Premium Essay

Section 3 Predator Pcb

In: Science

Submitted By josselyne3
Words 2346
Pages 10
Section 3: Predation (part B), Herbivory, parasitism, popn. Regulation, biocontrol, fisheries, conservation biology.

PREDATION… Continued (Part B)

C. Studying predator effects on prey populations in the field.

1. Manipulative experiments

2. Accidental Experiments

3. Comparative Studies- woodland caribou
-Food limited
-Predator limited

D. Optimal Foraging theory: how do predators choose their diets? (see chapter 3)

*What is the optimum strategy? = Energy maximization or time minimization Max En/T

Assumptions about the predator (forager): -Eating and searching for the next food (prey) item are mutually exclusive activities. -Items are found sequentially, items are found one at a time.

Energetic Value of prey: EACH PREY ITEM HAS AN ENERGENTIC VALUE (ei)

Handling time: A HANDLING TIME (hi)

Profitability:
: e/h= profitability of each prey item (such that prey can be ranked)

Rule: optimal foraging rule (prediction) – always eat the most profitable prey and eat the next most profitable prey if the gain is greater than the gain from rejecting it and searching for a more profitable prey.

Predictions of Optimal Foraging Theory: The highest ranked prey type should always be eaten when encountered.

1) Predators with small handling times and long search times should be GENERALISTS.

2) Diets should be broad in pre-poor (unproductivr) environments.

3) The abundance of low ranking prey types is unaffected by the a abundance of the low-ranking prey is irrelevant.

Herbivory and mutualisms (Chapter 12)

A. Introduction
-Herb ivory: animals feeding on plants.
-Only part of the prey item is eaten base of many food webs

B. The world is green.

Thus, herbivores cannot consume all of the available plants

Explanations: -Herbivores may be self- regulated…...

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Fish Farming

...Far North Island College | Fish Farming | Benefits and Costs | Hailey Devitt 3/28/2011 | English 160 Module # 4 & 5 Assignment # 5 Formal Report North Island College Section: Distance Submitted To Derek Hanebury March 28, 2011 Submitted by: Ms. H. Devitt Table of contents Executive Summary…………………………………………………………………………………………….Page 1 Introduction & Background……………………………………………………………………………………Page 2 Major Issues…………………………………………………………………………………………………………..Page 2 & 3 Benefits………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….Page 3 & 4 Conclusion……………………………………………………………………………………………………………Page 4 Works Cited……………………………………………………………………………………………….………….Page 5 Executive Summary Fish farming in Canada has recently taken quite the spotlight, for good or for worse that is the question that needs to be addressed. I feel the negatives greatly outshine the positives at this point in time; the wild salmon stocks are currently in danger and fish farming is taking double the amount of wild salmon to produce half the amount of farmed fish. The fish coming from the farms are dubious to say the least; they produce a chemical, disease ridden product that is not beneficial for consumption. There are many issues around the benefits of the actual fish, and what it might do to the wild if they are interbred and mixed among the wild salmon. However like everything along with the negatives come some benefits of these farms. There is a major......

Words: 1609 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Ee 101 for New Beginners

...any methods, products, instructions, or ideas contained in the material herein. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Ashby, Darren. Electrical engineering 101 : everything you should have learned in school – but probably didn’t / Darren Ashby. – 3rd ed. p. cm. ISBN 978-0-12-386001-9 (pbk.) 1. Electrical engineering. I. Title. II. Title: Electrical engineering one hundred one. III. Title: Electrical engineering one hundred and one. TK146.A75 2011 621.3–dc23 2011020171 British Library Cataloguing-in-Publication Data A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library. For information on all Newnes publications visit our website at www.elsevierdirect.com Typeset by: diacriTech, India 11 12 13 14 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Printed in the United States of America Preface vii THE FIRST WORD In my day job I have been lucky enough to work with one of the greatest corporate success stories in the technical field ever. For a sparky tech nut just going to the Google™ campus was a bit like traipsing to mecca. I remember my first tour there, and getting a “free lunch.” Our corporate contact made a comment. He said, “They’ve created some kind of engineers’ paradise over here.” I kind of wondered about that comment. Over the last couple of years I have pondered it quite a bit. I learned a lot more about what this paradise was in subsequent dealings with the king of search. They had the free food and all these other perks but the thing that stood out......

