Free Essay

Seeking Good Council

In: Religion Topics

Submitted By 2granson
Words 3694
Pages 15
1 Kings 12 - Rehoboam and Jeroboam
A. Rehoboam and the division of Israel.
1. (1-5) the elders of Israel offer Rehoboam the throne of Israel.
And Rehoboam went to Shechem, for all Israel had gone to Shechem to make him king. So it happened, when Jeroboam the son of Nebat heard it (he was still in Egypt, for he had fled from the presence of King Solomon and had been dwelling in Egypt), that they sent and called him. Then Jeroboam and the whole assembly of Israel came and spoke to Rehoboam, saying, "Your father made our yoke heavy; now therefore, lighten the burdensome service of your father, and his heavy yoke which he put on us, and we will serve you." So he said to them, "Depart for three days, then come back to me." And the people departed.
a. Rehoboam went to Shechem, for all Israel had gone to Shechem to make him king: This was a logical continuation of the Davidic dynasty. David was succeeded by his son Solomon, and now Rehoboam, the son of Solomon, was assumed to be the next king.
i. Rehoboam was the only son of Solomon that we know by name. Solomon had 1000 wives and concubines, yet we read of one son he had to bear up his name, and he was a fool. This demonstrates that sin is a bad way of building up a family. ii. Shechem was a city with a rich history. Abraham worshipped there (Genesis 12:6). Jacob built an altar and purchased land there (Genesis 33:18-20). Joseph was buried there (Joshua 24:32). It was also the geographical center of the northern tribes. All in all, it showed that Rehoboam was in a position of weakness, having to meet the ten northern tribes on their territory, instead of demanding that representatives come to Jerusalem.
b. When Jeroboam the son of Nebat heard it: Jeroboam was mentioned previously in 1 Kings 11:26-40. God told him through a prophet that he would rule over a portion of a divided Israel. Naturally, Jeroboam was interested in Solomon's successor. He was specifically part of the group of elders that addressed Rehoboam.
c. Your father made our yoke heavy; now therefore, lighten the burdensome service of your father: Solomon was a great king, but he took a lot from the people. The people of Israel wanted relief from the heavy taxation and forced service of Solomon's reign, and they offered allegiance to Rehoboam if he agreed to this.
i. God warned Israel about this in 1 Samuel 8:10-19, when through Samuel He spoke of what a king would take from Israel. After the warning the people still wanted a king, and now they knew what it was like to be ruled by a taking king. ii. Sadly, the elders of Israel made no spiritual demand or request on Rehoboam. Seemingly, the gross idolatry and apostasy of Solomon didn't bother them at all.
2. (6-7) the counsel from Rehoboam's older advisors.
Then King Rehoboam consulted the elders who stood before his father Solomon while he still lived, and he said, "How do you advise me to answer these people?" And they spoke to him, saying, "If you will be a servant to these people today, and serve them, and answer them, and speak good words to them, then they will be your servants forever."
a. Rehoboam consulted the elders who stood before his father Solomon while he still lived: Wisely, Rehoboam asked the counsel of these older, experienced men. They seemed to advise Solomon well, so it was fitting that Rehoboam asked for their advice.
b. If you will be a servant to these people today . . . then they will be your servants forever: The elders knew that Rehoboam was not Solomon, and could not expect the same from the people that Solomon did. Rehoboam had to relate to the people based on who he was, not on who his father was. If he showed kindness and a servant's heart to the people, they would love and serve him forever. This was good advice.
3. (8-11) the counsel from Rehoboam's younger advisors.
But he rejected the advice which the elders had given him, and consulted the young men who had grown up with him, who stood before him. And he said to them, "What advice do you give? How should we answer this people who have spoken to me, saying, 'Lighten the yoke which your father put on us'?" Then the young men who had grown up with him spoke to him, saying, "Thus you should speak to this people who have spoken to you, saying, 'Your father made our yoke heavy, but you make it lighter on us'; thus you shall say to them: 'My little finger shall be thicker than my father's waist! And now, whereas my father put a heavy yoke on you, I will add to your yoke; my father chastised you with whips, but I will chastise you with scourges!'"
a. But he rejected the advice which the elders had given him, and consulted the young men: Before Rehoboam ever consulted with the younger men he rejected the advice of the elders.
i. This is a common phenomenon today - what some call "advice shopping." The idea is that you keep asking different people for advice until you find someone who will tell you what you want to hear. This is an unwise and ungodly way to get counsel. It is better to have a few trusted counselors you will listen to even when they tell you what you don't want to hear.
