Premium Essay

Scientific Managment

In: Business and Management

Submitted By josh91
Words 878
Pages 4
Outline in full the principles of scientific management. What does this theory contribute to management in contemporary organisations?

The main objective of management is maximum prosperity for both the business or owner and the employees. Maximum prosperity for a business means higher dividends and the development to its highest state of excellence. For employees it means higher wages than given in other businesses of the same industry and the ability to work at their highest rate of efficiency.
Frederick Winslow Taylor (1856- 1915) published the book The Principles of Scientific Management in 1911, with which he abolished the then present rule-of-thumb method and introduced and entirely new system of scientific management. With ‘time and motion study’ single tasks would be thoroughly studied, timed and then analysed with the goal of determining one best way of performing a job. It dramatically improved productivity in many businesses and therefore helped achieve maximum prosperity.
Taylor shows a negative bias towards workers in his book. He alleged that most employees deliberately do as little as they safely can. Reasons for what he called ‘Soldiering’ were; fear that increased output would mean fewer workers would be needed and that increased pay would not increase with productivity. Taylor believed that if his principles of scientific management were applied, this issue of Soldiering would be avoided.

In order for the scientific methods to be applied correctly, workers also had to be scientifically selected and trained. This meant that if a job required a lot of heavy lifting, the worker has to be physically able to do so. Workers were given tasks that equalled their skill so that they would not be over-worked but not under-worked either.
Training meant that they were told exactly what to do and how to do it. This form of standardisation on tools and…...

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Managment

...very grateful to Mehran University of Engineering and Technology, Jamshoro, Sindh, Paksitan and Quaid-e-Awam University of Engineering, Science and Technology, Nawabshah, Sindh, Pakistan for providing resources and environment to carry out this research. References [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] Janakiram MSV Cloud Computing Strategist; (2010), “Demystifying the Cloud An introduction to Cloud Computing”, Version 1.0 – March. Adamov, A ; Erguvan, M.; (2009),“The Truth about Cloud Computing as new Paradigm in IT”,IEEE International Conference on Application of Information and communication Technologies, AICT 2009. Dikaiakos, M.D; Katsaros, D.; Mehra, P.; Pallis, G.; Vakali, A.; (2010), “Cloud Computing Distributed Internet Computing for IT and Scientific Research”.Vol.13 ,pp 10, Sept.-Oct. 2009. Shuai Z; Shufen Z; Xuebin C; Xiuzhen H; (2010), “Cloud Computing Research and Development Trend”, 2nd International conference on Future Networks, 2010. ICFN ' 10. pp 23, 22-24 Jan 2010. Chang, L, Ti ; Chin L; Chang, A.Y.; Chun J, C;(2010), “ Information security issue of enterprises adopting the application of cloud computing”, IEEE 2010 Sixth International Conference on Networked Computing and Advanced Information Management (NCM),pp 645, 16-18 Aug. 2010. R. Maggiani; (2009), "Cloud computing is changing how we communicate," 2009 IEEE International Professional Communication Conference, IPCC 2009,Waikiki, HI, United states ,pp 1, 19-22 July. Geng L; David F; Jinzy Z; Glenn D; (2009), “Cloud......

Words: 4903 - Pages: 20

Premium Essay

Managment

...environments. The direct cause of employers seeking better HRM programs was not poor working conditions, but rather the protests and pressures generated by workers and organized labor unions. Indeed, labor unions, which had existed as early as 1790 in the United States, became much more powerful during the late 1800s and early 1900s. There were two other particularly important contributing factors to the origination of modem HRM during that period. The first was the industrial welfare movement, which represented a shift in the way that managers viewed employees—from nonhuman resources to human beings. That movement resulted in the creation of medical care and educational facilities. The second factor was Frederick W. Taylor's (1856-1915) Scientific Management, a landmark book that outlined management methods for attaining greater productivity from low-level production workers. The first corporate employment department designed to address employee concerns was created by the B.F. Goodrich Company in 1900. In 1902 National Cash Register formed a similar department to handle worker grievances, wage administration, record keeping, and many other functions that would later be relegated to HRM departments at most large U.S. companies. HRM as a professional discipline was especially bolstered by the passage of the Wagner Act in 1935 (also known as the National Labor Relations Act), which remained the basic U.S. labor law through the 1990s. It augmented the power of labor unions......

