interior inside; interior; located within the limits or surface
An internal audit led to Julie Wall's downfall and her vast collection has now been auctioned to pay back some of what she owes.

interpret:
/ɪn'tɜrprɪt/ v. explain or tell the meaning of; translate orally; decipher
When data is kept under lock and key, as mysterious as a temple secret, only the priests can read and interpret it.

interpretation:
/ɪntɜrprɪ'teɪʃ(ə)n/ n. Syn. explanation explanation; performer's distinctive personal version of a song, dance, piece of music
General Kazantsev said the interpretation of the leaflets air-dropped on Grozny on Monday, telling civilians to leave or face destruction, was all wrong.

interval:
/'ɪntəv(ə)l/ n. Syn. pause; break pause; break; space between two objects, points, or units
The first week, it spouted every five hours, but recently the interval is eight hours.

intervene:
/ɪntə'vi:n/ v. get involved; come, appear, or lie between two things
And therefore, the place to intervene is to slow down the number of children who begin smoking.

intrinsic:
/ɪn'trɪnsɪk/ a. Syn. essential; inherent relating to essential nature of a thing; inherent; built-in
Although my grandmother's china has little intrinsic value, I shall always cherish it for the memories it evokes.

invest:
/ɪn'vɛst/ v. put clothe on, as with office or authority; place in possession of rank, dignity, or estate; endow; lay out money or capital in business
You had better let me invest it along with your six thousand, because if you take it you'll spend it.

investigate:
/ɪn'vɛstɪgeɪt/ v. Syn. explore; research; survey explore; observe or inquire into in detail; examine systematically
NASA has launched its Contour spacecraft, one of a series of missions designed to investigate comets.

invoke:
/ɪn'voʊk/ v. call upon; ask for; request earnestly
I again invoke the cooperation of the executive and legislative authorities of the States in this great purpose.

involve:
/ɪn'vɒlv/ v. wind round; connect with something; include necessarily; engage thoroughly
How should we involve ourselves in school life?

isolate:
/'aɪsəleɪt/ v. Syn. seclude; separate seclude; set apart or cut off from others
That research will isolate a large number of antibodies from humans and animals.

issue:
/'ɪʃu:, 'ɪsju:/ n. Syn. subject; topic; problem subject; topic; problem; edition; publication; release; publish
The issue could be settled by requiring public education for everyone.

item:
/'aɪtəm/ n. a whole individual unit; a distinct part that can be specified separately in a group
He noticed an item in the New York Times that reported his hometown.

journal:
/'dʒɜrn(ə)l/ n. Syn. magazine; periodical magazine; periodical; log; diary; a ledger in which transactions have been recorded as they occurred
Published twice yearly, the journal is an open access, online publication.

justify:
/'dʒʌstɪfaɪ/ v. Syn. vindicate; defend adjust the spaces between words; show to be reasonable; explain, clear away
"And old Madam Reed, or the Misses, her daughters, will be solicited by you to seek a place, I suppose?" "No, sir; I am not on such terms with my relatives as would justify me in asking favours of them--but I shall advertise."

label:
/'leɪb(ə)l/ n. paper affixed to anything by inscription; slip of ribbon, parchment; writing annexed by way of addition
There was no label this time with the words "DRINK ME," but nevertheless she uncorked it and put it to her lips.

labour:
/'leɪbə(r)/ n. effort expended on particular task; act of mother giving birth; time period during which mother gives birth
When Lisa went into labour, her doctor was not around, she says.

layer:
/'leɪə(r)/ n. Syn. tier; stratum tier; a relatively thin sheet like expanse or region lying over or under another
The layer of thick smoke now covering all of southern California, thousands of firefighters are still struggling to contain ten separate blazes.

lecture:
/'lɛktʃə(r)/ n. teaching by giving a discourse on some subject; speech that is open to the public legal: /'li:g(ə)l/ a. created by, permitted by law; according to the law of works
I could not rid myself of it by any legal proceedings: for the doctors now discovered that my wife was mad.

legislate:
/'lɛdʒɪsleɪt/ v. make laws; create or pass laws
He did his best to legislate from the bench and we'll be living with his opinions for the rest of our lives.

levy:
/'lɛvɪ/ v. Syn. impose; collect impose fine or tax; collect payment
Crying "No taxation without representation," the colonists demonstrated against England's power to levy taxes.

liberal:
/'lɪbər(ə)l/ a. Syn. tolerant open-minded; tolerant; broad-mindedness; having political views favoring reform and progress
His views may be not agreeable to the liberal political mainstream.

likewise:
/'laɪkwaɪz/ ad. Syn. similarly similarly; as well; too
Dostam has a record of switching sides when convenient, and there are many supporters who would do likewise.

link:
/lɪŋk/ v. be or become joined or united; connect, fasten, or put together two or more pieces
After a whole day shopping, the travelers will link up again at the airport.

locate:
/loʊ'keɪt/;/'loʊkeɪt/ v. Syn. find; monitor; settle find; monitor; settle; determine or specify the position or limits o
It will also develop techniques to locate and tap underground water reservoirs.

logic:
/'lɒdʒɪk/ n. reasoned and reasonable judgment; a system of reasoning
Your paper lacks the logic to prove your thesis.

maintain:
/meɪn'teɪn/ v. Syn. support; sustain keep in any particular state or condition; keep up or carry on; continue
What we are actually trying to maintain is never ending growth.

major:
/'meɪdʒə(r)/ a. greater in number, quantity, or extent; more important
We have met with major problems in the project and they will be addressed as schedule.

manipulate:
/mə'nɪpjʊleɪt/ v. Syn. maneuver; control operate with one's hands; control or play upon people, forces artfully
Meanwhile, greed and vanity, using lies and fear, will once again manipulate ignorance and resentment.

manual:
/'mænjʊəl/ n. Syn. guide book guide book; hand-operated
Three workers at the plant followed an illegal manual and caused a nuclear reaction late last month.

margin:
/'mɑrdʒɪn/ n. Syn. border; rim; room border; rim; room
In the lower house, they will have an even bigger margin.

mature:
/mə'tjʊə(r)/;/mə'tʊər/ v. develop and reach maturity; grow old or older
I need to mature my thoughts in future college years.

