Section 2 Notes

In: Science

Submitted By mariaeo25
Words 664
Pages 3
Populations, demography, population models, competition, predation
Dr. Dorn

Introduction to Populations: (chapter 8)

A. What is a population?

What is a species?

Stickleback (fish) in lakes:

Primary population parameters –
B

I D E

B. Methods of estimating populations

1. Census Method

2. Sampling Methods

Census of sample areas
N = C/

N = population estimate
C = survey count = proportion of area

3. Relative Abundances – CPUE (catch per unit effort)

4. Mark-Recapture Estimates of population size

Lincoln-Peterson (closed populations)

Assumptions

5. Removal Design (closed population)

Examining the number of animal “removed” and cumulatively removed during successive catches

Gear set 1 2 3 4

Catch 76 54 35 24

Cumulative 0 76 130 165

Demographic Techniques (chapter 8)

A. What is Demography?

B. Life Table Analysis of populations

Cohort:

Parts of a life table analysis:

1. x and nx

2. Survivorship schedule: lx

a. Per capita mortality rate: qx

b. Survivorship patterns:

Type I Type II Type III

3. Getting the data:

cohort life tables

static life tables

3. Fertility schedule bx

Life history strategies:

- Semelparous

- Iteroparous

Costs:

5. The Intrinsic rate of increase (r)

a. Net Reproductive Rate (Ro):

b. Generation Time (G):

c. r ~ ln (Ro)/ G

r > 0

r = 0 r < 0

d. Stable and stationary age distributions

6. Reproductive value

Population Growth Models (chapter 9)

A. Models with discrete generations (no overlap)

1. Terminology
Nt = population size at time t
Nt+1 = population size at time t + 1.
R0 = net reproductive rate (# females produced per…...

Similar Documents

Section 5-2

...Question and Problems Section 5-2 1. What are the four layers of the TCP/IP model? I. Application II. Transport III. Internet IV. Network Interface 2. Which layer of the TCP/IP model processes request from host to make sure a connection is made to the appropriate port? • Application Layer 3. What are well known ports? • Ports Reserved by I.C.A.N.N. (Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers) 4. Identify the port number for the following applications. a. Telnet-Port 23 b. HTTP-Port 80 c. FTP-Port 20 and 21 d. DNS-Port 53 e. DHCP-Port 67 and 68 5. Define the purpose of a connection orientated protocol. Give an example. • Establishes a network connection. • Example: connection orientated protocol manages the delivery of data and terminates the connection to transport control protocol. 6. What three packets are exchanged between two hosts when establishing the TCP connection? I. Syn II. Syn Ack III. Ack 7. What is the purpose of the sequence number (SEQ=) in TCP data packets? • Used to keep track of data packets being transmitted between host 1 and host 2. 8. Explain how the host knows whether a data packet was not received. • Host one will received a message from host two, indicating that data packet was not received. 9. Describe how a TCP connection is terminated. • The host sends a (FIN) Finish packet to the other connection. The receiving host then sends a FIN packet back to host one, indicating the......

Words: 744 - Pages: 3

Mgt230 Week 2 Notes

...Ch. 4 Notes Situational Analysis - A process planners use, within time and resource constraints, to gather, interpret, and summarize all information relevant to the planning issue under consideration. Goal - A target or end that management desires to reach. Plans - The actions or means managers intend to use to achieve organizational goals. Scenario - A narrative that describes a particular set of future conditions. Tying plans to a firm’s financials is a key element of success. Bottom line is cost. Strategic planning - A set of procedures for making decisions about the organization’s long-term goals and strategies. Strategic goals - Major targets or end results relating to the organization’s long-term survival, value, and growth. Strategy - A pattern of actions and resource allocations designed to achieve the organization’s goals. Tactical planning - A set of procedures for translating broad strategic goals and plans into specific goals and plans that are relevant to a distinct portion of the organization, such as a functional area like marketing. Operational planning - The process of identifying the specific procedures and processes required at lower levels of the organization. Innovation - New ideas from managers throughout the organization can contribute to a plan’s effectiveness. Strategic management - A process that involves managers from all parts of the organization in the formulation and implementation of strategic goals and......