b. And consulted the young men who had grown up with him: These men were much more likely to tell Rehoboam what he already thought. By turning to those likely to think just as he did, it shows that Rehoboam only asked for advice for the sake of appearances
i. Their unwise advice shows the wisdom of seeking counsel from those outside our immediate situation and context. Sometimes an outsider can see things more clearly than those who share our same experiences.
c. And now, whereas my father put a heavy yoke on you, I will add to your yoke: The younger men offered the opposite advice to the elders. They suggested an adversarial approach, one that would make Rehoboam more feared than Solomon was.
i. Solomon asked a lot of Israel, in both taxes and service. Yet we don't have the impression that Israel followed Solomon out of fear, but out of a sense of shared vision and purpose. They believed in what Solomon wanted to do, and were willing to sacrifice to accomplish it. Rehoboam did not appeal to any sense of shared vision and purpose - he simply wanted the people to follow his orders out of the fear of a tyrant. ii. "With a dozen rash words, Rehoboam, the bungling dictator, opened the door for four hundred years of strife, weakness, and, eventually, the destruction of the entire nation." (Dilday)
4. (12-15) Rehoboam answers Jeroboam and the elders of Israel harshly.
So Jeroboam and all the people came to Rehoboam the third day, as the king had directed, saying, "Come back to me the third day." Then the king answered the people roughly, and rejected the advice which the elders had given him; and he spoke to them according to the advice of the young men, saying, "My father made your yoke heavy, but I will add to your yoke; my father chastised you with whips, but I will chastise you with scourges!" So the king did not listen to the people; for the turn of events was from the Lord, that He might fulfill His word, which the Lord had spoken by Ahijah the Shilonite to Jeroboam the son of Nebat.
a. So the king did not listen to the people: In this case, Rehoboam clearly should have listened to the people. This is not to say that a leader should always lead by popular vote, but a leader needs the wisdom to know when what the people want is best for them.
i. Rehoboam was a fool. Ironically, his father Solomon worried about losing all he worked for under a foolish successor: Then I hated all my labor in which I had toiled under the sun, because I must leave it to the man who will come after me. And who knows whether he will be wise or a fool? Yet he will rule over all my labor in which I toiled and in which I have shown myself wise under the sun. This also is vanity. (Ecclesiastes 2:18-19)
b. For the turn of events was from the Lord: God managed this whole series of events, but He did not make Rehoboam take this unwise and sinful action. God simply left Rehoboam alone and allowed him to make the critical errors his sinful heart wanted to make.
i. "Notice also, dear friends that God is in events which are produced by the sin and the stupidity of men. This breaking up of the kingdom of Solomon into two parts was the result of Solomon’s sin and Rehoboam’s folly; yet God was in it: “This thing is from me, saith the Lord.” God had nothing to do with the sin or the folly, but in some way which we can never explain, in a mysterious way in which we are to believe without hesitation, God was in it all." (Spurgeon)
5. (16-19) Rehoboam is rejected as king over the 10 northern tribes.
Now when all Israel saw that the king did not listen to them, the people answered the king, saying: "What share have we in David? We have no inheritance in the son of Jesse. To your tents, O Israel! Now, see to your own house, O David!" So Israel departed to their tents. But Rehoboam reigned over the children of Israel who dwelt in the cities of Judah. Then King Rehoboam sent Adoram, who was in charge of the revenue; but all Israel stoned him with stones, and he died. Therefore King Rehoboam mounted his chariot in haste to flee to Jerusalem. So Israel has been in rebellion against the house of David to this day.
a. What share has we in David? Rehoboam's foolishness made Israel rejects not only Rehoboam, but also the entire dynasty of David. They rejected the descendants of Israel's greatest king.
b. King Rehoboam sent Adoram, who was in charge of the revenue; but all Israel stoned him with stones: Apparently, Rehoboam did not take the rebellions seriously until this happened. When his chief tax collector was murdered, he knew that the ten tribes were serious about their rebellion.
i. Adoram was the wrong man for Rehoboam to send. He was famous for his harsh policy of forced labor (1 Kings 4:6 and 5:14). Rehoboam probably sent Adoram because he wanted to make good on his promise to punish those who opposed him. His tough-guy policy didn't work.