Words: 5409 - Pages: 22

Free Essay

Scientific Prose

...Scientific Prose Style The text under the analysis is entitled «The Main Peculiarities of a Snowfall». The text belongs to the scientific style. The Scientific style is a functional style of literary language, directing on the proving a hypothesis and creating new concepts. The Scientific style can exist within 2 forms: the written form of language (scientific articles, monographs or textbooks) and oral form (scientific reports, lectures, discussions at conferences, etc.)[1] The main function of scientific prose is to prove a hypothesis, to create new concepts, to disclose the internal laws of existence, relations between different phenomena.[2] The main aim of the scientific prose style is to present precise information and to establish a clear and logical progression of ideas. The genre of the text can be defined as popular scientific prose and it exists in written form. The common features of the scientific style are: 1. The use of objective, precise, and mostly unemotional language means: e.g.: «A snowfall consists of myriads of minute ice crystals…”; “The Pacific Ocean is the source of moisture for most snowfalls west of the Rocky Mountains…» 2. The impersonality is reflected in the choice of grammar and syntactic constructions: e.g.: «The formation of snow begins with these ice crystals in the subfreezing strata of the middle and upper atmosphere when there is an adequate supply of moisture present. » 3. The...

Words: 316 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Managment

...more people were working than ever before. Factories were being built and filled to capacity with employees. In all this new activity, problems arose in several aspects of the factory setting that included “tooling the plants, organizing managerial structure, training employees (many of them non-English-speaking immigrants), scheduling complex manufacturing operations, and dealing with increased labor dissatisfaction and resulting strikes.”(Daft, 2013, p. 36) This is around the time that what is called the “Classical Perspective” study of management arose. There are three sub fields of the classical perspective: Scientific Management, bureaucratic organizations, and administrative principles. Most notable of the three is the theory of scientific management which was originally founded by Frederick Taylor. During the time of the industrial revolution, the scientific theory of management was perfect for a factory setting. “Tasks were standardized as much as possible. Workers were rewarded and punished. This approach appeared to work well for organizations with assembly lines and other mechanistic, routinized activities.”(http://managementhelp.org/management/theories.htm) While this method increased productivity, over the years it has ignored the needs of the employees and social contexts. Further widening the gap between corporations and small businesses, the bureaucracy was created. According to its founder, Max Weber, this would increase efficiency as well as......

Words: 1011 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Scientific

...It is not difficult to find examples of Scientific Management in the 21st Century; the car and computer manufacturing plants, the work environments we go to everyday, the hospitals we are treated in and even some of the restaurants we might eat in, - almost all of them function more efficiently due to the application of Scientific Management. In fact, these methods of working seem so commonplace and so logical to a citizen of the modern world that it is almost impossible to accept that they were revolutionary only 100 years ago.  Although Scientific Management does play an important role in the 21st century, it is necessary to note that this method of management contains weaknesses that limit its influence in current work environments, and consequently not all of its tenants are applicable to modern organizations. Scientific Management is perhaps best seen as an evolutionary stage in management ever developing history. This essay will attempt to highlight both the strengths and weaknesses of Scientific Management in context of the 21st century through examination of its application in several modern organizations.  Scientific Management was developed in the first quarter of the 20th Century; its father is commonly accepted to be F.W. Taylor, although some variations of the theory have been developed by Gantt and Gilbreth. Taylor recognized labor productivity was largely inefficient due to a workforce that functioned by “rules of thumb,” and a mentality that equated......

