Premium Essay

Scaling Up Access to Finance for India's Rural Poor

In: Social Issues

Submitted By gautham1985
Words 29724
Pages 119
Report No. - IN

INDIA

Scaling-up Access to Finance for India’s Rural Poor

September 6, 2004

FINANCE AND PRIVATE SECTOR DEVELOPMENT UNIT
South Asia Region

Document of the World Bank

TABLE OF CONTENTS

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

I. INTRODUCTION 2

India’s Rural Finance Landscape 4 What are the financial needs of the rural poor? 4 Rural finance service providers 5

II. ACCESS TO RURAL FINANCE IN INDIA: THE EVIDENCE 8

Supply Side Indicators of Access to Finance 8 Access to Rural Finance: Evidence from the Demand Side 12 Access to savings/deposit accounts 14 Payments Services – Limited use, high cash economy 15 Access to Credit 15 Access to Insurance 17 The Importance of Informal Finance 17

III. WHAT CONSTRAINS ACCESS TO FINANCE FOR INDIA’S RURAL POOR? 19

Why Banks Are Reluctant To Lend to Rural Clients 19 Lack of credit information. 20 The tyranny of collateral 20 Weak legal framework and enforcement issues. 21 Government policy 21 Why Do Small, Rural Borrowers Find Rural Banks Unattractive? 26 Absence of flexible products and services 26 Transactions costs 26 Collateral 27

IV. RECENT EFFORTS IN INDIA TO IMPROVE RURAL ACCESS TO FINANCE: THE ROLE OF FORMAL—INFORMAL LINKAGES AND NEW PRODUCTS 28

SHG-bank Linkage Approach: Linking Commercial Banks to Grassroots Borrowers 28 How Effective Has SHG Bank Linkage Been in Targeting the Poor? 30 Impact on vulnerability of poor households 32 Some Lessons from SHG Bank Linkage 33 Key concerns: Limited outreach and scale of lending and issues in financial sustainability 34 Microfinance Institutions (MFIs) 35 What has constrained the outreach and scale of MFIs? 36 The “Service Provider” Model of Microfinance Piloted by Private Banks 37 The Kisan Credit Card 39 Recent Innovations in Micro- and...

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Microfinance

...Anti-Poverty Vaccine 15 7. Transformation of Microfinance in India 19 8. Scaling up Microfinance 22 9. Microfinance in India - A Tool For Poverty Reduction 26 10. SWOT Analysis of Microfinance 29 11. Delivery Models of Microfinance 32 12. Interest Rates in MFIs and prevailing trends 36 13. Scope of further study 42 14. Conclusion 44 15. Bibliography 46 OBJECTIVE OF THIS PROJECT WORK This project work tries to outline the prevailing condition of the Microfinance in India in the light of its emergence till now. Microfinance refers to small savings, credit and insurance services extended to socially and economically disadvantaged segments of society. It is emerging as a powerful tool for poverty alleviation in India. The prospect of Micro-Finance is dominated by SHGs (Self Help Groups) - Banks linkage Program. Its main aim is to provide a cost effective mechanism for providing financial services to the poor. To understand the transformation experiences better, the issues that trigger transformation were identified viz.: size, diversity of services, financial sustainability and focus. It is argued that the transformation experiences in India are not large in number. However, I found that there are three forms of organizations that seem to be popular in the microfinance sector – the Non-Banking Finance Companies, the Banks– both Local Area Banks and Urban Co-operative......