c. So Israel has been in rebellion against the house of David to this day: From this point on in the history of Israel, the name "Israel" referred to the 10 northern tribes and the name "Judah" referred to the southern tribes of Benjamin and Judah.
i. There was a long-standing tension between the ten northern tribes and the combined group of Judah and Benjamin. There were two earlier rebellions along this line of potential division, in the days after Absalom's rebellion (2 Samuel 19:40-43), which developed into the rebellion of Sheba (2 Samuel 20:1-2).
6. (20-24) Rehoboam attempts to re-unify the nation by force.
Now it came to pass when all Israel heard that Jeroboam had come back, they sent for him and called him to the congregation, and made him king over all Israel. There was none who followed the house of David, but the tribe of Judah only. And when Rehoboam came to Jerusalem, he assembled all the house of Judah with the tribe of Benjamin, one hundred and eighty thousand chosen men who were warriors, to fight against the house of Israel, that he might restore the kingdom to Rehoboam the son of Solomon. But the word of God came to Shemaiah the man of God, saying, "Speak to Rehoboam the son of Solomon, king of Judah, to all the house of Judah and Benjamin, and to the rest of the people, saying, 'Thus says the Lord: "You shall not go up nor fight against your brethren the children of Israel. Let every man return to his house, for this thing is from Me." Therefore they obeyed the word of the Lord, and turned back, according to the word of the Lord.
a. When all Israel heard that Jeroboam had come back, they sent for him and called him to the congregation, and made him king: Thus the prophecy of Ahijah in 1 Kings 11:29-39 was fulfilled. At the time the prophecy was made, it seemed unlikely - but God's word through His prophet was fulfilled.
i. This King Jeroboam is sometimes called Jeroboam I to distinguish him from a later king of Israel also named Jeroboam, usually known as Jeroboam II (2 Kings 14:23-29).
b. To fight against the house of Israel, that he might restore the kingdom to Rehoboam: Rehoboam intended to make war against the seceding tribes of Israel, but God spoke through a prophet and stopped him. To his credit - or perhaps due to a lack of courage - Rehoboam listened to God's word through Shemaiah the man of God.
i. "Here is one Shemaiah, - some of you never heard of him before, perhaps you will never hear of him again; he appears once in this history, and then he vanishes; he comes, and he goes, - only fancy this one man constraining to peace a hundred and eighty thousand chosen men, warriors ready to fight against the house of Israel, by giving to them in very plain, unpolished words, the simple command of God . . . Why have we not such power? Peradventure, brethren, we do not always speak in the name of the Lord, or speak God’s Word as God’s Word. If we are simply tellers out of our own thoughts, why should men mind us?" (Spurgeon)
B. Jeroboam's idolatry.
1. (25) Jeroboam's new capital - Shechem.
Then Jeroboam built Shechem in the mountains of Ephraim, and dwelt there. Also he went out from there and built Penuel.
a. Then Jeroboam built Shechem in the mountains of Ephraim: Jeroboam needed a capital city because Jerusalem was in the territory of Judah and Benjamin. The city of Schechem became the capital city of the northern kingdom of Israel.
b. He went out from there and built Penuel: It seems that Jeroboam's reign began with energy and opportunity. He had a significant promise from God through the prophet Ahijah: that if you heed all that I command you, walk in My ways, and do what is right in My sight, to keep My statutes and My commandments, as My servant David did, then I will be with you and build for you an enduring house, as I built for David, and will give Israel to you. (1 Kings 11:38)
2. (26-29) Jeroboam makes a religion to serve the state.
And Jeroboam said in his heart, "Now the kingdom may return to the house of David: If these people go up to offer sacrifices in the house of the Lord at Jerusalem, then the heart of this people will turn back to their lord, Rehoboam king of Judah, and they will kill me and go back to Rehoboam king of Judah." Therefore the king asked advice, made two calves of gold, and said to the people, "It is too much for you to go up to Jerusalem. Here are your gods, O Israel, which brought you up from the land of Egypt!" And he set up one in Bethel, and the other he put in Dan.
a. If these people go up to offer sacrifices in the house of the Lord at Jerusalem, then the heart of this people will turn back to their lord, Rehoboam: The fact of the divided kingdom did not mean that the northern tribes were exempt from their covenant obligations. They were under the Law of Moses as much as the southern tribes, but Jeroboam feared the political implications of yearly trips down to the capital city of the southern kingdom of Judah.