maximise:
/'mæksɪmaɪz/ v. Syn. maximize make as big or large as possible
Glass shelves help maximise light in a small bathroom.

mechanism:
/'mɛkənɪz(ə)m/ n. Syn. device; machine device; machine; the technical aspects of doing something
On the key issue of land rights, it called for a mechanism to study ancestral links to the land.

media:
/'mi:dɪə/ n. Syn. medium; television; newspaper public institutions that report the news, such as newspapers, magazines, radio, and television
Science fiction in media is exponentially bigger as a market than science fiction in literary form.

mediate:
/'mi:dɪeɪt/ v. Syn. negotiate resolve or settle differences by working with all conflicting parties
King Solomon was asked to mediate a dispute between two women, each of whom claimed to be the mother of the same child.

medium:
/'mi:dɪəm/ n. state that is intermediate between extremes
Certainly Shostakovich was lucky to work in a wordless abstract medium, where interpretation is strongly subjective.

mental:
/'mɛnt(ə)l/ a. involving mind or intellectual process; affected by disorder of mind
All doctors agreed this is a mental patient.

method:
/'mɛθəd/ n. Syn. manner; way; mode orderly procedure or process; regular manner of doing anything
She told us a simple method for making a pie crust.

migrate:
/maɪ'greɪt/;/'maɪgreɪt/ v. move from one country or region to another and settle there
Many Germans chose to migrate to South America in the mid-19th century.

military:
/'mɪlɪtərɪ/;/-tɛrɪ/ a. Syn. soldiery; militia pertaining to soldiers, to arms, or to war; of whole body of soldiers
In some countries all the young men have to do a year's military service.

minimal:
/'mɪnɪm(ə)l/ a. the fewest; the least possible
In order to make it work, you need a certain minimal area of collective surface.

minimise:
/'mɪnɪmaɪz/ v. Syn. minimize reduce to the smallest possible amount, extent, size, or degree
Some of them wish only to minimise the number of abortions performed, others will be satisfied with nothing less than reducing the number to zero regardless of the consequences.

minimum:
/'mɪnɪməm/ a. the smallest possible quantity
The questions range from simple tests of knowledge such as - what's the minimum age for buying alcohol?

ministry:
/'mɪnɪstrɪ/ n. act of serving; government department, at the administrative level normally headed by a minister
The ministry has tried to develop a management strategy this year but it has not been implemented because of scarce resources.

minor:
/'maɪnə(r)/ a. of lesser importance or stature or rank; not of legal age; limited in size or scope
These two books had minor differences, reading one of them is enough.

mode:
/moʊd/ n. Syn. manner; method; style prevailing style; manner; way of doing something; fashion or style
The main mode is the regular one that keeps the vehicle's straight ahead motion in check.

modify:
/'mɒdɪfaɪ/ v. Syn. alter; change alter; change
If you want to modify an existing listing, make sure the url entered below exactly matches the one that appears in our directory.

monitor:
/'mɒnɪtə(r)/ v. Syn. observe; watch; locate observe; watch; keep an eye on
In this city, religious police, government officials and squads of schoolboys monitor women and girls' behavior and appearance.

motive:
/'moʊtɪv/ n. Syn. intention; purpose emotion, desire, physiological need; that which gives purpose and direction to behavior
Pat's main motive is to keep the racial divide alive.

mutual:
/'mju:tjʊəl/ a. Syn. interactive; shared common to or shared by two or more parties; shared
The main thrust is to make progress on practical issues - with mutual trade and business at the top of the agenda.

negate:
/nɪ'geɪt/ v. Syn. nullify; deny cancel out; make ineffective or invalid; deny
A sudden surge of adrenalin can negate the effects of fatigue: there's nothing like a good shock to wake you up.

network:
/'nɛtwɜrk/ n. any system of lines or channels crossing like the fabric of a net; complex, interconnected group or system
At USA the network of railroads hasn't increased in past decades.

neutral:
/'nju:tr(ə)l/;/nu:-/ a. Syn. impartial impartial; not supporting one side over another
Edwards will remain neutral until after "Super Tuesday", then he will endorse Hillary.

nevertheless:
/nɛvəðə'lɛs/ ad. not the less; notwithstanding; in spite of that; yet
There was no label this time with the words "DRINK ME," but nevertheless she uncorked it and put it to her lips.

nonetheless:
/nʌnðə'lɛs/ ad. anyway; however
India hasn't been as successful, but the U.N. says it is nonetheless on track to cut its poverty rate from 51 percent in 1990 to 24 percent in 2015.

norm:
/nɔ:m/ n. Syn. convention; standard; rule convention; standard; rule
This was revoked after the scandals of the clean hands bribery scandal which caused a political earthquake at the time in a country where it had become the norm for businessmen to bribe politicians, but now it is back to square one.

notion:
/'noʊʃ(ə)n/ n. Syn. idea; conception general or universal conception; belief or opinion
With all her knowledge of history, Alice had no very clear notion how long ago anything had happened.

notwithstanding:
/nɒtwɪð'stændɪŋ/ ad. nevertheless; in spite of
The danger of a third world war, present appearances notwithstanding, is not imminent.

nuclear:
/'nju:klɪə(r)/;/'nu:-/ a. Syn. atomic of, relating to, or forming a nucleus of an atom; pertaining to, or using nuclear weapons
The resolution states that CPS Energy should invest further in nuclear energy.

objective:
/əb'dʒɛktɪv/ a. Syn. fair not influenced by emotions; having actual existence or reality
Even though he was her son, she tried to be objective about his behavior.

obtain:
/əb'teɪn/ v. Syn. acquire; get; procure; derive get hold of; gain possession of; acquire, in any way
Congress exceeded its constitutional authority by requiring that all Americans obtain health insurance or pay a tax penalty.

obvious:
/'ɒbvɪəs/ a. Syn. evident; apparent exposed; easily discovered; plain
It is a stone pillar set up where four roads meet: whitewashed, I suppose, to be more obvious at a distance and in darkness.

occupy:
/'ɒkjʊpaɪ/ v. Syn. inhabit inhabit; live in a certain place; be present in; be inside of
Interestingly, many other Great War memorials also occupy busy.