Words: 2465 - Pages: 10

Premium Essay

History of Project Managment

...HISTORY OF PROJECT MANAGMENT 01-Jun-13 UMMARA MUSHTAQ 2123224 HISTORY OF PROJECT MANAGEMENT PROJECT MANAGEMENT: Project management is the discipline of planning, organizing, motivating, and controlling resources to achieve specific goals. Starting in the early 1960s, businesses and other organizations began to see the benefit of organizing work around projects. This project-centric view of the organization evolved further as organizations began to understand the critical need for their employees to communicate and collaborate while integrating their work across multiple departments and professions and, in some cases, whole industries. LATE NINETEENTH CENTURY: We can travel back even further, to the latter half of the nineteenth century, when the business world was becoming increasingly complex, to see how project management evolved from basic management principles. Large-scale government projects were the impetus for making important decisions that became the basis for project management methodology. In the United States, for example, the first truly large government project was the transcontinental railroad, which began construction in the 1860s. Suddenly, business leaders found themselves faced with the daunting task of organizing the manual labor of thousands of workers and the processing and assembly of unprecedented quantities of raw material. EARLY TWENTIETH CENTURY: Taylor introduced the concept of working more efficiently, rather......

Words: 607 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Managment

... 7. Perform an interview of a health care professional in order to demonstrate the ability to communicate medical terminology at the professional level. 8. Produce a professional medical document to develop problem solving skills. V. REQUIRED COURSE MATERIALS Wingerd, B. (2011). Unlocking Medical Terminology (2nd ed.), Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. (ISBN-13: 9780135149881) Stedman, T.L. (2011). Stedman’s Dictionary for the Health Professions and Nursing Illustrated (7th ed.), w/CD. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Baltimore, Maryland. (ISBN-13: 9781608316922) VI. COURSE REQUIREMENTS AND POLICIES A. Table of Analysis of In-class medical terminology B. Scientific Abstract Analyses C. Chapter Quizzes D. RX Assignment E. Midterm Exam F. Group Assignment G. Interview Assignment H. Pamphlet Assignment I. Final Exam J. Class Policies K. Extra/Replacement Credit A. In-Class Word Analysis: (10 Points) Bring the in-class participation form to each class period to write down and analyze medical terms during and as needed after the class period. This form is found on Blackboard. Date each class session that terms are introduced (you must be present the day of the terms to receive credit – but will be responsible for all terms on exams, i.e. matching with formal definition). The form will be checked at the......

Words: 3268 - Pages: 14

Premium Essay

Scientific Investigation and Non-Scientific Investigation

...Law, K.Y. School of Arts and Social Sciences The Open University of Hong Kong Abstract The paper reviews the main difference between scientific investigation and non-scientific investigation and the change of the scientific principles from different approach. In the first section of the text, the author describes the definitions of scientific investigation and non-scientific investigation and the different of both researches. Furthermore, Using the example to explain the difference between the two, so that a better understanding. The second section of this study is to present three styles of scientific principles; it’s divided to positivist search, interpretive search and critical search. It’s analyze the different of the above search and described their characteristic and feature Introduction Scientific investigation is the way in which scientists and researchers use a systematic approach to answer questions about the world around the people. A scientific investigation is an empirical (measurable) study of a question using the scientific method. The main parts are listed below: (1) problem: the question people intend to answer, (2) hypothesis: the best anticipated guess to the outcome of the question, (3) experiment: study is carried out and the results are measured, (4) Results: the data/information measured during the experiment is organized in a meaningful way. Charts/graphs/tables are made, (5)discussion/analysis: the results are......

Words: 1386 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Managment

...available to it at a particular time and by its ability to accumulate additional resources Tangible resources * Assets that are relatively easy to identify, measure, and value * They include concrete, physical assets such real estate, cash, production facilities, and equipment, account receive able, borrowing capacity Intangible resources * Brand names, company reputations, knowledge, technology, patents, copyrights, and trademarks * Intangible assets are combined with tangible assets to create the firm’s product offers * Difficult for competitors to imitate and can provide competitive advantages * Human resources (e.g. experience and capability of employees) * Innovation resources (technical and scientific expertise and ideas) * Reputation resources (brand name, reputation with suppliers) * Culture Organizational Capabilities * Organizational capabilities are not specific tangible or intangible assets but the competencies and skills that a firm employs to transform those assets into outputs * What a firm does with the resources under its control * Concern an organization’s capacity to make decisions, coordinate the use of tangible and intangible resources, and leverage these to bring a desired end 6. Strategy Groups CSF for axis (look at pg 56 for automotive section-as it is self explanatory) * The analysis can be enhanced by identifying groups of firms that are mostly similar to each......