b. They will kill me and go back to Rehoboam king of Judah: Jeroboam seems to forget or ignore the promise God made to him through the prophet Ahijah recorded in 1 Kings 11. Jeroboam could best secure his throne by radical obedience to God, not by leading the ten northern tribes into idolatry.
c. Therefore the king asked advice: There was no point in asking advice for this evil purpose. Jeroboam wanted advice on how to do a bad thing in the best way.
i. Jeroboam was even more foolish than it first appears. "It literally says, 'Therefore the king took counsel of himself.' " (Dilday) "The phrase discovers the fountain of his error, that he did not consult with God, who had given him the kingdom; as in all reason, and justice, and gratitude he should have done." (Poole)
d. It is too much for you to go up to Jerusalem. Here are your gods, O Israel, which brought you up from the land of Egypt! Jeroboam appealed to their natural desire for convenience. Men will usually take the easy way out when they can; therefore it is good if an idol in Bethel or Dan can replace a trip all the way to Jerusalem.
i. Jeroboam becomes an example of a political leader who shapes religion for his own purpose. The issue of true religion was unimportant to Jeroboam; he was interested in useful religion. ii. Here are your gods, O Israel: Jeroboam repeats the same words of Aaron about 500 years before his time (Exodus 32:4). iii. It is possible - perhaps even likely - that Jeroboam intended the gold calves to represent the God of Israel. This wasn't the introduction of a new god, but a perversion of the proper worship of the true God. "Men are willing to worship God if they are allowed to have a ritual and symbols which they have themselves devised." (Spurgeon)
3. (30-33) The establishment of Jeroboam's religion.
Now this thing became a sin, for the people went to worship before the one as far as Dan. He made shrines on the high places, and made priests from every class of people, who were not of the sons of Levi. Jeroboam ordained a feast on the fifteenth day of the eighth month, like the feast that was in Judah, and offered sacrifices on the altar. So he did at Bethel, sacrificing to the calves that he had made. And at Bethel he installed the priests of the high places which he had made. So he made offerings on the altar which he had made at Bethel on the fifteenth day of the eighth month, in the month which he had devised in his own heart. And he ordained a feast for the children of Israel, and offered sacrifices on the altar and burned incense.
a. Now this thing became a sin: It was a sin when Jeroboam suggested it, but it was more of a sin when the people followed it. The people were so attracted to the religion of Jeroboam that they went as far as Dan (at the far north of Israel) to worship at the shrine of the golden calf there.
b. He made shrines on the high places: Jeroboam made more places of worship than the main centers at Bethel and Dan. These high places were even more convenient for the people.
c. Made priests from every class of people, who were not of the sons of Levi: Jeroboam rejected the commandments of God regarding the priesthood of Israel, and established a priesthood of his own liking.
i. The legitimate priests and Levites who lived in the northern ten tribes did not like this. They, along with others who set their hearts to seek the Lord God of Israel, moved from the northern kingdom of Israel to the southern kingdom of Judah during this period (2 Chronicles 11:13-16). Spiritually speaking, Israel was struck twice - by the ungodly religion of Jeroboam and by the departure of the godly and faithful. There were few godly people left in the northern kingdom.
d. In the month which he had devised in his own heart: This is a good summary of Jeroboam's religion - it was devised in his own heart. Jeroboam is an example of those who create their own religion according to their own taste.
i. For the most part, the world embraces the religion of Jeroboam. Not necessarily his particular expression of golden calves and high places, but a religion created according to taste. In the book Habits of the Heart, Robert Bellah and his colleagues interviewed a young nurse named Sheila Larson, whom they described as representing many Americans’ experience and views on religion. Speaking about her own faith and how it operated in her life, she said: “I believe in God. I’m not a religious fanatic. I can’t remember the last time I went to church. My faith has carried me a long way. It is ‘Sheilaism.’ Just my own little voice.” This “pick-and-choose-as-I-go-along-according-to-my-inner-voice” approach is the modern version of Jeroboam's religion - and in opposition to the revealed religion of the Bible. ii. Therefore, it was natural that Jeroboam servedas his own priest (and offered sacrifices on the altar and burned incense). "Jeroboam probably performed the functions of high priest himself, that he might in his own person condense the civil and ecclesiastical power." (Clarke)
© 2004 David Guzik - No distribution beyond personal use without permission