occur:
/ə'kɜr(r)/ v. Syn. happen take place; be found to exist ; come to one's mind
Global warming can occur from a variety of causes, both natural and human induced.

odd:
/ɒd/ a. Syn. bizarre; strange; unusual not easily explained; beyond from the usual or expected; not divisible by two
It is odd that his name is never mentioned.

offset:
/'ɒfsɛt/;/'ɔ:fsɛt/ v. counterbalance, counteract, or compensate for; balance
He raised his prices to offset the increased cost of materials.

ongoing:
/'ɒngoʊɪŋg/ a. continuous; existing
Now, don't forget on top of that you've still got the day-to-day waste being generated so it's an ongoing problem.

option:
/'ɒpʃ(ə)n/ n. Syn. alternative; choice; selection act of choosing; power or freedom to choose
The Euro made its debut in the financial markets three years ago and it has been an option for any non-cash transaction ever since.

orient:
/'ɔ:rɪənt/ v. Syn. direct; guide; lead focus toward; determine position with reference to another point; locate to face the east
Philip spent his first day in Denver to orient the telescope toward the moon.

outcome:
/'aʊtkʌm/ n. Syn. result; effect result; end or consequence; result of a random trial
South Africa praised the outcome of the election as another indication of Africa's growing commitment to multi-party democracy.

output:
/'aʊtpʊt/ n. Syn. production; product act or process of producing; production; amount produced during a certain time
Oman's oil output is not as high as some of its neighbors.

overall:
/oʊvər'ɔ:l/ a. Syn. general; comprehensive general; comprehensive; from one end to the other; including everything
They are beginning the assessment of the overall need for reconstruction and rehabilitation.

overlap:
/oʊvə'læp/ n. representation of common ground between two things; extend over and cover a part of
He warned of the potential for gap, overlap and duplication.

overseas:
/oʊvə'si:z/ ad. beyond or across the sea; abroad
He lived overseas for many years.

panel:
/'pæn(ə)l/ n. Syn. board a group of people gathered for a special purpose; small board or pad
The Constitutional Court, a senior panel of judges often accused of siding with Prime Minister Thaksin Shinawatra, has voted to annul his third election victory, according to one of the judges.

paradigm:
/'pærədaɪm/ n. Syn. model; example; pattern one that serves as a pattern or model; system of assumptions, concepts, values, and practices that constitutes a way of viewing reality
Pavlov's experiment in which he trains a dog to salivate on hearing a bell is a paradigm of the conditioned-response experiment in behavioral psychology.

paragraph:
/'pærəgrɑrf/;/'pærəgræf/ n. distinct division of written or printed matter that begins on a new, usually indented line
After you read the next paragraph, you'll be offered the choice of three possible decisions.

parallel:
/'pærəlɛl/ n. Syn. similarity; analogy make or place something to another's side; of or relating to multiple operations at same time; not intersecting
Parallel processing is very common in today's computer.

parameter:
/pə'ræmɪtə(r)/ n. characteristic or feature that distinguishes something from others
Security's critical parameter is the ratio of workers to retirees.

participate:
/pɑr'tɪsɪpeɪt/ v. take part in something; share in something
Everyone in the class is expected to participate in the discussion.

partner:
/'pɑrtnə(r)/ n. person who is a member of a partnership; associate who works with others toward a common goal
She has a live-in partner, is 39 years old, and has three children.

passive:
/'pæsɪv/ a. Syn. compliant; inactive lacking in energy or will; peacefully resistant in response to injustice
Mahatma Gandhi urged his followers to pursue a program of passive resistance as he felt that it was more effective than violence.

perceive:
/pə'si:v/ v. Syn. sense; detect become aware of through the senses; detect
And though I don't comprehend how it is, I perceive you have acquired a degree of regard for that foolish little child Adele, too; and even for simple dame Fairfax?

percent:
/pə'sɛnt/ n. out of each hundred; per hundred; one part in a hundred
She has invested a large percent of her salary.

period:
/'pɪərɪəd/ n. duration, continuance, term; end of something
Death put a period to his endeavors.

persist:
/pə'sɪst/ v. Syn. continue; insist; persevere continue; insist; persevere
Why, when studies show that cell phone use, and especially texting, while driving impairs drivers more than drinking, do so many people persist in combining these lethal behaviors?

perspective:
/pə'spɛktɪv/ n. Syn. viewpoint; view appearance of things; view, outlook, or vista
An essential fact that should put the debate in perspective is that Mary was released after less than four months.

phase:
/feɪz/ n. Syn. stage; moment any distinct time period in a sequence of events; stage
But there's far less consensus on how much the EU might be willing to pay towards reconstruction in a post-war phase, now that it's clear that a conflict will not have United Nations approval.

phenomenon:
/fɪ'nɒmɪnən/;/-nɒn-/ n. appearance; anything visible, in matter or spirit; extraordinary or very remarkable person, thing, or occurrence
International terrorism is not just a recent phenomenon.

philosophy:
/fɪ'lɒsəfɪ/ n. body of highest truth; investigation of nature, causes, or principles of reality, knowledge, or values, based on logical reasoning
He holds a master's degree in philosophy from the University of Virginia and served as press secretary for Kucinich for President in 2004.

physical:
/'fɪzɪk(ə)l/ a. relating to the body as distinguished from the mind or spirit
Because you know, every intelligent person knows, that the physical is the basis for the mental and the moral.

plus:
/plʌs/ a. involving advantage or good; on the positive side or higher end of a scale
This company controls main gas resource plus many of the pipelines that supply it to Europe.

policy:
/'pɒlɪsɪ/ n. settled method of government to administer; system of public or official administration
His overall Latin American policy is just as troubling so no country welcomes his visiting until now.

portion:
/'pɔ:ʃ(ə)n/ n. Syn. part; section; segment section or quantity within a larger thing; a part of a whole
The largest portion would go into the players' pockets, but the package included payments into a players' pension account and a donation to selected charities.

pose:
/poʊz/ v. pretend to be someone you are not; assume a posture as for artistic purposes
We don't know the woman who pose for Leonardo so often.

positive:
/'pɒzɪtɪv/ a. involving advantage or good ; greater than zero; very sure; confident
An executive involved in the meetings told that Mrs. Bush plans to write a positive book with a minimum of criticism.