Words: 9136 - Pages: 37

Free Essay

Sustainable Microentrepreneurship

...AND MICROFINANCE IN REDUCING POVERTY IN LDCS 4. EFFECTS OF SUSTAINABLE MICROENTREPRENUERSHIP ON LDCS 5. CONCLUSION 6. REFERENCES 1. INTRODUCTION About 90 percent of the people in developing countries lack access to financial services from institutions, either for credit or savings1, which further fuels the “Vicious Cycle of Poverty” (refer to Fig. 1). If the people of LDCs have a limited capacity to invest in capital, productivity is restricted, incomes are inhibited, domestic savings remain low, and again, any increases in productivity are prevented. A lack of access to financial institutions also hinders the ability for entrepreneurs in LDCs to engage in new business ventures, inhibiting economic growth, and often, the sources and consequences of entrepreneurial activities are neither financially nor environmentally sustainable (existing for continuing future use). Microfinance serves as a means to empower the poor, and provides a valuable tool to assist the economic development process. However, unavoidably, various barriers and obstacles limit the roles of microfinance, entrepreneurship and sustainability in reducing poverty in LDCs around the world. 1 Robinson, Marguerite S., 2002, “The Microfinance Revolution: Sustainable Finance for the Poor” Fig 1. The Vicious Cycle of Poverty In addressing this issue,...

Words: 4845 - Pages: 20

Premium Essay

Water for People

...People—India Country Strategy 2007 – 2011 Final Draft _______________________________________________________________________ Submitted for Consideration by the International Programs Committee December 14, 2006 Glossary ARWSP BEC BESUS CAP CPI—M CSO DFID GoWB GP IEC IMF IT KAP lpcd MDG MNP MoWR NGO NWRC O&M PRA PRI PRSP RSP SWOT TRYSEM USA UT VCHP Accelerated Rural Water Sanitation Programme Bengal Engineering College Bengal Engineering and Science University Shibpur Comprehensive Action Plan Communist Party of India—Marxist Civil Society Organisations Department for International Funding Government of West Bengal Gram Panchayat Information Education Communication International Monetary Fund Information Technology Knowledge Attitude Practice Litres per capita per day Millennium Development Goals Minimum Needs Programme Ministry of Water Resources Nongovernmental Organisation National Water Resource Council Operation and Maintenance Participatory Rural Appraisal Panchayati Raj Institutions Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper Rural Sanitation Programme Strength Weakness Opportunity Threat Training of Rural Youth for Self Employment United States of America Union Territory Volunteer Community Health Promoter Contents Section Title Introduction 1 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 2 2.1 2.2 3 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 4 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 5 5.1 5.2 5.2.1 5.2.2 5.2.3 5.2.4 5.2.5 5.2.6 5.2.7 5.3 6 6.1 6.2 7 7.1 7.2 Review of Water and Sanitation in India Demographic, Economic and Socio-political......

Words: 13726 - Pages: 55

Free Essay

Doc, Docx, Pdf,

...MKS0119 Nokia’s Rural Marketing Strategies in India: Reaching Out to the Bottom of Pyramid “The rural consumer is discerning and the rural market is vibrant. At the current rate of growth, it will soon outstrip the urban market. The rural market is not sleeping any longer. We are.”1 – Adi Godrej, Chairman, Godrej Group of Industries To expand its presence, Nokia is planning to launch a new service ‘Nokia Life Tools’ that would provide information on market price, weather, etc., to information-starved farmers. While the idea is not new, the challenge in front of Nokia is to convert the 70 million rural mobile users in using its service, amidst competition from local input dealers and ITC e-Choupal that offers similar services. Rural Marketing in India: Demographics and Economics Out of India’s population of over 1 billion, 70% lives in rural India.2 India consists of 627,000 villages3 with 13% of them having a population of above 2000.4 For the people of rural India, agriculture is the main occupation. Agriculture contributes 17.8% to India’s GDP with about 60% of the workforce employed in the agriculture sector in 2008.5 Since independence, rural India went through a socio-economic transformation due to the various initiatives taken by the ministry of rural development.6 However, till 1990s, the gap between rural and urban development remained wide. With the implementation of minimum support price (the rate at which the government buys the farm produce to prevent farmers......