Similar Documents

Free Essay

Decentralization in Zambia's Bureaucracy

...the survey was to capture the public’s knowledge, attitudes, practices and perceptions about local governance and decentralisation. This survey took place between February 6 and February 15, 2011. Among some of the observations of the survey were that decentralisation is not reflected as a priority in most instances. It is also not reflected in the current council plans of action. In fact, the research was informed that councils had been waiting for instructions, directives and resources to begin undertaking activities that have been stated in documents such as the Decentralisation Implementation Plan (DIP). According to SACCORD, beyond the structural issue, the survey was able to establish considerable levels of uncertainty among local bureaucratic and political elites on the issue of decentralisation. This was evident in the degree of divergence of perspectives on the subject matter concerning decentralisation among the local leadership elite signifying lack of cohesion on this matter. There are several reasons that could be advanced in relation to this observation. SACCORD programme officer (Accountability and Good Governance Programme), Michelo Mwango said that the most possible three factors include poor communication among the elites, political differences as well as sheer...

Words: 1622 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay


...of RL * Opening of File * Getting Clarification of Specs * Seeking approval for calling Quotations * Preparation of Bid documents * Selection of suppliers * Inviting Bids * Bid Opening * Bid Evaluation by TEC * PSO recs * Seeking Financial Approval * Entering to contract * Award of Tender Government Policy on procurement *  The process be * efficient, effective, speedy, fully transparent * Honesty and integrity in all public procurement * Obtain financially the most advantage and quality item Need best services and supplies for the country * Public Accountability Regulatory frame work governing public procurements * Financial Regulations * Government Procurement Guidelines and Manual * Duly adopted manual of procedure of Public corporations & Government Owned Companies * Provincial Financial Regulations * Rules governing Municipal Councils, Pradeshia sabahs & Urban Councils * Government Procurement Guidelines supersede all other rules, regulations & procedures until such time they are amended Importance of Public Procurement * Procurement of vital inputs for Public Sector Investments which are fundamental for National Development * Such inputs are grouped under works, goods and services * Works covers bridges, Buildings, Harbor, Highways etc * Goods covers equipment and machineries, material and supplies, commodities......

Words: 361 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Health and Social Care

...Codes Of Practice For Social Care Workers Web and print-friendly version Introduction This document contains agreed codes of practice for social care workers and employers of social care workers describing the standards of conduct and practice within which they should work. This introduction, which is also reproduced in the Code of Practice for Employers of Social Care Workers, is intended to help you understand what the codes are for and what they will mean to you as a social care worker, employer, service user or member of the public. The General Social Care Council began its work on 1 October 2001, at the same time as the Northern Ireland Social Care Council, the Scottish Social Services Council, and the Care Council for Wales. The councils have a duty to develop codes of practice and have worked together in developing these codes as part of their contribution to raising standards in social care services. The two codes for workers and employers are presented together because they are complementary and mirror the oint responsibilities of employers and workers in ensuring high standards. 2 What are the codes? The Code of Practice for Social Care Workers is a list of statements that describe the standards of professional conduct and practice required of social care workers as they go about their daily work. This is the first time that standards have been set in this way at national level, although many employers have similar standards in...