potential:
/pə'tɛnʃ(ə)l/ a. Syn. possible; latent existing in possibility; expected to become or be
The volume of unconventional gas isn't significant on a U. K. wide scale, supplying enough electricity for only 1,200 homes, but the potential is there, analysts say.

practitioner:
/præk'tɪʃənə(r)/ n. someone engaged in a profession as law, medicine
The difference between the student and the practitioner is the difference between applying memory and application of judgement.

precede:
/prɪ'si:d/ v. Syn. antecede come before; antecede
Most English adjectives precede the noun they modify.

precise:
/prɪ'saɪs/ a. Syn. exact; accurate exact; clearly expressed; accurate or correct
How exactly, in precise detail, will he bring about this supposed unity?

predict:
/prɪ'dɪkt/ v. Syn. forecast; foretell state, tell about, or make known in advance, especially on the basis of special knowledge
We're not trying to predict which markets will all of a sudden have double-digit growth in home prices.

predominant:
/prɪ'dɒmɪnənt/ a. Syn. principal; dominant; overpowering most frequent or common; having superior power and influence
The predominant mood among policy-makers is optimism.

preliminary:
/prɪ'lɪmɪnərɪ/;/-nɛrɪ/ a. Syn. initial; introductory; preparatory prior to or preparing for the main matter; introductory
According to preliminary, unofficial figures, a large majority, some 84 percent, voted in favor.

presume:
/prɪ'zju:m/;/-zu:m/ v. Syn. suppose take for granted as true in absence of proof; venture without authority
We are asked to presume that she is innocent.

previous:
/'pri:vɪəs/ a. existing or occurring before something else
That brings the total number of storms to 26, roundly beating the previous record of 21, set 70 years ago.

primary:
/'praɪmərɪ/ a. Syn. principal; prime; fundamental of first rank or importance or value; essential or basic
Many ordinary Iraqis appreciated that the primary UN role was humanitarian.

prime:
/praɪm/ a. Syn. primary; principal; chief first in excellence, quality, or value; at the best stage; peak; first in degree or rank; chief
Jordan tonight announced that his group arrested the prime suspect in last week's rocket attack.

principal:
/'prɪnsɪp(ə)l/ a. Syn. chief; main highest in rank, authority, character, importance, or degree
Lots of the principal people gathered around the king, to let him see they was on his side.

principle:
/'prɪnsɪp(ə)l/ n. basic truth or law or assumption; rule or law of nature; rule of personal conduct
This decision was based on principle rather than expediency.

prior:
/'praɪə(r)/ a. Syn. former; antecedent; anterior; previous preceding in the order of time; former; previous
All the arrangements should have been completed prior to our departure.

priority:
/praɪ'ɒrɪtɪ/;/-ɔ:r-/ n. Syn. preference; precedence preceding in time, importance, or urgency
The company says its number one priority is restoring profits, not gaining market share at any price.

proceed:
/prə'si:d/ n. Syn. continue; advance follow a certain course; move ahead; travel onward
'The trial cannot proceed,' said the King in a very grave voice, 'until all the jurymen are back in their proper places.'

process:
/'proʊsɛs/;/'prɒsɛs/ n. Syn. progress; advance; procedure act of proceeding; continued forward movement; a series of actions
In short, I began the process of ruining myself in the received style, like any other spoony.

professional:
/prə'fɛʃən(ə)l/ a. engaged in, or suitable for a profession
Medical workers on trial face criminal charges that range from professional recklessness to illegal sale of donor blood.

prohibit:
/prə'hɪbɪt/;/'proʊ-/ v. Syn. ban; taboo; forbid ban; taboo; forbid
The U.S. Supreme Court has never ruled that public schools must prohibit the distribution of candy canes or Christmas cards.

project:
/'prɒdʒɛkt/ n. Syn. program; plan; scheme any piece of work that is undertaken or attempted; program; plan; scheme
The project is run by the top-secret Phantom Works in Seattle, the part of the company which handles Boeing's most sensitive programmes.

promote:
/prə'moʊt/ v. Syn. publicize; advance help to flourish; advance in rank; publicize
Founder of the Children's Defense Fund, Marian Wright Edelman and her team ceaselessly promote the welfare of young people everywhere.

proportion:
/prə'pɔ:ʃ(ə)n/ n. Syn. amounts; percentage percentage; quotient obtained when a part is divided by the whole; part considered in relation to the whole
The requirements grow linearly, in proportion to the number of folk.

prospect:
/'prɒspɛkt/ n. Syn. possibility; hope; outlook possibility of future success; belief about future
The number of people affected and displaced has increased since the conflict, and at the moment there seems little prospect for them to return to villages.

protocol:
/'proʊtəkɒl/;/-kɔ:l/ n. code of correct conduct ; rules governing socially acceptable behavior; record of transaction
When it comes to weddings, the protocol is actual similar to other churches.

psychology:
/saɪ'kɒlədʒɪ/;/sɪ-/ n. science that deals with mental processes and behavior
One of the things we always focus on in psychology is that you have to separate the behavior from the person.

publication:
/pʌblɪ'keɪʃ(ə)n/ n. act or process of publishing printed matter; communication of information to public
This publication is accompanied by a beautiful exhibition in the van Gogh museum in Amsterdam.

publish:
/'pʌblɪʃ/ v. Syn. "It is an honor to publish this extraordinary book," said Gibson. make public; make known to mankind, or to people in general
Only in 1687 did he at last publish his new theory.

purchase:
/'pɜrtʃəs/ n. act or an instance of buying; something bought
Rules can differ depending whether the purchase is a residence or an investment.

pursue:
/pə'sju:/;/-'su:/ v. follow in; go in search of or hunt for
They will bring together 165 researchers from 19 countries to pursue a range of innovative strategies.

qualitative:
/'kwɒlɪtətɪv/;/-teɪtɪv/ a. relating to quality; having the character of quality
A painstaking course in qualitative and quantitative analysis by John Wing gave me an appreciation of the need for, and beauty of, accurate measurement.