Words: 1421 - Pages: 6

Essay 2 Notes

...These courts include (1) the U.S. District Courts, (2) the U.S. Circuit Courts of Appeal, and (3) the U.S. Supreme Court. They also include two special courts: (a) the U.S. Court of Claims and (b) the U.S. Court of International Trade. These courts are special because, unlike the other courts, they are not courts of general jurisdiction. Courts of general jurisdiction can hear almost any case. All judges of Article III courts are appointed by the President of the United States with the advice and consent of the Senate and hold office during good behavior. The second type of court also is established by Congress. These courts are (1) magistrate courts, (2) bankruptcy courts, (3) the U.S. Court of Military Appeals, (4) the U.S. Tax Court, and (5) the U.S. Court of Veterans' Appeals. The judges of these courts are appointed by the President with the advice and consent of the Senate. They hold office for a set number of years, usually about 15. Magistrate and bankruptcy courts are attached to each U.S. District Court. The U.S. Court of Military Appeals, U.S. Tax Court, and U.S. Court of Veterans' Appeals are called Article I or legislative courts. (Internet, US Courts) what a typical state court system looks like. Most state court systems are made up of (1) two sets of trial courts: (a) trial courts of limited jurisdiction (probate, family, traffic, etc.) and (b) trial courts of general jurisdiction (main trial-level courts); (2) intermediate appellate courts (in many, but......

Words: 1631 - Pages: 7

Econ Ch. 2 Notes

...Chapter 2 Circular-Flow Diagram- a visual model of the economy that shows how dollars flow through markets among households and firms Production Possibilities Frontier- a graph that shows the combinations of output that the economy can possible produce given the available factors of production and the available production technology Microeconomics- the study of how households and firms make decisions and how they interact in markets Macroeconomics- the study of economy-wide phenomena, including inflation, unemployment, and economic growth Positive Statements- claims that attempt to describe the world as it is Normative Statements- claims that attempt to prescribe how the world should be The Economist As Scientist Economists view subject with objectivity devise theories, collect data, analyze data use scientific method The Scientific Method: Observation, Theory, And More Observation interplay between theory and observation experiments difficult in economics: have to look to history allows us to examine present and predict future The Role Of Assumptions economists make assumptions to make the world easier to understand two countries, two goods applying correct assumption to right data different assumptions for short0run and long-run effects of a change in the quantity of money Economic Models models not often real but are accurate and helpful economists use diagrams and equations omit details to show what’s truly important models are built with......

Words: 642 - Pages: 3

Ch 1 and 2 Notes

...Second, statistics helps you make better business decisions. 1.2 Statistics in Business * In the business world, statistics has these important specific uses: 1. To summarize business data 2. To draw conclusions from those data 3. To make reliable forecasts about business activities 4. To improve business processes * The statistical methods you use for these tasks come from one of the two branches of statistics: descriptive statistics and inferential statistics. * Descriptive statistics are the methods that help collect, summarize, present, and analyze a set of data. * Inferential statistics are the methods that use the data collected from a small group to draw conclusions about a larger group. * Many of the tables and charts found in a typical presentation are the products of descriptive methods, as are statistics such as the mean or median of a group. When you use statistical methods to help choose which investment from a set of investments might lead to a higher return or which marketing strategy might lead to increased sales, you are using inferential methods. * There are four important uses of statistics in business: 1. Using descriptive methods to visualize and summarize your data. 2. Using inferential methods to reach conclusions about a large group based on data collected from a small group. 3. Making reliable forecasts involves developing statistical models for prediction.......

Words: 1278 - Pages: 6

Iss 335 Notes for Exam 2

...ISS Exam 2 Study Terms Part 1 Periods of Immigration— Ask him tomorrow… 1800-80’s Germany and Ireland immigrants to USA Factors Affecting Immigration—economic and/or political reasons, family re-unification, natural disasters or the wish to change one's surroundings voluntarily. Myths of Immigration— National origins quotas. Immigration Laws—refers to national government policies which control the phenomenon of immigration to their country. Census Race Categories— The racial categories included in the census questionnaire generally reflect a social definition of race recognized in this country and not an attempt to define race biologically, anthropologically, or genetically. In addition, it is recognized that the categories of the race item include racial and national origin or sociocultural groups. People may choose to report more than one race to indicate their racial mixture, such as “American Indian” and “White.” People who identify their origin as Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish may be of any race. Citizenship— the character of an individual viewed as a member of society; behavior in terms of the duties, obligations, and functions of a citizen “Is This a White Country, or What?”—Article about how USA doesn’t think its racist, yet looks down upon people of color. Part 2 Rossides’ Model of U.S. Classes— Saved in folder Income— salaries, wages, earnings from investments Wealth— Total assets (property, stocks, savings, etc.) Can be passed......