Words: 4048 - Pages: 17

Premium Essay

Managment

...Founder of Microsoft, INC Mr. Bill Gates then Mr. Sam Walton, the CEO and Founder of Wal-Mart, INC and in the end it’s Mr. Steve Jobs, the Founder and CEO of APPLE, INC. All the mentioned information is backed with references at the end. Bill Gates the CEO and Founder of Microsoft, INC was great at setting direction for the company. He had a vision of the world and successfully moved Microsoft in that direction. That vision was “a computer on every desk and in every home”. Gates started the first major software company at a time when personal computing hardly existed – a radical change that has helped lead us into the Information Era. Gates believes, “it will affect the world seismically, rocking us in the same way the discovery of the scientific method, the invention of printing… did.” This is the first mark of a transformational leader. He had a major commitment to a huge goal and backed it with his own values and beliefs. In his book, Business the Bill Gates Way, Bill Gates is a modern business phenomenon, the greatest of the cyber-tycoons. His is not simply a story of technical brilliance and enormous wealth; it is one of remarkable business vision and an obsessive desire to win. It is also about a leadership style that is radically different to anything the business world has seen before. He not only wanted his company to make an impact on the world, but he wanted to be driving the bus that did it. He did this with a combination of leadership styles. Gates......

Words: 1422 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Scientific Method and Steps in Scientific Inquiry

...Scientific Method and Steps in Scientific Inquiry Thomas J. Tophia Jr. BSHS/435 May 26, 2016 Dr. Judith A. Geske Scientific Method and Steps in Scientific Inquiry This paper will define and describe the scientific method and the steps in scientific inquiry. This paper will further explain what the steps are in the scientific method of inquiry or research process and why each of these steps must be included to support the scientific method. Further the paper will briefly discuss how the scientific method was applied in the article “Faculty Beliefs, Perceptions, and Level of Community Involvement in Their Research: A Survey at One Urban Academic Institution”. Lastly the paper will summarize how scientifically sound research supports the function of a human service manager. Scientific Method The scientific method can be defined as a method that is used for research and study and involves “identifying a problem that defines the goal of research, make a prediction that, if confirmed, resolves the problem, gather data relevant to this prediction, analyze and interpret the data to see if it supports the prediction and resolves the question that initiated the research.” (Monette, Sullivan, & DeJong, 2011) These steps now provide the foundation for education research according to, “Monette, Sullivan, & DeJong, 2011”. The scientific method can help produce the right answers to questions that cannot be answered with common sense alone. Researchers can use...

Words: 664 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Scientific

...Scientific Inventions That Changed Medicine for Providers and Patients. Jason Robert Luedeman UMUC 13 June 2016 X Rays and the History of Radiography X-rays were discovered in 1895 by Wilhelm Conrad Roentgen (1845-1923) who was a Professor at Wuerzburg University in Germany. Working with a cathode-ray tube in his laboratory, Roentgen observed a fluorescent glow of crystals on a table near his tube. The tube that Roentgen was working with consisted of a glass envelope (bulb) with positive and negative electrodes encapsulated in it. The air in the tube was evacuated, and when a high voltage was applied, the tube produced a fluorescent glow. Roentgen shielded the tube with heavy black paper, and discovered a green colored fluorescent light generated by a material located a few feet away from the tube. He concluded that a new type of ray was being emitted from the tube. This ray was capable of passing through the heavy paper covering and exciting the phosphorescent materials in the room. He found that the new ray could pass through most substances casting shadows of solid objects. Roentgen also discovered that the ray could pass through the tissue of humans, but not bones and metal objects. One of Roentgen's first experiments late in 1895 was a film of the hand of his wife, Bertha. It is interesting that the first use of X-rays were for an industrial (not medical) application, as Roentgen produced a radiograph of a set of weights in a box to show his colleagues ......