quote:
/kwoʊt/ v. cite or repeat a passage from; repeat or copy the words of another
He said he could quote several instances of this behavior. radical: /'rædɪk(ə)l/ a. Syn. drastic; extreme drastic; extreme; arising from or going to a root or source; basic
President Correa has shown he is determined to follow a radical program of reforms to tackle poverty in Ecuador.

random:
/'rændəm/ a. Syn. haphazard; chance without definite purpose, plan, or aim; having no specific pattern
He used to get super drunk in random places; I don't know where he is now.

range:
/reɪndʒ/ n. Syn. limit limits within which something can be effective; variety of different things or activities
Medical workers on trial face criminal charges that range from professional recklessness to corruption, to illegal sale of donor blood.

ratio:
/'reɪʃɪoʊ/ n. Syn. rate; proportion relation which one quantity or magnitude has to another of the same kind; rate; proportion
Men outnumber women here in the ratio of three to one.

rational:
/'ræʃən(ə)l/ a. Syn. logical; reasonable consistent with; based on; using reason
One strong proof of my wretchedly defective nature is, that even her expostulations, so mild, so rational, have not influence to cure me of my faults.

react:
/ri:'ækt/ v. act against or in opposition to; show a response or a reaction
They react negatively to everything I say, because they don't trust me.

recover:
/rɪ'kʌvə(r)/ v. Syn. regain get or find back; regain a former condition
He is very ill and unlikely to recover in this month.

refine:
/rɪ'faɪn/ v. Syn. purify purify; make more precise; improve
They refine many valuable nutrients out of the foods in our modern diet.

regime:
/reɪ'ʒi:m/ n. Syn. government; administration form of government; government in power; administration; prevailing social system or pattern
State Department officials insisted that, privately, the Yeltsin regime is still willing to cooperate in the search for peace.

region:
/'ri:dʒən/ n. province; district; tract; neighborhood; the upper air; sky or heavens; inhabitants of a district
All in that region was fire and commotion.

register:
/'rɛdʒɪstə(r)/ v. Syn. record give outward signs of; express; record in writing; enroll as a student
New students will have to register is tomorrow before getting their books.

regulate:
/'rɛgjʊleɪt/ v. Syn. direct bring into conformity with rules or principles or usage; impose regulations; fix or adjust the time, amount, degree, or rate of
In contrast to Europe, the United States is considering a variety of laws which would regulate spam but essentially allow it unless an individual specifically opts out.

reinforce:
/ri:ɪn'fɔ:s/ v. Syn. strengthen; enhance give more force or effectiveness to; strengthen; enhance
The laws will reinforce authority to turn boats away from Australia and impose prison sentences on the crews of boats which do cross the border.

reject:
/rɪ'dʒɛkt/ v. Syn. refuse; deny turn down; refuse to accept; dismiss from consideration
He would reject the idea of starting a war.

relax:
/rɪ'læks/ v. Syn. free; loosen; calm make less severe or strict; become less tense
Our new colleague should relax if he sees that we are a friendly group.

release:
/rɪ'li:s/ v. Syn. liberate; freedom give off; liberate; grant freedom to; make something available
He wanted to release the list with the names of the prisoners before Monday.

relevant:
/'rɛlɪvənt/ a. Syn. pertinent pertinent; having connection with matter at hand
The only way for a value brand like ours to remain relevant is to provide innovation that sets us apart.

reluctance:
/rɪ'lʌktəns/ n. state of being reluctant; unwillingness; hesitancy in taking some action
The main reason for this reluctance is the threat of litigation for defamation.

rely:
/rɪ'laɪ/ v. Syn. trust; depend rest with confidence; have confidence; depend
I rely implicitly on His power, and confide wholly in His goodness.

remove:
/rɪ'mu:v/ v. move away from the position occupied; cause to change place; take away
The leaving of her mother will remove the last obstacle to their marriage.

require:
/rɪ'kwaɪə(r)/ v. Syn. demand; request insist upon having; request and expect
We require our secretary to be on time, otherwise we have to cancel the event.

research:
/rɪ'sɜrtʃ/ v. inquire into; attempt to find out in scientific manner
The students who research the history of English are all in this group.

reside:
/rɪ'zaɪd/ v. Syn. dwell; live; inhabit dwell; live in a place permanently or for an extended period
We reside officially in Iceland.

resolve:
/rɪ'zɒlv/ n. Syn. determination; resolution; decision determination; formal expression by a meeting; agreed to by a vote
Civic leaders say their resolve is as strong as it was when they rebuilt downtown.

resource:
/rɪ'sɔ:s/;/'ri:sɔ:rs/ n. Syn. materials; abilities materials; abilities; available source
Still she went on growing, and, as a last resource, she put one arm out of the window, and one foot up the chimney.

respond:
/rɪ'spɒnd/ v. Syn. react; answer show a reaction to something favorably or as hoped
Doctors hope his cancer to respond to the aggressive therapy.

restore:
/rɪ'stɔ:(r)/ v. Syn. reinstate; renovate; renew give or bring back; return to its original condition
He told BBC News that they will restore it using 200-year-old techniques and all their old tools.

restrain:
/rɪ'streɪn/ v. Syn. inhibit; stop; repress keep under control; hold back ; place limits on
No one had leisure to watch or restrain them.

restrict:
/rɪ'strɪkt/ v. Syn. limit; inhibit; confine keep or confine within limits
This will give recommendation on the best way to advance, but not restrict thing.

retain:
/rɪ'teɪn/ v. Syn. keep; employ keep; maintain possession of; hire by payment of a fee; keep in mind; remember
I read over 100 books a year, and what I retain is usually the general storyline and my impression of the characters.

reveal:
/rɪ'vi:l/ v. Syn. expose; uncover make known; disclose or show
"The secret of your birth! Do you mean to say - " "Gentlemen," says the young man, very solemn, "I will reveal it to you, for I feel I may have confidence in you."

revenue:
/'rɛvənju:/;/'rɛvənu:/ n. Syn. income; reward money which returns from an investment; annual income; reward
The government's revenue is made up chiefly of the money we pay in taxes.

reverse:
/rɪ'vɜrs/ v. Syn. back; rear overturn; turn inside out or upside down; turning in the opposite direction
The Commission has now launched a high-level diplomatic offensive to reverse the ban.