Words: 111107 - Pages: 445

Free Essay

Wasdsd

...Course code: 15MA101 | Engineering Mathematics | L | T | P | C | | | 3 | 1 | - | 4 | Course Objectives | To train the students in basic mathematics essential for modeling and solving engineering problems. | Course Outcomes | 1. An ability to apply knowledge of mathematics, science and engineering. 2. An ability to identify, formulate and solve engineering problems | Differential Calculus: Review: Functions and graphs, Limits and Continuity, Differentiation, Maxima and minima of a function, Rolle’s Theorem, Mean Value Theorem. Indeterminate forms and L'Hopital's rule, Infinite sequences and series, Power series, Taylor's and Maclaurin's series, Convergence of Taylor's series, Error Estimates, Polar coordinates and Polar equations. Functions of two or more real variables, Partial derivatives of second and higher order, Euler’s theorem on homogenous function, Total derivatives, Differentiation of composite and implicit functions, Change of variable, Jacobians, Maxima and minima of functions of two or more variable, Lagrange’s method of undetermined multipliers. Integral Calculus: Estimating with finite sums and limits of finite sums, Definite integral, The fundamental theorem of calculus, Trigonometric substitutions, Integration by reduction formula for powers of some trigonometric functions, Improper integrals, Beta and Gamma integrals. Double integrals,......

Words: 6651 - Pages: 27

Premium Essay

Environmental

...impossible to dismantle. Urbanization Humans have been making permanent settlements for at least 10,000 years and, short of some major accident or natural disaster, most of the cities and towns we've created, and the infrastructure that keeps them running, will remain with us for thousands more years into the future. Not many of us would automatically classify cities and other human settlements as "land pollution"; people obviously need to live and work somewhere. Even so, urbanization marks a hugely important change to the landscape that can cause land pollution in a variety of subtle and not-so-subtle ways. With over 7 billion people on the planet, it might come as a surprise to find that humans have urbanized only about 3 percent of Earth's total land surface , though almost a third of the total land area has been transformed if we include agriculture . Our impact on the planet extends much further than urbanization might suggest. In 1996, Herbert Girardet estimated that London, England has an "ecological footprint" (area of land needed to support it) some 125 times bigger than the city itself. Add up that effect for every major city in the world and you get an idea of how big impact urbanization has had. One of the problems of urbanization is that, by concentrating people, it concentrates their waste products at the same time. So, for example, crudely disposing of sewage from a big city automatically creates water or land pollution, where the......

Words: 13986 - Pages: 56

Free Essay

Environmental Studies

...Environmental Studies For Undergraduate Courses Erach Bharucha Textbook for Environmental Studies For Undergraduate Courses of all Branches of Higher Education Erach Bharucha for University Grants Commission Natural Resources i Preliminary Pages.p65 1 4/9/2004, 5:06 PM Credits Principal author and editor – Erach Bharucha Unit 1 – Erach Bharucha Unit 2 – Erach Bharucha, Behafrid Patel Unit 3 – Erach Bharucha Unit 4 – Erach Bharucha Unit 5 – Shamita Kumar Unit 6 – Erach Bharucha, Shalini Nair, Behafrid Patel Unit 7 – Erach Bharucha, Shalini Nair, Behafrid Patel Unit 8 – Erach Bharucha, Shambhvi Joshi Case Studies – Prasanna Kolte Co-ordination and compilation – Behafrid Patel Textbook Design – Narendra Kulkarni (Mudra), Sushma Durve Manuscript review and editing – Chinmaya Dunster, Behafrid Patel Artists – Sushma Durve and Anagha Deshpande CD ROM – Jaya Rai and Prasanna Kolte © Copyright Text – Erach Bharucha/ UGC, 2004. Photographs – Erach Bharucha Drawings – Bharati Vidyapeeth Institute of Environment Education and Research All rights reserved. Distributed by University Grants Commission, New Delhi. 2004. ii Environmental Studies for Undergraduate Courses Preliminary Pages.p65 2 4/9/2004, 5:06 PM Vision The importance of Environmental Studies cannot be disputed. The need for sustainable development is a key to the future of mankind. The degradation of our environment is linked to continuing problems of pollution,......