Words: 1806 - Pages: 8

Free Essay

Anthem Essay

...servant but a dangerous master.” The Council of Scholars in the novel Anthem lives to believe technology is dangerous. Anthem is by Ayn Rand, Equality 7-2521 is a different in his collectivist society. He overcomes and creates a new invention that no one has ever thought about before. He breaks away from the society and forms his own based on a new line of technology. Technology was looked down upon in the society because it was not used in a good way in the war before the times of the Great Rebirth. In Anthem technology is viewed poorly and as a destruction to society. In the book, “But we must never speak of the times before the Great Rebirth, else we are sentenced to three years in the Palace of Corrective Detention”(Rand 19). This shows the society will not not talk about the times before the Great Rebirth at all. It is important because it shows the war times must have scared the government greatly. This makes the government unwilling to changes and new ideas that relate to those times. Also, “ But terror struck the men of the Council. They lept to their feet, they ran from the table, and they stood pressed against the wall, huddled together, seeking the warmth of one another’s bodies to give them courage” (Rand 70). This now shows how the Council reacted to Equality’s invention due to their experiences. This is important because the fear of technology advancement frightens them very much due to the war. Technology frightens the Council because of the fearful times......

Words: 642 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay


...Singapore left the union for good. Lee resigned as prime minister in 1990, and his son became prime minister in 2004. Lee died on March 23, 2015. Lee Kuan Yew was born into a wealthy Chinese family that had resided in Singapore since the 19th century. After World War II, Lee studied law at Fitzwilliam College, in Cambridge, UK. In 1950, he was admitted to the English bar, but instead of practicing law there, Lee returned to Singapore to do so. At the time, Singapore was a British colony and held Britain's main naval base in the Far East. The country was ruled by a governor and a legislative council, mostly comprising wealthy Chinese businessmen who were appointed rather than elected by the people. In the early 1950s, Singapore buzzed with talk of constitutional reform and independence, and Lee banded with other like minds to challenge the governing structure of the country. Soon breaking from this group and taking a more radical stance, in 1954 Lee became secretary-general of his own party, the People's Action Party. In 1955, a new Singapore constitution was introduced. It increased the number of elected seats on the council to 25 out of a total of 32, thereby allowing only 7 seats to be filled by appointment. In the elections that followed, the party founded by Lee's former colleagues, the labor front, won 13 seats, while Lee's PAP won merely 3. But with his party represented on the council, in 1956 Lee headed to London as part of the delegation seeking...

Words: 1038 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Good Leadertship

...Leadership A good leader is only as good as the qualities he possess, the advisors he surrounds himself with, and if he carries out his role properly. It is a leader’s role to benefit the people he is ruling; by making society a peaceful, organized, and flourishing place to lead a productive life. A good leader will consult and seek advice from his advisors, whose job it is to council the leader in matters concerning his leadership. During the Renaissance, in the fifteenth century, there were many scholars and royal advisors that depicted what a leader should be like and how a leader actually was during the Renaissance. There were many leaders that failed to carry out their roles properly by ignoring the advice of their advisors and by neglecting their role as leaders to fulfill their own selfish needs, as will be discussed through Thomas More’s book Utopia. A great leader is one who rules to benefit his people and puts aside any selfish intentions. He does not seek to increase his wealth and power at the expense of his people. This however, was not the case in the time of Thomas More during the fifteenth century. Thomas More served as the chancellor to the King of England, he was also a civic humanist and wrote the book Utopia. In his book Utopia his character Raphael Hythlodaeus, a great scholar, described how the kings were not good rulers and that he would not serve on the court of such kings as it says, “Most kings are more interested in the science of war…than in......

Words: 1614 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay


...What were the main causes, elements, and impact of the different approaches to colonies followed by the English, French, and Spanish? By Columbus’s discovery, Spain got a religious justification fro conquest and an army of seasoned soldiers, named conquistadores. Also, rulers in Spain developed efficient techniques for controlling new colonies. The conquistadores left a trail of destruction by attacking native villages and killed or captured the inhabitant since they preferred seeking gold and slaves to creating permanent settlements. In 1519, some Spanish soldiers landed on the coast of Mexico. Three years later, these Spanish soldier conquered Aztec empire. The three factors of Spanish victory were technological advantages, division within the Aztec empire, and disease. Later, some other Spanish soldiers conquered a richer empire, Inca empire. By 1550, Spain’s New World empire, which stretched from the Caribbean through Mexico to Peru, was administered from Spain by the Council of the Indies. The council enacted laws for the empire and supervised an elaborate bureaucracy to maintain political control and extract wealth from the land and its people. Then, two expedition went to north America to find gold and silver but they did not find any gold and silver. So Spain stopped to extend its empire and just maintained two precarious footholds in north of Mexico. By a large number of gold and silver flowing into Spain, it became the richest and most powerful state in Europe.......