revise:
/rɪ'vaɪz/ v. Syn. amend; change amend; change
Later, he would revise his position and said the reason why he couldn't meet the delegates was to do with security concerns.

revolution:
/rɛvə'lu:ʃ(ə)n/ n. act of revolving; motion of body round a fixed point or line; rotation; total or radical change; fundamental change in political organization
The invention of aircraft caused a revolution in our ways of travelling.

rigid:
/'rɪdʒɪd/ a. Syn. stiff; strict stiff and unyielding; strict; hard and unbending; not flexible
Without integration, we are stuck in rigid, inflexible states and to face chaotic feeling or thought.

role:
/roʊl/ n. Syn. part; function normal activity of a person in particular social setting; part played by a performer
Amrozi naively admitted his role in the attack, they said, but the law needs more than confessions, it needs evidence.

route:
/ru:t/ n. Syn. way way for travel or transportation
The pipeline would cross on route from Iran, earning the Pakistani government millions of dollars in transit fees.

scenario:
/sɪ'nɑrrɪoʊ/ n. Syn. screenplay; circumstance screenplay; outline or model of an expected sequence of events
The scenario is the same throughout the West countries, all of whose governments are responding to the collapse in similar ways.

schedule:
/'ʃɛdju:l/;/'skɛdʒʊl/ n. Syn. timetable; agenda plan for an activity or event; arrange
Now, after the failure of Cancun, there's a much bigger question mark over concluding the new deal on schedule.

scheme:
/ski:m/ n. Syn. design; plan elaborate and systematic plan of action; chart or outline of a system or object
As well as the baby bonus scheme, Prime Minister says his government is to encourage more immigration as a way of bringing in more talent.

scope:
/skoʊp/ n. Syn. range; extent; bound range of one's perceptions, thoughts, or actions; extent; bound
This group was within the scope of an investigation.

section:
/'sɛkʃ(ə)n/ n. Syn. part; district; segment one of several parts; pieces that fit with others to constitute a whole object
The mob ran out of control along a 5 kilometer section of the main highway to Delhi, smashing fences, looting food and beating up shopkeepers.

sector:
/'sɛktə(r)/ n. Syn. segment particular aspect of life or activity; body of people who form part of society or economy
He was helpless in an important sector of his life.

secure:
/sɪ'kjʊə(r)/ v. Syn. anchor; defend; confident free from fear, care, or anxiety; not have reason to doubt
The troops secure the area before the civilians are allowed to return.

seek:
/si:k/ v. make an effort to; try to get; try to discover
I always seek to do good in the world.

select:
/sɪ'lɛkt/ a. taken from a number by preference; picked out as more valuable or excellent than others; of special value or excellence
This is a very select area; you have to be rich to live here.

sequence:
/'si:kwəns/ n. serial arrangement in which things follow in logical order or a recurrent pattern
Scientists unveiled the genome sequence of rice - a tool of great potential use to researchers trying to develop new strains of rice with higher yields.

series:
/'sɪəri:z, 'sɪərɪz/ n. a number of things or events standing or succeeding in order; sequence
There are a series of books for dogs; I just read one regarding to my puppy.

shift:
/ʃɪft/ n. Syn. change; turn moving from one setting or context to another; moving very slightly
Twenty-one developing nations have come together to say, that they believe the meeting will be doomed unless there's a radical shift by the rich nations.

significant:
/sɪg'nɪfəkənt/ a. Syn. noteworthy; important fairly large; important in effect or meaning
This kind of planning presents the government with a significant problem.

similar:
/'sɪmɪlə(r)/ a. nearly corresponding; somewhat like; having a general likeness
In return, it wants the US to make similar moves, as to cut tariffs and increase quotas for EU goods.

simulate:
/'sɪmjʊleɪt/ v. Syn. feign; imitate make a pretence of; reproduce someone's behavior or looks
He tried to simulate insanity in order to avoid punishment for his crime.

site:
/saɪt/ n. physical position in relation to the surroundings; position; location
When someone asks me where to look for help, your site is always on the list - so thanks.

sole:
/soʊl/ n. Syn. bottom bottom; underside of foot or shoe or boot; bottom surface of a plow
The back of the sole is attached to the shoe by a semi-circle of nails driven from the outside.

somewhat:
/'sʌmwɒt/;/-hwɒt/ ad. Syn. slightly to some extent or degree; rather; a bit; slightly
There is a Caribbean feel to the song and that type of energy and enthusiasm to the song that makes it somewhat mystifying.

source:
/sɔ:s/ n. point of origin, such as spring, of stream or river; one that causes, creates, or initiates
Walters was not expecting an application from this source for the next ten years.

specific:
/spɪ'sɪfɪk/ a. Syn. particular; definite stated explicitly or in detail; definite
FBI officials stressed that they were aware of no specific plot to attack any other aircraft.

specify:
/'spɛsɪfaɪ/ v. Syn. detail; designate detail; designate
He didn't specify what crimes he was referring to, but said if proof was found, the police would ask for charges to be brought.

sphere:
/sfɪə(r)/ n. Syn. ball; globe ball; globe; a particular aspect of life or activity
I feel more inclination to put you in the way of keeping yourself, and shall endeavor to do so; but observe, my sphere is narrow.

stable:
/'steɪb(ə)l/ a. Syn. fixed; steadfast; constant not easily moved or disturbed
Keeping insulin stable is important all day long, so avoiding all sugar and anything that breaks down quickly into glucose in the body is the goal.

statistic:
/stə'tɪstɪk/ n. mathematics of the collection, organization, and interpretation of numerical data
Without correction for socioeconomic background, legal status, and type of crime, this statistic is close to utterly meaningless.

status:
/'steɪtəs/ n. Syn. standing; state position relative to others; standing
He never troubled himself about his status.

straightforward:
/streɪt'fɔ:wəd/ a. proceeding in a straight course or manner; not deviating; honest; frank.
But a simple and straightforward apology would have been better.

strategy:
/'strætɪdʒɪ/ n. elaborate and systematic plan; plan of action intended to accomplish a specific goal
The centre will carry out research and develop a strategy to fight the spread of the disease.