Words: 125061 - Pages: 501

Premium Essay

Population Ecology of Some Warblers of Northeastern Coniferous Forests.

...Claudia H. S. Alt5, Teresa Amaro6, Melanie Bergmann7, ¸ Miquel Canals8, Joan B. Company3, Jaime Davies9, Gerard Duineveld10, Francois Galgani11, 9 12 1,2 Kerry L. Howell , Veerle A. I. Huvenne , Eduardo Isidro , Daniel O. B. Jones12, Galderic Lastras8, ´ ˆ Telmo Morato1,2, Jose Nuno Gomes-Pereira1,2, Autun Purser13, Heather Stewart14, Ines Tojeira15, 8 16 5 Xavier Tubau , David Van Rooij , Paul A. Tyler 1 Center of the Institute of Marine Research (IMAR) and Department of Oceanography and Fisheries, University of the Azores, Horta, Portugal, 2 Laboratory of Robotics `ncies del Mar (ICM-CSIC), Barcelona, Spain, 4 Norwegian Institute for Water Research and Systems in Engineering and Science (LARSyS), Lisbon, Portugal, 3 Institut de Cie (NIVA), Marine Biology section, Oslo, Norway, 5 Ocean and Earth Science, University of Southampton, National Oceanography Centre, Southampton, United Kingdom, ¨ 6 Norwegian Institute for Water Research, Bergen, Norway, 7 Alfred-Wegener-Institut, Helmholtz-Zentrum fur Polar- und Meeresforschung, Bremerhaven, Germany, 8 GRC `ncies Marines, Departament d9Estratigrafia, Paleontologia i Geocie `ncies Marines, Facultat de Geologia, Universitat de Barcelona, Campus de Pedralbes, Barcelona, Geocie Spain, 9 Marine Biology & Ecology Research Centre, Marine Institute, Plymouth University, Plymouth, United Kingdom, 10 Netherlands Institute for Sea Research (NIOZ), Texel, The Netherlands, 11 Institut Francais de Recherche pour l9Exploitation de la Mer......

Words: 10668 - Pages: 43

Premium Essay

Robins & Robins Sues Casings, Inc.,

...Throughout the week, I will bring in further questions. Be sure to read the lecture and the international ethics article stated in your reading for the week as well. | Collapse All |    Show Options | sort by: response | author | date | read | unread ------------------------------------------------- Top of FormBottom of Form | | Responses | Author | Date & Time |     |    Dwight Elliott | 9 Apr 11  10:37 PM MST | | Professor Introduction: Chapter 1: Introduction to Law & Legal Reasoning (PLEASE READ) The first section in Unit 1 provide the background for the entire course. Chapter 1 sets the stage. At this point, it is important to establish goals and objectives. For you as a student to benefit from this course, you must understand that (1) the law is a set of general rules, (2) that, in applying these general rules, a judge cannot always fit a case to suit a rule, so must fit (or find) a rule to suit the case, (3) that, in fitting (or find¬ing) a rule, a judge must also supply reasons for the decision. The tension in the law between the need for stability, predictability, and continuity, and the need for change is one of the major concepts introduced in this chapter. The answer to the question, “What is the law?,” includes how jurists have an¬swered it, how common law courts originated, and the rationale for the doctrine of stare decisis. Another major concept in the chapter involves the distinctions among today’s sources of law and a......