Words: 5225 - Pages: 21

Free Essay

Slums in India

...The Nature and Causes of Growing Slum Problems in the Metropolitan Cities The Nature and Causes of Growing Slum Problems in the Metropolitan Cities of India! A slum can be defined as a “compact settlement with a collection of poorly built tenements, mostly of temporary nature, crowded together usually with inadequate sanitary and drinking water facilities in unhygienic conditions.” The growth of metropolitan cities in India has been largely unplanned and haphazard and this can be seen from the fact that one-fourth of total urban population lives in slum and squaller settlements. Slum Population in India - Slum Population simply refers to people living in slum areas below the poverty line. As India is still on the path of development, there is large number of people living below the poverty line. These people usually live in slum areas connected to the city. According to Government sources, the Slum Population of India have exceeds the population of Britain. It has doubled in last two decades. According to last census in 2001, the slum-dwelling population of India had risen from 27.9 million in 1981 to 61.8 million in 2001. Indian economy has achieved a significant growth of 8 percent annually in last four years, but there is still large number of people nearly 1.1 billion still survives on less than 1 $ (around 46 INR) in a day. Increase in Indian Population over a period of time has also resulted in slum population growth. Despite of Government efforts to build new......

Words: 6678 - Pages: 27

Premium Essay

Sks Microfinance

...International Center for Business Research Issue: Volume 2 – Apr 2013; Link: icbr.net/0204.37 Case Study Of SKS Microfinance Ltd.: India’s Lone Microfinance Company in the Stock Market Devendra Prasad Pandey1  1 MGCG University, Chitrakoot, Satna, MP, India Abstract: Started as an NGO in 1988, SKS is today a for-profit NBFC regulated by the Reserve Bank of India. As of January 31, 2013 it has 48 lakh members associated with 1307 branches. It has disbursed 26195 crore as of September 2012. SKS Microfinance operates across 17 states in the country, including Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Odisha, Madhya Pradesh, Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan, Uttaranchal, Haryana, West Bengal, Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh, Gujarat, Kerala, Punjab and Delhi. In August 2010, SKS completed an IPO that from the global financial perspective was a great success: it was 13 times oversubscribed, and the company's valuation reached the top of the offer band price (which initially listed the value of the company at $1.5 billion), and the share price rose 13% on its first day of trading and rose 29% within four weeks of the IPO. In the process, SKS raised $348 million in fresh capital that, in theory, was supposed to help further grow the business and allow SKS to serve more people with financial services and microcredit than it reached before the IPO. Shares of SKS Microfinance rose by over eight per cent in early trade, after the company reported a net profit of Rs 1.2 crore for the......

Words: 6840 - Pages: 28

Premium Essay

Student

...Speech Financial Inclusion and Banks: Issues and Perspectives Financial Inclusion and Banks: Issues and Perspectives* K. C. Chakrabarty Ms Naina Lal Kidwai, Vice President, Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce and Industry (FICCI) and Country Head HSBC India & Director, HSBC Asia Pacific, Ms Meera Sanyal, Chairperson, FICCI’s Financial Inclusion Committee & Country Executive India, The Royal Bank of Scotland N.V., Ms Caitlin Wiesen, Country Director, UNDP, Mr Mathew Titus, Co-chair, FICCI’s Financial Inclusion Committee & Executive Director, Sa-Dhan, Ms Jyoti Vij, Assistant Secretary General, FICCI, members of the print and electronic media, ladies and gentlemen. It is indeed a pleasure to be present here today to address this gathering on the bankers’ role in promoting financial inclusion, their achievements, and the key issues and challenges being faced by them. Role of FICCI and UNDP 2. As you are all aware, financial inclusion is a mammoth task and it cannot be achieved without the active collaboration of all stakeholders. It is in this context that this particular seminar organised by FICCI, which is an apex industry association and brings a large number of stakeholders under its fold, and United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), which is at the centre of the UN’s efforts to reduce global poverty, assumes significance. FICCI has been playing a leading role in policy debates touching social, economic and political issues and I believe that corporates have a......