stress:
/strɛs/ n. Syn. emphasis put special emphasis on; utter with an accent; state of extreme difficulty, pressure, or strain
He presided over the economy during the period of its greatest stress and danger.

structure:
/'strʌktʃə(r)/ n. complex construction or entity; complex composition of knowledge
Sociologists have studied the changing structure of the family.

style:
/staɪl/ n. particular kind; a way of expressing something
All the reporters were expected to adopt the style of this newspaper.

submit:
/səb'mɪt/ v. Syn. defer; yield refer for judgment or consideration; hand in; present
What I submit is a dialogue that respects the humanity of both parties.

subordinate:
/sə'bɔ:dɪnət/;/-dənət/ a. Syn. inferior; submissive occupying lower rank; inferior; submissive
Bishop Proudie's wife expected all the subordinate clergy to behave with great deference to the wife of their superior.

subsequent:
/'sʌbsɪkwənt/ a. Syn. following following in time or order; succeeding; later
In subsequent days, other polls showed that the margin hadn't narrowed all that much.

subsidy:
/'sʌbsɪdɪ/ n. Syn. financing direct financial aid by government
Without this subsidy, American ship operators would not be able to compete in world markets.

substitute:
/'sʌbstɪtju:t/;/-tu:t/ v. Syn. exchange; replace exchange; put in the place of another
Low and middle income countries are suffering from the condition, as they substitute fiber intake for a much higher consumption of saturated fats and sugar.

successor:
/sək'sɛsə(r)/ n. one who or that which succeeds or follows; one who takes the place which another has left
Indeed, depending on who her successor is there, the net impact could even be negative.

sufficient:
/sə'fɪʃ(ə)nt/ a. Syn. adequate; enough adequate; enough; being as much as is needed
Then the scanty supply of food was distressing: with the keen appetites of growing children, we had scarcely sufficient to keep alive a delicate invalid.

sum:
/sʌm/ n. mount or whole of any number of individuals or particulars added together; principal points or thoughts when viewed together; amount
He never had supposed for a moment that so large a sum as a hundred dollars was to be found in actual money in any one's possession.

summary:
/'sʌmərɪ/ n. brief statement that presents the main points
He gave a summary of the conclusions.

supplement:
/'sʌplɪmənt/ v. Syn. add; complement add as something seems insufficient; complement; extension; addition
A food supplement is a preparation intended to supply nutrients, which are missing or not consumed in sufficient quantity in a person's diet.

survey:
/sə'veɪ/ n. Syn. poll; review poll; detailed critical inspection
A Bank of Israel survey has now shown that the number of families living below the poverty line in Israel tripled between 1988 and 2001.

survive:
/sə'vaɪv/ v. Syn. endure; tolerate; outlive continue to live; endure or last
In 1998, he was lucky to survive when his balloon plummeted into the sea.

suspend:
/sə'spɛnd/ v. Syn. hang; append hang freely; postpone; delay
As the warning of earthquake, a number of train and subway lines had to suspend services.

sustain:
/sə'steɪn/ v. Syn. support; nourish; maintain admit as valid; keep in existence; lengthen or extend in duration or space
How can a country like Spain sustain the millions of migrants who were losing their jobs in 2009 and provide them with the same welfare state Spaniards can access in times of economic crisis?

symbol:
/'sɪmb(ə)l/ n. Syn. sign; signal sign; something visible to represent something else invisible
Often the destruction takes place in public, as a visible symbol of peace replacing war.

tape:
/teɪp/ n. long thin piece of cloth or paper; measuring instrument for length by narrow strip
The carpenter should have used his tape measure the room before any other jobs.

target:
/'tɑrgɪt/ n. reference point to shoot at; goal intended to be attained
The iPhone 5 is an obvious target for Apple fans to pursue.

task:
/tɑrsk/;/tæsk/ v. Syn. undertake; labor labor or study imposed by another; undertake; labor
I wished that she would always be so pleasant, and never push me about, or task me unreasonably.

team:
/ti:m/ n. Syn. gang a number of persons associated together in any work; a flock of wild ducks
Volleyball is a team game, how about beach volleyball?

technical:
/'tɛknɪk(ə)l/ a. having special skill or knowledge; according to principle; formal rather than practical; relating to technique
The ASX yesterday halted trading for four hours after detecting a technical issue.

technique:
/tɛk'ni:k/ n. practical method or art applied to some particular task; skillfulness
He displayed a flawless technique in the competition.

technology:
/tɛk'nɒlədʒɪ/ n. application of science, especially to industrial or commercial objectives
Without a doubt, they say the use of electronic records and other advances in technology is dramatically improving patient care.

temporary:
/'tɛmpərərɪ/;/-pərɛrɪ/ a. Syn. impermanent not permanent; not lasting
The Administration says the tariffs were meant to be a temporary measure designed to give the American steel industry time to reorganize.

tense:
/tɛns/ a. Syn. strained; taut; tight stretch or force to the limit; tight
The northern city of Kano, which has a history of sectarian violence is especially tense, but has remained peaceful.

terminate:
/'tɜrmɪneɪt/ v. Syn. stop; end stop; bring to an end or halt
The attack would terminate the relatively peaceful period after cold war.

text:
/tɛkst/ n. written words; book prepared for use in schools or colleges
A controversial new edition of a Japanese history text book has been chosen by a public school board for use in its schools.

theme:
/θi:m/ n. Syn. subject; motif; topic subject of conversation or discussion; topic; essay
His letters were always on the theme of love.

theory:
/'θɪərɪ/ n. doctrine or scheme of things; general or abstract principles of any science
The other main theory is that stress during birth somehow leads to left-handedness.

thereby:
/ðɛə'baɪ/ ad. Syn. thus; accordingly; consequently thus; accordingly; by that means; because of that
They hunger and thirst no more; all their wants are supplied, and all the uneasiness caused thereby is removed.

thesis:
/'θi:sɪs/ n. Syn. paper; dissertation paper; dissertation; an unproved statement put forward as a premise in an argument
A good thesis makes the difference between a thoughtful research project and a simple retelling of facts.

topic:
/'tɒpɪk/ n. subject of a speech, essay, thesis, discussion, or conversation
It was a very sensitive topic to discuss, may I have chance to change it?