Words: 201281 - Pages: 806

Free Essay

Society

...ADVICES FOR STUDYING ORGANIC CHEMISTRY 1. Keep up with your studying day to day –– never let yourself get behind, or better yet, be a little ahead of your instructor. Organic chemistry is a course in which one idea almost always builds on another that has gone before. 2. Study materials in small units, and be sure that you understand each new section before you go on to the next. Because of the cumulative nature of organic chemistry, your studying will be much more effective if you take each new idea as it comes and try to understand it completely before you move onto the nest concept. 3. Work all of the in-chapter and assigned problems. 4. Write when you study. over and over again. Write the reactions, mechanisms, structures, and so on, You need to know the material so thoroughly that you can This level of understanding comes to most of us Only by writing the explain it to someone else. (those of us without photographic memories) through writing. reaction mechanisms do we pay sufficient attention to their details: 1) which atoms are connected to which atoms. 2) which bonds break in a reaction and which bonds form. 3) the three-dimensional aspects of the structure. 5. Learning by teaching and explaining (教學相長). Study with your student peers and practice explaining concepts and mechanisms to each other. 6. Use the answers to the problems in the Study Guide in the proper way: 1) Use the Study Guide to check your answer after you have finished a problem. 2)......

Words: 71293 - Pages: 286

Free Essay

La Singularidad

...very moving case for his view of the future." —The New York Sun "Compelling." —San Jose Mercury News "Kurzweil links a projected ascendance of artificial intelligence to the future of the evolutionary process itself. The result is both frightening and enlightening....The Singularity Is Near is a kind of encyclopedic map of what Bill Gates once called 'the road ahead.' " —The Oregonian "A clear-eyed, sharply-focused vision of the not-so-distant future." —The Baltimore Sun "This book offers three things that will make it a seminal document. 1) It brokers a new idea, not widely known, 2) The idea is about as big as you can get: the Singularity-all the change in the last million years will be superceded by the change in the next five minutes, and 3) It is an idea that demands informed response. The book's claims are so footnoted, documented, graphed, argued, and plausible in small detail, that it requires the equal in response. Yet its claims are so outrageous that if true, it would mean ... well ... the end of the world as we know it, and the beginning of utopia. Ray Kurzweil has taken all the strands of the Singularity meme circulating in the last decades and has united them into a single tome which he has nailed on our front door. I suspect this will be one of the most cited books of the decade. Like Paul Ehrlich's upsetting 1972 book Population Bomb, fan or foe, it's the wave at the epicenter you have to start with." —KEVIN KELLY, founder of Wired "Really, really out there.......

Words: 237133 - Pages: 949

Free Essay

Globalization

...Globalization : the essentials / George Ritzer. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 978-0-470-65560-3 (hardcover : alk. paper) – ISBN 978-0-470-65561-0 (pbk. : alk. paper) 1. Globalization. I. Title. JZ1318.R5835 2011 303.48'2–dc22 2010042203 A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library. This book is published in the following electronic formats: ePDFs 978-1-4443-9356-9; ePub 978-1-4443-9357-6 Set in 10.5/13pt Minion by Toppan Best-set Premedia Limited 1 2011 CONTENTS Preface xi 1 Globalization Conceptualization, Origins, and History Conceptualizing Globalization 1 3 From “Solids” to “Liquids” “Flows” “Heavy” and “Light” “Heavy” Structures that Expedite “Flows” “Heavy” Structures as Barriers to “Flows” Subtler Structural Barriers Origins and History of Globalization 3 7 8 10 12 16 17 Hardwired Cycles Epochs Events Broader, More Recent Changes Chapter Summary 17 18 18 18 20 22 2 Theorizing Globalization Imperialism Colonialism Development Americanization 28 29 31 32 34 Anti-Americanism as a Global Process Neo-Liberalism 36 37 Neo-Liberalism: Basic Ideas The Neo-Liberal State Critiquing Neo-Liberalism: Karl Polanyi Contemporary Criticisms of Neo-Liberalism Neo-Marxian Theories 40 41 42 44 45 Transnational Capitalism Empire Chapter Summary 45 47 49 3 Structuring the Global Economy Before Bretton Woods 55 56 A Prior Epoch of......

