Free Essay

Seminoles

In: Historical Events

Submitted By ctweaver445
Words 2411
Pages 10
Cory Weaver
Native American Studies

Survival and Sovereignty: The Seminole Tribes
The Nation -
The Seminole tribe is the product of an ethno-cultural blending of the Creek peoples from the lower-central Southeast with indigenous Floridian tribes such as the Choctaw, Timuquan and Apalachicolas, some of whom were part of the Muschogean culture. The meaning of the word “Seminole” has been interpreted, loosely, as “runaway” or “broken off” (McReynolds 1957, 12). This refers to the separation of the Lower Creek peoples from the larger tribe, as described by an 18th-century observer. “Runaway,” reported historian Wiley Thompson, was “applicable to all the Indians in the Territory of Florida as all of them ran away…from the Creek…” (McReynolds 1957, 12). Runaway African-American slaves added to this conglomeration of native peoples, making the Seminoles a truly renegade people in every sense. The Seminoles saw themselves as having waged a long struggle for freedom. “The Indians who constituted the nucleus of (the) Florida group thought of themselves as yat;siminoli or ‘free people…’” (Seminole Tribe of Florida, 2013).
The Seminoles spread throughout Florida during the second half of the 18th century. A diverse group, they brought with them a broad range of skills and means of subsistence, including farming, hunting, fishing and a form of animal husbandry. From their North Florida homeland, the tribe expanded south, establishing settlements as far as the Everglades by 1800 (Grunwald 2006, 30). North Florida became a kind of paradise to the Seminoles,

a place of abundance and great natural beauty. “Here our navel strings were first cut, and the blood from them sunk into the earth, and made the country dear to us,” (Grunwald 2006, 30). However, the conflict between Florida’s European conquerors would eventually turn North Florida into inhospitable territory.
The victory of the United States over Great Britain in 1783 returned Florida to Spanish rule, though only briefly. Florida had been just one of many of the conquistadors’ many domains in America, and the native peoples there, particularly the Seminoles, had co-existed more or less successfully with the Europeans. However, the Adams-Onis treaty of 1819, in which Spain turned Florida over to the new American republic, was a harbinger of trouble to come for the Seminole people. It created a contentious situation in which increasing numbers of American settlers, particularly plantation owners, pushed hard for possession of Seminole lands. Black Seminoles, runaway slaves who had become integrated with the tribe, were a particular source of friction. “For white settlers who already coveted Indian land, the threat of a savage tribe becoming a magnet for escaped slaves was an excellent excuse for an invasion” (Grunwald 2006, 31).
Thus, the position of the American government became increasingly militant. The Treaty of 1832 offered the Seminoles the option of removing west of the Mississippi or staying in Florida. Those that remained waged war against a vastly superior American force, led by Andrew Jackson, in the Second Seminole War. Guerilla warfare proved effective for the Seminoles for many years. However, the war ended in 1842 and most of the Seminoles were forced to relocate far to the west, while some retreated to the remotest regions of South Florida.

This geographic divide remains the defining fact of life among the Seminoles, who today are comprised of tribes in Oklahoma and Florida.
Culture and Tradition -
The Seminoles’ ancient cultural roots in the Creek tradition have remained the defining factor in the tribe’s identity. Many of the spiritual observances, such as the Green Corn Dance, have been handed down from ancient Creek belief systems, which include the ritual smoking of tobacco. The Green Corn Dance is the Creek and Seminole celebration of New Year, a time for forgiveness, fasting and renewal. It is also a time for settling unresolved problems within the tribe. “All tribal matters are heard and adjusted during the Green Corn Festival. Judicial powers within the reservation are in the hands of a council of medicine men, which decrees penalties for violations of its rules. Banishment…is considered the worst form of punishment” (FWA-WPA 1946, 46). Ultimately, the festival confers a spiritual cleansing and revitalization. The Creek tradition is also present in the Seminoles’ spoken languages. Historically, the Seminoles of Florida have always spoken Creek and Mikasuki, both of which belong to the Muschogean family of native languages (Sturtevant and Cattelino 2004, 429). Interestingly, these two Muschogean languages are not mutually intelligible: “Mikasuki is perhaps as different from Creek as the English language differs from the related German language” (Sturtevant and Cattelino 2004, 429). Though English predominates today, many Seminoles in Florida and Oklahoma continue to speak Creek of Mikasuki. Socio-political divisions among the Seminoles tended to fall within one of three basic arrangements: matrilocal extended families, exogamous matrilineal clans, “and the group associated with each medicine bundle at the core of the busk or Green Corn Dance” (Sturtevant and Cattelino 2004, 438). Tribal camps were peopled by a