Words: 475 - Pages: 2

Chem 208 - Module 2 Notes

...Module 2: Keywords Law of conservation of mass: A law which states that "mass is neither created nor destroyed in chemical reactions". This essentially means that the same number of atoms of each type occurring on the reactant side must also appear on the product side. Integer: A whole number (i.e., a number that contains no decimal or fractions). Uncertainty: A characteristic of every measurement, indicating the error in a reported value. This is generally specified using significant figures. Significant figures: A method for reporting the results of a measurement that includes all known or certain digits and a final digit that is considered uncertain. SI Units: The International System of units that is based on the metric system and uses SI derived units for length, mass, time, etc. and prefixes to indicate magnitude (i.e., powers of 10). Density: The physical property of a substance that corresponds to the ratio of its mass to volume. This property does not depend on the amount of substance. Dimensional Analysis: A method for solving numerical problems that uses 'conversion factors' to cancel out unwanted units and results in an answer with the desired units (i.e., dimensions). 5. If the density of a substance is 4.14 g/cm3, what is the mass in milligrams of a piece of this substance with a volume of 15.46 mL? 6.40 x 104 mg Object A covered a certain distance in 1.8 x 10-9 s whereas to cover the same distance, object B took 3.6 ns. Which of the...

Words: 273 - Pages: 2

Business Studies Igcse Section 2

...main motivator. ‣If employees are paid more, they will be motivated to work more. ‣Work is broken down into simple processes, and more money is paid which will increase the level of productivity an employee will achieve. ‣The extra pay is less than the increased productivity. Cons: ‣ Workers are seen rather like machines, and this theory does not take into account non-financial motivators. ‣ Even if you pay more, there is no guarantee of a productivity rise. ‣ It is difficult to measure an employees output. Maslow Theory: Maslow created what is known as the hierarchy of needs.  In this diagram, there are 5 different types of motivation: ‣Level 1 - Physiological needs: basic requirements for survival. ‣Level 2 -Security needs: the need to by physically safe. ‣Level 3 Social needs: the need to belong and have good relationships with co-workers. ‣Level 4 Esteem needs: the need for self-respect and to be respected by others. ‣Level 5 Self-actualization needs: the need to reach your full potential and be promoted. Businesses realize that the more levels of motivation are available to workers, the harder they will work. Maslow also suggests that each level of motivation must be achieved before going to the next level. Once one level of motivation is met, more of that will no longer motivate the employee.  Cons: Some levels are not present in some jobs. Some rewards belong to more than one level on others. Managers need to......

Words: 7557 - Pages: 31

361 Midterm 2 Notes

...Class 1 4% | Most buildings/other structures, electrical wiring, plumbing, heating, AC (after 1987). Separate class for rental buildings>$50k | Class 1-MB 10% | New manufacturing buildings (MB) used at least 90% for manufacturing and processing purposes (acquired on or after Mar 19, 2007). NOTE Class 1 has ½ year rule!!! | 1-NRB | New non-residential buildings (NRB) (on/after Mar 19, 2007) 6% | 8 20% | Misc. tangible capital property. Furniture, fixtures, outdoor advertising signs, equipment (photocopiers, fridge, telephone, tools costing $500+, not included in another class) | 10 | Automotive equip. Cars, van, truck, tractor, wagon, trailer 30% | 10.1 30% | Passenger vehicle with cost in excess of prescribed limit ($30k if acquired after 2000). Separate class. Deemed cost 30k, add HST | 12 100% | Tools, instruments, kitchen utensils < $500. Linen, uniforms, dies, moulds, rental video cassettes, computer software. | 13 | Leasehold interest | 14 | Patent, franchise, concession, licence for limited period.no prorate | 17 8% | Roads, parking lots, sidewalks, airplane runways, storage areas, similar surface construction | 29 50%Or 30 | Machinery and equipment used in manufacturing or processing (acquired after Mar 18, 2007 and before 2016). CCA is 50%, straight-line basis, half-year rule applies. After 2016: class 43, with 30% declining balance rate | 43 30% | Manufacturing and processing machinery and equipment acquired after 2016 | 44 25% |......