Words: 4928 - Pages: 20

Premium Essay

Business Marketing

...SOLUTION 3.BENEFITS 4.HUL-PROJECT SHAKTI PRESENTATION TRANSCRIPT 5.SUPPORT SHAKTI. 6.MARKET LINKAGE FOR RURAL PRODUCTS 7.INDUSTRY ROLE IN BUILDING MARKET LINKAGES 8.SCOPE AND OPPORTUNITIES 9.LITERATRURE REVIEW 10.CONCLUSION 11.REFERENCES AND BIBLIOGRAPHY Introduction  Rural products of India are unique, innovative and have good utility and values. Large number of these rural products (like handicraft items, food products, embroidery, clothes & other products) sustains a significant segment of the population in the rural areas. Several attributes of rural products can be identified, for which, it has a demand in the market. Out of the lots, ‘ethnic origin’ and ‘indigenous design & appearance’ are two traits of rural products, attracting a premium in the market. But, contrary to this, the non-uniformity of rural products (from one another) and lack of its quality control measures has been creating a negative demand. Besides, the small sized and dispersed production units of these rural products hinder realization of the economies of scale in marketing and result in high transaction costs per unit of output. Niche-based products have no local market. Products in local use are also not marketed horizontally; they often first travel down to market through a long chain of intermediaries and then up to more difficult locations in the rural areas. In...

Words: 4266 - Pages: 18

Premium Essay

Paper on Project Shakti

...SHAKTI. 6.MARKET LINKAGE FOR RURAL PRODUCTS 7.INDUSTRY ROLE IN BUILDING MARKET LINKAGES 8.SCOPE AND OPPORTUNITIES 9.LITERATRURE REVIEW 10.CONCLUSION 11.REFERENCES AND BIBLIOGRAPHY Introduction Rural products of India are unique, innovative and have good utility and values. Large number of these rural products (like handicraft items, food products, embroidery, clothes & other products) sustains a significant segment of the population in the rural areas. Several attributes of rural products can be identified, for which, it has a demand in the market. Out of the lots, ‘ethnic origin’ and ‘indigenous design & appearance’ are two traits of rural products, attracting a premium in the market. But, contrary to this, the non-uniformity of rural products (from one another) and lack of its quality control measures has been creating a negative demand. Besides, the small sized and dispersed production units of these rural products hinder realization of the economies of scale in marketing and result in high transaction costs per unit of output. Niche-based products have no local market. Products in local use are also not marketed horizontally; they often first travel down to market through a long chain of intermediaries and then up to more difficult locations in the rural areas. In the process, the people in rural areas suffer from both low prices as producers and high prices as consumers. In this conflict, rural products loss its......

Words: 4232 - Pages: 17

Free Essay

Accenture

...Masters of rural markets: Accenture Research Report The Hallmarks of High Performance Contents Foreword: Unleashing India’s rural multiplier effect Growing business confidence in rural opportunities The attractions and distractions of rural markets 03 05 09 Distinctive capabilities that enable 15 companies to succeed in India’s hinterland Framework factors critical to nurturing distinctive capabilities Developing the right capabilities—and acting on them Last word 28 29 31 2 Foreword Unleashing India’s rural multiplier effect But rural India’s contributions to the nation’s economic success—and the obvious potential for profitable growth—is just a part of the promise of wholehearted commitment to doing business beyond the city centers and suburbs. India’s rural markets offer unprecedented opportunities for global and local companies to experiment with approaches and business models, which if successful, may be replicated in rural markets of other emerging economies. India is on the march. Its momentum is not only evident in metros— it is apparent in small towns and villages as well. Collectively, all over India’s rural heartland and in its teeming cities, India is readying for an even more impressive era of economic growth. There is no question that India’s rural markets are becoming a powerful economic engine. One telltale sign: rural accounts now comprise over 50 percent of new subscribers for some of the leading telecom providers.1 The rural......

Words: 10004 - Pages: 41

Free Essay

Inventory Management at Warehouse

...A PROJECT ON INVENTORY MANAGEMENT AT WAREHOUSE PROJECT REPORT SUBMITTED BY: ARKYADEEP CHOWDHURY (WORKING AS AN INTERN IN ITC LTD) INTERNSHIP SUPERVISOR: MR.SABYASACHI BAGCHI INDEX |CONTENTS |PAGE | | |NO. | | | | | | | | | | |Introduction – Company’s Profile |3 – 5 | | | | |Natural Movement |6 – 7 | | ...