Words: 1532 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Reformation of Catholic Church

...What was going on in the church before the reformation era took place: Many things were happening behind peoples back one being abuses of indulgence. Some priest and bishops were giving indulgences to people for a price of money. Some brothers and sister claimed that they were authorised by the pope to forgive all sins. They took the money from people who believed in them and respected them, they promised them they would go the heaven and have happiness in their lives. An indulgence is the extra-sacramental remission of the temporal punishment due, in God's justice, to sin that has been forgiven, which remission is granted by the Church in the exercise of the power of the keys, through the application of the superabundant merits of Christ and of the saints, and for some just and reasonable motive. The practice ended up becoming a concoction of evil and corruption; it was almost like they were buying their way into heaven. The years leading up to the reformation were indulgences very popular Martin Luther’s ideas of the church and what he taught: When martin Luther found out that pope Leo x and the archbishop of Mainz were selling indulgences for the construction of St Peters basilica in Rome he objected. He was against fooling people that they could buy their way out of sins without any faith what so ever. These people would believe that they were going to Heaven when in fact they would go to Hell. How could they be repentant when self-loathing and self-disgust was......

Words: 733 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay


...back on its right to refuse services because it has not entered a contractual obligation with the customer. This is true even when stores promise ‘special offers’ or price-matching programs. In a book contract law, second edition by Mindy Chen-Wishart state that no offer is made when a party communicates his proposed terms unless he also communicates his commitment to be bound on the other’s acceptance of the terms. A communication may only be a request for a supply of information, not an offer. For example, in Harvey v Facey (1893), H sent a telegram to F asking ‘will you sell us Bumper Hall Pen? Telegraph lowest cash price.’ F replied ‘Lowest price for Bumper Hall Pen, $900’ and H purported to accept this ‘offer’. The Privacy Council found no binding contract because F merely supplied information in response to H’s request but no evinced no clear intention to be bound by H’s acceptance. The book also state that a party’s words or conduct may not amount to an offer because it is only an invitation to treat, that is, an expression of willingness to embark on...

Words: 3949 - Pages: 16

Premium Essay

Business Plan

...Executive Summary The Enhanced Science and Technology Institute (ESTI) supports research faculty and staff at **State University, University of Any State, Any State Health Sciences University and Any City State University in its management of new discoveries. This support includes the management of new discoveries having commercial applications, as well as the management of corporate research agreements leading to new discovery. Keys to Success * Building a strong support base with the private sector within State and the Northwest. * Creating an effective network between researchers to facilitate cross-disciplinary contact. * Raising the viability of ESTI as the one-stop resource for all transferable technology that is being developed on the campuses of State's four largest universities. Mission The mission of the ESTI is to bring technologies from **State University, University of AnyState, AnyState Health Sciences University and AnyCity State University into public use; thereby providing economic development assistance to state and federal agencies and companies to benefit State constituents, providing service to the technology transfer staff of each institution by assisting in identifying, protecting, developing and transferring technology to the private sector and generating income. ESTI's unique perspective is in its ability to link researchers from various institutions to create new technologies that can then be marketed to the private......