Words: 168078 - Pages: 673

Premium Essay

Jared Diamond Collapse

...Panchsheel Park, New Delhi—110 017, India Penguin Group (NZ), Cnr Airborne and Rosedale Roads, Albany, Auckland 1310, New Zealand (a division of Pearson New Zealand Ltd) Penguin Books (South Africa) (Pty) Ltd, 24 Sturdee Avenue, Rosebank, Johannesburg 2196, South Africa Penguin Books Ltd, Registered Offices: 80 Strand, London WC2R ORL, England First published in 2005 by Viking Penguin, a member of Penguin Group (USA) Inc. 13579 10 8642 Copyright © Jared Diamond, 2005 All rights reserved Maps by Jeffrey L. Ward LIBRARY OF CONGRESS CATALOGING IN PUBLICATION DATA Diamond, Jared M. Collapse: how societies choose to fail or succeed/Jared Diamond. p. cm. Includes index. ISBN 0-670-03337-5 1. Social history—Case studies. 2. Social change—Case studies. 3. Environmental policy— Case studies. I. Title. HN13. D5 2005 304.2'8—dc22 2004057152 This book is printed on acid-free paper. 8 Printed in the United States of America Set in Minion Designed by Francesca Belanger Without limiting the rights under copyright reserved above, no part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in or introduced into a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means (electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise), without the prior written permission of both the copyright owner and the above publisher of this book. The scanning, uploading, and distribution of this book via the Internet or via any other means without the permission of the publisher is illegal and......

Words: 235965 - Pages: 944

Free Essay

Test2

...62118 0/nm 1/n1 2/nm 3/nm 4/nm 5/nm 6/nm 7/nm 8/nm 9/nm 1990s 0th/pt 1st/p 1th/tc 2nd/p 2th/tc 3rd/p 3th/tc 4th/pt 5th/pt 6th/pt 7th/pt 8th/pt 9th/pt 0s/pt a A AA AAA Aachen/M aardvark/SM Aaren/M Aarhus/M Aarika/M Aaron/M AB aback abacus/SM abaft Abagael/M Abagail/M abalone/SM abandoner/M abandon/LGDRS abandonment/SM abase/LGDSR abasement/S abaser/M abashed/UY abashment/MS abash/SDLG abate/DSRLG abated/U abatement/MS abater/M abattoir/SM Abba/M Abbe/M abbé/S abbess/SM Abbey/M abbey/MS Abbie/M Abbi/M Abbot/M abbot/MS Abbott/M abbr abbrev abbreviated/UA abbreviates/A abbreviate/XDSNG abbreviating/A abbreviation/M Abbye/M Abby/M ABC/M Abdel/M abdicate/NGDSX abdication/M abdomen/SM abdominal/YS abduct/DGS abduction/SM abductor/SM Abdul/M ab/DY abeam Abelard/M Abel/M Abelson/M Abe/M Aberdeen/M Abernathy/M aberrant/YS aberrational aberration/SM abet/S abetted abetting abettor/SM Abeu/M abeyance/MS abeyant Abey/M abhorred abhorrence/MS abhorrent/Y abhorrer/M abhorring abhor/S abidance/MS abide/JGSR abider/M abiding/Y Abidjan/M Abie/M Abigael/M Abigail/M Abigale/M Abilene/M ability/IMES abjection/MS abjectness/SM abject/SGPDY abjuration/SM abjuratory abjurer/M abjure/ZGSRD ablate/VGNSDX ablation/M ablative/SY ablaze abler/E ables/E ablest able/U abloom ablution/MS Ab/M ABM/S abnegate/NGSDX abnegation/M Abner/M abnormality/SM abnormal/SY ab......

Words: 113589 - Pages: 455