Words: 5337 - Pages: 22

Premium Essay

Ifrs

...Autumns Internship Project KPMG Strategic and commercial Intelligence Department Inverting the Pyramid: Inclusion in the Financial Services Industry Final Project Report 19/11/2010 Submitted By: Hufriya Kavarana PGP-09-031 S.P. Jain Institute of Management and Research, Mumbai Inverting the Pyramid: Inclusion in the Financial Services Industry 2 | P a g e Table of Contents Preface .............................................................................................................................................. 3 Acknowledgement ............................................................................................................................ 4 Executive summary.......................................................................................................................... 5 Overview .......................................................................................................................................... 7 Components of financial inclusion—what is being measured? ..................................................... 8 Introduction ...................................................................................................................................... 9 Indian Scenario ............................................................................................................................... 13 Magnitude and Spread of Financial Exclusion ................................................................

Words: 16747 - Pages: 67

Free Essay

Indian Marketing

...innovative activities in India to meet the twin challenges of sustained growth and pro-poor development. India is an extreme “dual” economy.1 At one extreme, it is the world’s fourth-largest economy in purchasing power parity (PPP) terms, it is a nuclear and space power, and it is increasingly becoming a top global innovation player in certain key economic sectors––such as biotechnology, pharmaceuticals, automotive components, information technology (IT), software, and IT-enabled services (ITES). At the opposite extreme, India largely remains a subsistence economy. With an average per capita income of $720 in 2005, India is still a low-income and mainly rural, agrarian economy. About a quarter of its population lives below the national poverty line, with significant spatial variance across and within states.2 Roughly 70 percent of its population is rural, and 60 percent of the workforce is engaged in agriculture. Illiteracy rates are 46 percent for women and 25 percent for men.3 Given this dual economy, it is natural to ask what can be done both to strengthen the likelihood of sustained high growth rates and to address the unmet needs of the informal sector and the poor. To sustain growth and reduce poverty, India must leverage and improve its innovation potential. Innovation can be a critical driver of increased productivity and competitiveness and, ultimately, poverty alleviation.4 India’s recent acceleration in growth has been impressive. Over the 2004–06 period, real GDP......

Words: 11506 - Pages: 47

Premium Essay

Insurance Industry Road Map Ahead

...Insurance Industry – Road Ahead Path for sustainable growth momentum and increasing profitability kpmg.com/in Foreword The Insurance industry in India has undergone transformational changes over the last 12 years. Liberalization has led to the entry of the largest insurance companies in the world, who have taken a strategic view on India being one of the top priority emerging markets. The industry has witnessed phases of rapid growth along with spans of growth moderation, intensifying competition with both life and general insurance segments having more than 20 competing companies, and significant expansion of the customer base. There have also been number of product innovations and operational innovations necessitated by increased competition among the players. Changes in the regulatory environment had path-breaking impact on the development of the industry. While the life insurance industry got affected by the introduction of cap in charges, the general insurance industry got impacted by price detariffication and Motor third party risk pooling arrangements. While the insurance industry still struggles to move out of the shadows cast by the challenges and uncertainties of the last few years, the strong fundamentals of the industry augur well for a roadmap to be drawn for sustainable long-term growth. The available headroom for development, sustainable external growth drivers, and competitive strategies would continue to drive growth in the gross written premiums.......

Words: 15937 - Pages: 64

Free Essay

Developed

...conducted for publications in English between 1990 and 2010. Studies containing full or partial data relating to international cooperation between developed and developing countries were retained for further analysis. Of 227 articles retained through initial screening, 65 were included in the final analysis. The results were two-fold: some articles pointed to intangible benefits accrued by developed country partners, but the majority of information pointed to developing country innovations that can potentially inform health systems in developed countries. This information spanned all six WHO health system components. Ten key health areas where developed countries have the most to learn from the developing world were identified and include, rural health service delivery; skills substitution; decentralisation of management; creative problem-solving; education in communicable disease control; innovation in mobile phone use; low technology simulation training; local product manufacture; health financing; and social entrepreneurship. While there are no guarantees that innovations from developing country experiences can effectively transfer to developed countries, combined developed-developing country learning processes can potentially generate effective solutions for global health systems. However, the global pool of knowledge in this area is virgin and further work needs to be undertaken to advance understanding of health innovation diffusion. Even more urgently, a standardized......

Words: 6424 - Pages: 26