matrilocal family, in which women, children and unmarried men were all part of a single, unified clan (Sturtevant and Cattelino 2004, 438). The Seminole peoples belong to a hierarchy of clans named for and associated with different animals and elements. These clan animals are part of a creation mythology originating in the Creek homeland in southern Alabama and Georgia, where the animal ancestors were said to have emerged from a holy mountain. “The Panther tried to come out first, but its head was blocked by a root across the hole. Wind then came out, spinning to enlarge the hole. Panther followed, and then in this order Wildcat, Bear, Wolf, Deer, and Bird. After this, Otter was found elsewhere…Big Towns joined later” (Sturtevant and Cattelino 2004, 442). There was a delineation made between the four-legged and two- or no-legged clan ancestors in terms of characteristics, and members of the individual clans were said to share those characteristics with their clan totems (Sturdevant and Cattelino 2004, 442). Perhaps the single-most influential figure in Seminole history is Osceola, the highly successful war leader who led the Seminoles in their guerilla campaign against the United States government. Osceola was Creek but his mother was part Scots-Irish, and it is believed his father was English. He became a symbol of Seminole resistance, and the image of Osceola driving his dagger through a copy of the Treaty of Payne’s Landing in 1832, the agreement that ceded Florida to the U.S. in exchange for lands west of the Mississippi. As husband to an escaped slave, Osceola was passionately opposed to slavery, a condition he believed the American government held in store for the Seminole nation. His rejection of the 1832 treaty was a kind of declaration of independence, and has cemented his legend among the Seminole tribes down to

the present day. Osceola’s defiance of the American government ended in 1838 with his capture, imprisonment and death.
Historical Analysis - Osceola’s demise came about as the result of American treachery. Unable to defeat him in battle, government officials enticed Osceola to come to Ft. Moultrie in South Carolina to sign a peace treaty, but he was captured and imprisoned at St. Augustine, Florida. Osceola was not only popular among his native Seminoles but had captured the imagination of the American populace, much as Geronimo would decades later. Consequently, Osceola’s capture by deceit aroused public indignation – it also helped set the tone for relations between the Seminoles and the U.S. government, whose only concern was to seize Seminole lands for settlement by Americans. In many ways, the Seminoles’ success at defying the will of the government during the Second Seminole War worked against the tribe in the long run. It made them an early target of American expansionism, a barbarian obstacle to the fulfillment of the United States’ destiny in North America. The focal point of America’s ruthless aggression against native Americans was Andrew Jackson, a man who served as military governor in Florida before ascending to the presidency. Jackson needed no coercing to remove the Seminoles from what he considered land pre-ordained for American settlers, and he did not allow the legal niceties of treaties to stop him. “As long as Andrew Jackson was president, the United States could be depended upon to place property rights of voters ahead of treaty rights of American Indians” (McReynolds 1957, 179). If Osceola is the symbol of Seminole defiance and independence, Andrew Jackson is the embodiment of Seminole oppression, the usurper determined to disenfranchise an entire people. Jackson was part of a generation of Southern politicians for whom native Americans were little more than mindless savages. Florida legislators passed a law making it illegal for Seminoles to leave reserved areas, the violation of which was punishable by 39 lashes (Grunwald 2006, 34). The outcry of Seminole leaders would be echoed in years to come by countless Indian chiefs in the Western territories, but as long as the Seminoles lived on lands within U.S. territory, there would be no change in the government’s policy toward them. By the early 1800s, “There were only 4,000 Seminoles in Florida, but that was 4,000 too many for Florida’s settlers” (Grunwald 2006, 34).
And yet relatively little progress had been made through force. In 1842, military operations against the Seminoles were officially ended by President John Tyler. The government had expended more than $20 million, and 1,500 soldiers had been killed, but the Seminoles had not been forced into submission (Mahon 1996, 203). In the 19th century, the U.S. government gave 5,000 acres to the Seminoles of Florida in hopes that they would accept life on the reservation. The spirit of resistance from the early 1800s remained, and at first the majority of Seminoles refused life on the reservation. However, the work of Creek Christian missionaries gradually convinced many to accept life on government-provided lands (Mahon 1996, 203). Thus, the Christian faith came to influence the Seminoles in ways that American military power could not.
Ultimately, the fate of the Seminoles would be different from most other native American tribes, once-free peoples whose identities and cultural traditions were wiped away by the genocidal policies of the U.S. government. The fact that the Seminoles can boast to have never been conquered was a key factor in their claims to sovereignty, and in 1957 the U.S. government

