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Second Language Acquisition

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The theoretical framework for teachers’ beliefs in this study is based on a computational model of second language acquisition proposed by Ellis (1998) that highlights four major stages that relates roughly to common beliefs on the process of how grammar should be taught. The first stage, input, stresses on the materials and the modification of input used in teaching grammar in the classroom. The second, explicit knowledge, provides explicit instruction; the third, output, emphasizes production practice; and the final stage, negative feedback, highlights the role of error correction. The model can be seen in Figure 1 with the four stages highlighted by the letters A, B, C, and D respectively.

Figure _: A Computational Model of L2 Acquisition
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VanPatten and Cadierna (1993) suggest that the comprehension-based instruction created intake that led to implicit knowledge compared to the production-based instruction which only contributed to explicit knowledge. Their finding was also supported by Tanaka (1996) who found that structure of input in conjunctions with explicit instruction resulted in durable learning that was available for use in both comprehension and production …show more content…
There two types of explicit instructions; direct explicit instruction and indirect explicit instruction. Direct explicit instruction takes on form of oral or written explanations of grammatical phenomena. The instruction can stand by itself or be accompanied by exercises where learners attempt to apply the rules that they have learned (Ellis, 1998). Meanwhile, indirect explicit instruction is when the learners complete consciousness-raising tasks, in which they analyze data illustrating the working of a specific grammatical rule (Ellis, 1998).
Gelderen (2010) described the purpose of explicit instruction of input in the grammar teaching as “to stimulate students’ linguistic reflection about the language, not necessarily based upon a set of classifications but upon students’ own observations of regularities” (p. 109). Robinson (1996) found that the group receiving explicit explanations outperformed all the other groups on a grammaticality judgement test administered immediately after the treatment (of direct explanation of the rules and then tried to apply them in the

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