trace:
/treɪs/ v. Syn. imprint; residues follow, discover; make a mark or lines on a surface
The first problem is who is responsible for the material: the original author, who may be impossible to trace, or the Internet service provider.

tradition:
/trə'dɪʃ(ə)n/ n. Syn. heritage thought or behavior followed from generation to generation; heritage
The state of Massachusetts has always been famous for its history, and especially rich in tradition is the region around Boston.

transfer:
/træns'fɜr(r), trɑr-/ n. Syn. shift; distract; divert shifting; conveyance or removal of something from one place, person, or thing to another
They are also looking into allegations of the illegal transfer of shares that enabled the Chung family to retain management control.

transform:
/træns'fɔ:m, trɑr-/ v. Syn. change; convert change in outward structure or looks; convert
He wants to transform into a monster.

transit:
/'trænsɪt, 'trɑr-/ n. act of passing; passage through or over; line or route of passage
The transit was damaged by flood.

transmit:
/trænz'mɪt, trɑr-/ v. Syn. forward; convey forward; send from one person or place to another
They transmit his secret to the whole town.

transport:
/træns'pɔ:t, trɑr-/ v. Syn. convey carry from one place to another; carry away; deport
What I was trying to transport is the oil that is in demand particularly.

trend:
/trɛnd/ n. Syn. tendency popular taste; general direction in which something tends to move
Only late last year, Air Canada seemed to be contradicting the downward trend affecting US-based airlines by posting profits.

trigger:
/'trɪgə(r)/ v. Syn. initiate; start cause something happen; set off
Please skip the remarks that will trigger bitter debates again.

ultimate:
/'ʌltɪmət/ a. Syn. final; fundamental; extreme final; being the last or concluding; fundamental; elemental; extreme
As the ultimate arbiter of the Constitution, the Supreme Court occupies a central place in our scheme of government.

undergo:
/ʌndə'goʊ/ v. Syn. experience; suffer experience; suffer; pass through
In February, a court ruled that Mr. Doe should undergo a DNA test.

underlie:
/ʌndə'laɪ/ v. be located under or below; be the support or basis of; account for
In turn, some of these ideas also underlie the Risch algorithm, which is used in Mathematics for indefinite integration.

undertake:
/ʌndə'teɪk/ v. Syn. embark; assume take on; embark on; assume
Can we expect mini robots to undertake major tasks?

uniform:
/'ju:nɪfɔ:m/ n. consistent; standardized; clothing of a particular group
At issue is a demand that all imports are accompanied by uniform certificates authorised by the Commission and not the individual member states.

unify:
/'ju:nɪfaɪ/ v. Syn. integrate; unite integrate; make into or become one unit
A proposal by Oracle could help unify emerging specifications for orchestrating Web services.

unique:
/jʊ'ni:k/ a. Syn. alone; single; sole without an equal; being the only one of its kind
You have to face a problem unique to coastal areas.

utilise:
/ju:'tɪlaɪz/ v. Syn. utilize use; utilize
We asked some skilled food bloggers how they utilise their unused and excess ingredients.

valid:
/'vælɪd/ a. Syn. sound; true logically convincing; sound; legally acceptable; well grounded
He said the large number of people surveyed and the lack of corrupting factors mean certain valid conclusions can be drawn from the results.

vary:
/'vɛərɪ/ v. change aspect of; alter in form, appearance, substance, position; make different by a partial change; modify
I believe she was happy in her way: this routine sufficed for her; and nothing annoyed her as much as the occurrence of any incident which forced her to vary its clockwork regularity.

vehicle:
/'vi:ɪk(ə)l/;/'vi:hɪkl/ n. Syn. automobile; instrument automobile; means of conveying; medium
The vehicle was driven to an underground garage where, say police, the robbers transferred four strong boxes full of cash into a getaway car.

version:
/'vɜrʃ(ə)n/;/'vərʒn/ n. Syn. edition written work in a new form; edition; interpretation of a particular viewpoint
He downloaded the latest version of the software from the Internet.

via:
/'vaɪə/ ad. by the way of
He flew to Europe via the North Pole.

violate:
/'vaɪəleɪt/ v. treat in a violent manner; abuse; do violence to; disturb; interrupt
While you looked so, I should be certain that whatever charter you might grant under coercion, your first act, when released, would be to violate its conditions.

virtual:
/'vɜrtjʊəl/ a. existing or resulting in essence or effect though not in actual fact; existing in mind, especially as a product of imagination
Connecting the real world with the virtual is the best way of putting the destiny of the city back in the hands of its citizens.

visible:
/'vɪzɪb(ə)l/ a. being often in public eye; obvious to the eye
The brightened comet in the constellation Virgo may even be visible to the naked eye, allowing members of the public around the world to join in this historic moment in astronomy.

vision:
/'vɪʒ(ə)n/ n. Syn. sight ability to see; sight; vivid mental image
The Boeing vision for a growing aviation business seems to be one of a large number of direct, or 'point to point' flights.

visual:
/'vɪʒjʊəl/ a. Syn. visible; optical seen or able to be seen by the eye; visible; optical
Thank you for the visual presentation; it helps very much.

volume:
/'vɒlju:m/;/-jəm/ n. Syn. capacity; bulk; amount capacity; amount of space occupied by an object
The remains, much reduced in volume from the original, had been preserved in the silver box.

voluntary:
/'vɒləntərɪ/;/-tɛrɪ/ a. Syn. willing; unforced done or undertaken of one's own free will; unforced
But can it be enforced? The answer technically is no - it's a voluntary agreement and there are no penalties for those who don't control wages.

welfare:
/'wɛlfɛə(r)/ n. Syn. benefit benefit; something that aids health or happiness
Many receive government food rations, and about a quarter are living in welfare camps.

whereas:
/wɛər'æz/;/hwɛr'æz/ ad. considering that; it being the case that; since
Whereas we want a flat, they would rather live in a house.

whereby:
/wɛə'baɪ/ ad. by which; by what; how
He devised a plan whereby he might escape.

widespread:
/'waɪdsprɛd, -'sprɛd/ a. spread or scattered over a considerable extent; occurring or accepted widely
The most pure form of pay for performance, executive stock options, resulted in widespread cheating over a decade.

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