Words: 1211 - Pages: 5

Commercial Law Exam 2 Notes

...performance: 1. Party must have performed in good faith 2. Performance must not vary greatly from that promised in contract 3. Performance must create substantially the same benefits promised in contract Anticipatory repudiation – one party may refuse to carry out their contractual obligations before either party has a duty to perform, treated as material breach of contract, usually occurs during sharp fluctuation in market prices Mutual rescission – parties must make another agreement that also satisfies legal requirements for a contract (must be an offer, acceptance, and consideration) Novation – occurs when parties agree to substitute third party for one of the original parties, discharges original contract and replaces it with new one Discharge in Bankruptcy – after debtor’s assets have been allocated to creditors, creditors prevented from enforcing most of debtor’s contracts. Impossibility of performance – events after contract has been made (such as a fire) make performance impossible and can discharge the contract, must be unforeseen event Commercial impracticability – anticipated performance becomes significantly difficult or costly, courts may excuse parties from their performance, unforeseen event Frustration of purpose – contract discharged if supervening circumstances make it impossible to attain the purpose both parties had in mind when contract was made, unforeseen event Exam 2 Review CH. 48 1. Know the requirements for a valid......

Words: 1088 - Pages: 5

Travail Note 2

...ADM 1002 Initiation à la Gestion Travail noté 2 Question 1 Au Canada, l’industrie du textile est principalement située dans la grande région de Montréal. Une des faiblesses de l’industrie du vêtement est que bien qu’ancien, ce secteur de l’activité économique ne jouit pas des mêmes avantages concurrentiels que l’industrie aérospatial ou de l’aluminium, favoris de l’économie québécoise. D’une part, il y a notre capacité légendaire à ériger des barrages qui produisent à très faibles coûts l’électricité nécessaire aux usines comme Alcan, il y a les nombreuses écoles de génie de Montréal et une population « naturellement » bilingue qui assurent à Bombardier et Pratt & Whitney une main-d’œuvre instruite et productive, d’une autre part, il y a l’industrie de la mode, qui elle, semble sur le respirateur artificiel depuis fort longtemps. Surtout depuis la fin des tarifs douaniers sur l’importation de vêtements en provenance de l’Asie et l’entrée de la Chine dans l’Organisation mondiale du commerce. Ensuite, les détaillants ont souffert parce qu’ils n’ont pas anticipé le fait que les consommateurs sont devenus plus attentifs aux prix. De plus, avec l’arrivée des femmes sur le marché du travail, le contraste est assez concret. La femme a développé le pouvoir d’achat, a contribué au changement de ses habitudes vestimentaires et elle peut maintenant comparer les prix. Puisque les femmes sont plus exigeantes et recherchent des produits plus conformes à leurs styles de vie,...

Words: 1106 - Pages: 5

Notes for Chapter 2

...* Chapter 2 * Nike’s customer-driven marketing * To build image and market share, Nike * Outspent competitors on big endorsements * Conducted splashy promotional events * Started big-budget ads * Sales slipped in the late 1990s * Turnaround- new product innovation and a focus on customer relationships * Mastered social networking, creating deep engagement and community among customers * * Strategic planning * Involves adapting the firm to take advantage of opportunities in its constantly changing environment * Strategic planning helps a firm to maintain a strategic fit between its goal and capabilities and its changing marketing opportunities * * Mission statement * Statement of the organization’s purpose * - What it wants to accomplish in the larger environment * Market oriented and defined in terms of satisfying basic customer needs * Emphasizes the company’s strengths * Focuses on customers and the customer experience the company seeks to create * * Business portfolio * Collection of businesses and products that make up the company * Steps in business portfolio planning 1. Analyze the firm’s current business portfolio 2. Develop strategies for growth and downsizing to shape the future portfolio * * Portfolio analysis * Evaluation of the products and businesses that made up the company by the management * Steps: 1. Identifying the strategic business......