Words: 632 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Managment

...Mission, Vision, Values, & Managment In today's post-recession workforce, gaining employment is so difficult that once hired, life has new meaning. The mission, vision, and values may mean different things to managers. With a closer look into an organization, from the newest employees up to the experienced senior management, it is found that many of the staff members do not have knowledge enough to recall the mission and vision statement. The military is used as an example, setting the standard for other public and private entities. In this case, let's examine a human resources unit in the United States Air Force. The Air Force Civilian Services mission and vision statement aim to "provide elite administrative, operation and technical support for the Air Force vision; Global vigilance, reach, and power" ('Our Mission & Vision', 2016). The mission and vision statement must work together to meet the organizational goals. In examining the core competencies, one must consider the true definition and rationale. Also, the Air Force has a set of strategic goals that determine the long-range direction of the organization. The attitudes, behaviors and goals of each Air Force civilian in the group are meant to demonstrate alignment with the vision, mission, values, and competencies. For a company to manifest values and a culture that leads to success, these vital mantras must be reiterated, exercised, memorized, and done by all employees. Mission Statment There is a......

Words: 1493 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Scientific

...4208 REV: JANUARY 4, 2011 STEVEN C. WHEELWRIGHT WILLIAM SCHMIDT Scientific Glass, Inc.: Inventory Management In January 2010, Ava Beane, the newly hired Manager of Inventory Planning for Scientific Glass (SG), contemplated the critical nature of her first big project with the company. During her interviews for the job, several executives had told her very directly that the company’s need for a more effective way to manage its inventory was urgent. At the time, Beane had felt confident she could address the problem quickly and meaningfully. Now on the job for several weeks, Beane was gaining a fuller appreciation of the difficulties of the task. Until recently, SG had treated inventory management as largely an afterthought. As a fastgrowing organization with annual sales of $86 million, the company historically emphasized the twin goals of continued sales growth and high customer satisfaction. During the past year, however, executives at the company had identified a disturbing trend: Inventory balances were increasing substantially, which tied up extra capital the company needed to fund its growing operations. In recent years the company exceeded its target debt to total capital ratio of 40%. If this trend persisted, it could jeopardize SG’s ability to fund a planned expansion into new international markets. Beane was given four weeks to come up with recommendations on how to make the inventory plan support the company’s sales and customer-service......

Words: 5746 - Pages: 23

Premium Essay

Managment

...problems. The key to the solution of any environmental problem is rigorous scientific evaluation and understanding. Facts and information are collected, analyzed and interpreted. Scientific understanding of life and its environment is based on the use of the Scientific Method which is e established processes used by scientists to gain knowledge and solve problems. It is a hierarchical ordering of knowledge. Five major Steps: The scientific method can be described as a series of steps: (1). Make observations (2) Develop a hypothesis (3) Design and perform experiments; (4) Collect and interpret data (5). Reach conclusions from the data and share your knowledge. A scientific theory results when a hypothesis is supported by facts and stands up to repeated tests A scientific law is a theory that is universally applicable and has no known deviations. Scientists collect objective data in 2 ways: by observation and experimentation. Observations are made in 2 ways: (a) Use of the five senses (smell, vision) and (b) Use of instruments that measure beyond what we sense. Sources of scientific data are (a) Quantitative (b) Qualitative and (c) Historical. Steps in Addressing Environmental Problems: Environmental science deals with complex systems that present challenges to the traditional scientific method because they are not easily tested. Alternative approaches such as mathematical modeling is used 1. Scientific Assessment: The gathering of information. The problem is defined and......

Words: 1412 - Pages: 6