Words: 1190 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

European Government

...climate’ At its inception in 1957, the European Union was known as the European Economic Community. It was created by the Treaty of Rome by six countries known as the Core Six – Belgium, Luxembourg, The Netherlands, Germany, Italy and France. It’s main mission being creating a common – tariff free market in favour of easier and more profitable trade. The European Union consists of The Council of Ministers, European Parliament, European Commission and The European Court of Justice. Britain joined the EU in 1973, however it was never fully committed to the European project. The EU now consists of 28 member states, however that is due to increase with the potential of more countries joining amongst which are Turkey and Ukraine. European Government: How the European government does affect UK business? The EU has a big impact on business in the UK. Thanks to the EU Britain is able to trade their goods and services such as cars and banking with other countries in the EU without tariffs. This enables swifter and more profitable trade. As well as that, the EU helps the UK trade their goods and services outside the EU because it is the second largest trade bloc in the world, competing with the USA and China. The EU has supranational policy making power on trade for all member state, including the UK. This means that whatever the EU decides on trade, the UK has to follow. Additionally, the EU imposes working conditions and minimum wage on their member states. However,......

Words: 1660 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Collective Bargaining Case Study

...PBA (Police Benevolent Association) was afraid this they would have to experience this situation. Yes there were many problems with the relationship between management and the unions. The unions successfully negotiated with the public waste area at that time and are currently renegotiating a new contract with the PBA (Police Benevolent Association). The city is prepared to bargain hard with the union regarding a new contract. The public sector was threatened with privatization and outsourcing and hiring new employees because this has been done many times before (Klingner, Nalbandian, & Liorens, 2010). The relationship differs because the public service was negotiated for pay and benefits, the PBA is renegotiating the city council is seeking to lower the budget to make cuts. The PBA has been threatened with the hiring of other companies, such as security companies and retired police officers and correctional officers, hiring civilians to perform the office work while putting the sworn officers on the streets to protect the public. Proposing early...

Words: 1052 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Collective Bargaining

...PBA (Police Benevolent Association) was afraid this they would have to experience this situation. Yes there were many problems with the relationship between management and the unions. The unions successfully negotiated with the public waste area at that time and are currently renegotiating a new contract with the PBA (Police Benevolent Association). The city is prepared to bargain hard with the union regarding a new contract. The public sector was threatened with privatization and outsourcing and hiring new employees because this has been done many times before (Klingner, Nalbandian, & Liorens, 2010). The relationship differs because the public service was negotiated for pay and benefits, the PBA is renegotiating the city council is seeking to lower the budget to make cuts. The PBA has been threatened with the...

Words: 1056 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

Employment Resource Centre

...of organisation ✓ To describe the internal and external communication within this organisation It has to be submitted to Business Administration Tutor - Eimear Hynes on 23rd March 2010. Introduction The Congress Centres Network, formerly the ICTU Network of Unemployed Centres, came into being during an era of mass unemployment in 1980’s. The Centres were established to provide support, resources and a range of services to the growing numbers of unemployed workers, many of whom were trade union members. Centres also served as campaigning organisations on issues around unemployment, poverty and social exclusion. From the very start Centres have been closely associated with local Trades Councils who have been largely responsible for their establishment, management and development. Along with unions’...

Words: 3030 - Pages: 13

Free Essay

Perseus and the Gordon Medusa

...I.Summary: Perseus and the Gordon Medusa begins when Polydektes falls in love with Perseus’ Mother, Danae. Polydektes realizes that he will not obtain Perseus approval over the courtship, but determined to win Danae’s love “by fair means of foul.” Polydektes comes up with a scheme to take Perseus out of the picture. Polydektes pretends to be in love with Hippodameia, Polydektes goes collecting horses as a gift for his bride. “Perseus, when asked for his donation, boasted that if necessary he would even fetch the head if the Gordon Medusa, so Polydektes took him up on his offer, sure that her could never return alive.” Perseus embarks on his mission, Athene and Hermes offer their divine help. Athene and Hermes counsel him to go and find a nymph who can lend help for his mission, he follows their advice. Perseus obtains: winged sandals, A cap of darkness, A special bag to carry Medusas severed head, and a sickle of adamant. He begins his travels and finds Medusa asleep, Athene assist in the beheading of Medusa by guiding Perseus’ hand that held the sickle. Perseus obtains the head of Medusa and begins his journey home. Upon his arrival home he finds his mother being wrongfully persecuted by Polydektes, Perseus uses the head of Medusa to turn him into stone. Perseus mission successfully completed returned all of his aids back to Hermes and Medusa’s head back to Athene, “She put it in the centre of her breastplate as a threat to her enemies”(March 170-175). II. Focus the......

Words: 2034 - Pages: 9