Words: 678 - Pages: 3

Quiz 2 Class Notes

...am aware of my own strengths and weaknesses. I am able to reflect on and appraise my own performance. Figure 1 Graduate readiness questionnaire results the development sessions and skills tracking exercise were really useful, they helped me develop an awareness of what I was good at; it wasn’t necessarily what I thought! (TU intern, R18 Graduate intern) From the final evaluation questionnaire, graduates identified skills, experience and confidence as the top three benefits of participating in the internship (Figure 2): The experience has been priceless—I can’t believe how much I have learned in three months. (TU intern, R30) I have developed new skills in a professional capacity. (TU intern, R34) © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Internships & Graduate Employability 362 Interview prac ce, 5 Other, 7 Gaining skills, 10 Enhance CV, 18 Real work experience, 72 Ge ng paid, 20 Networking, 29 General teambuilding, 36 Figure 2 Key benefits of participating in the Graduate Intern Programme (interns choosing up to 3) I feel I have developed lots of new skills (including skills for life) and enhanced my knowledge. (TU intern, R61) The perceived benefits of the programme are further evidenced by the extremely positive progression outcomes (from the 2012–13, cohort (Table 1); more than one quarter of interns progressed into employment, an encouraging outcome in itself but especially positive when considering that youth unemployment is 14.1 per......

Words: 9691 - Pages: 39

Outline Ilm 5 Section 2

...Understand own ability to fulfil key responsibilities of the leadership role and review effectiveness of own leadership capability and performance in meeting organisational values and goals 520 – A.C. 2.1/522 – A.C. 1.1 Assess your ability to apply different leadership styles in a range of situations Assess own ability to use a range of leadership styles in different situations (12 marks/12 marks) Talk through range of styles and relate these to theory Type people – personality, situation, level of development give 2-3 examples of using different styles Examples of different styles required 522 – A.C. 1.1 Apply different leadership styles with different types of people (8 marks) Apply different leadership styles with different types of people (8 marks) Give examples 520 – A.C. 2.2 – review and assess own ability to communicate the organisation’s values and goals to staff in own area Assess own ability to communicate values and goals to staff in own area (12 marks) Values and goals separately, 6 marks each Use Dsc as example 522 – A.C. 2.1 review and assess own ability to set direction and communicate this to others Review own ability to set direction and communicate this to others (20 marks) 522 – A.C. 2.2 motivate, delegate and empower others. Review own ability to motivate, delegate and empower others (20 marks) Relationship of Emotional Intelligence with Team Performance As emotional intelligence is critical to high performance, a person who knows how to stay......

Words: 671 - Pages: 3

Managerial Accounting Ch1 Note-2

...Accounting: An Overview - This chapter explains why managerial accounting is important to the future careers of all business students. It answers three questions: (1) What is managerial accounting? (2) Why does managerial accounting matter to your career? (3) What skills do managers need to succeed? It also discusses the importance of ethics in business and corporate social responsibility. □ What is Managerial Accounting? | Financial Accounting | Managerial Accounting | 1. Users | External persons whomake financial decisions | Managers who plan for and control an organization | 2. Time focus | Historical perspective | Future emphasis | 3. Verifiability versus relevance | Emphasis on objectivity and verifiability | Emphasis on Relevance | 4. Precision versus timelines | Emphasis on precision | Emphasis on timeliness | 5. Subject | Primary focus is on companywide reports | Focus on Segment reports | 6. Rules | Must follow GAAP / IFRS | Not bound by GAAP / IFRS | 7. Requirement | Mandatory for external reports | Not Mandatory | There are seven key differences between financial accounting and managerial accounting: 1. Users: Financial accounting reports are prepared for external parties, whereas managerial accounting reports are prepared for internal users. 2. Emphasis on the future: Financial accounting summarizes past transactions. Managerial accounting has a strong future orientation. 3. Relevance of data: Financial accounting data......

Words: 2179 - Pages: 9