officially recognized the Seminole tribe of Florida. Twelve years later, the U.S. also recognized the Seminole nation of Oklahoma.
Modern Tribal Nation -
Today, the Seminole tribes function as sovereign entities within the geographical boundaries of the United States. The Seminole Tribe of Florida was formed in 1957 and a constitution passed. It established a two-tiered form of government, comprised of a Tribal Council and a Board of Directors (Seminole Tribe of Florida, 2013). The Tribal Council is the primary governing body, led by a chairman, vice-chairman and council representatives from each reservation (Seminole Tribe of Florida, 2013). From an administrative standpoint, the Tribal Council is responsible for managing a police department, human resources division, tribal gaming, citrus groves and the tribe’s various commercial ventures. The tribe also has its own legal defense department, as well as utilities (Seminole Tribe of Florida, 2013). Criminal prosecution and other such matters remain in the hands of the Florida and U.S. governments.
The Seminole Tribe of Florida is also a federal corporation, with a board of directors charged with guiding the organization toward financial success. The corporate charter addresses both the tribe’s sovereign status and its fiscal goals. The board’s aim is to “further the economic development of the Seminole Tribe of Florida by conferring upon said Tribe certain corporate rights, powers, privileges and immunity; to secure for the members of the Tribe an assured economic independence” (Seminole Tribe of Florida, 2013). The board has adopted an aggressive stance toward development, having created a number of innovative ventures that proved quite profitable. These include campgrounds, gift shops, credit and finance operations,

citrus groves, arts and crafts shops, cigarette wholesalers and smoke shops (Seminole Tribe of Florida, 2013). One of the tribe’s most profitable ventures has been the casino business, as has been the case with native American tribes in many parts of the U.S. In 2012, the Seminole Tribe of Florida failed in its bid to obtain several domain names associated with the Web-based component of that business. The tribe was denied ownership of the domain names “casinoseminole.com,” “seminolecasino.com,” and “seminolegaming.com,” given that there are no common law trademark rights associated with the idea of concept of a “Seminole Casino, a potentially significant development given the prevalence of casinos specifically associated with tribal names in many parts of the country (World Trademark Review, 2012). This case raised controversy concerning the primacy of native American rights concerning the casino gaming industry. There are also potential legal complications, considering that the Seminole Tribe of Florida constitutes a sovereign entity.
The tribe is also involved in preserving its culture and heritage. The Tribal Heritage Preservation Office is divided into several sections, covering archaeology, architecture, archaeometry, cultural advisory issues, compliance and collections. The efforts of these staffs, and of the historic preservation professionals with whom they work, are on display at the Ah-Tah-Thi-Ki Museum on the Big Cypress reservation. The museum houses Seminole art, crafts, archaeological finds and other aspects of Seminole history amid the natural beauty of the Everglades. The Seminole museum is one of the finest examples of tribal cultural and archaeological treasures in the United States, and reflects the tribe’s deep commitment to keeping its heritage alive.
References
Florida, 1946. Works Project Administrator – Federal Writers Project, U.S. History Publishers.
Grunwald, Michael, 2007. The Swamp: The Everglades, Florida, and the Politics of Paradise.
New York: Simon and Schuster.
Mahon, John K. and Weisman, Brent R. “Florida’s Seminole and Miccosukee Peoples.” M.
Gannon, (Ed.). The New History of Florida, Univ. Press of Florida, 1996.
McReynolds, E.C. ,1957. The Seminoles. Norman, OK: Univ. of Oklahoma Press.
“Seminole Tribe Fails to Obtain Virtual Land.” World Trademark Review Daily, 8 October
2012. Accessed 29 March 2013 at http://www.hoganlovells.com/files/Publication/.
Seminole Tribe of Florida, 2013. Accessed 29 March 2013 at http:// www.semtribe.com/History/IndianRemoval.aspx. Sturtevant, William C. and Cattelino, Jessica R., 2004. “Florida Seminole and Miccosukee.”
Handbook of North American Indians, Vol. 14. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institute.

Similar Documents

Free Essay

Seminole People Phenomenological Community

...Running head: Seminole People Phenomenological Community Phenomenological Community of the People of the Seminole Nation of Oklahoma Shannyn Lincoln, Alice Dodoo Raji, Bayo Olaoye, and Andrea Pilkay Grand Canyon University: NRS-427V Concepts in Community and Public Health May 18, 2012 Phenomenological Community of the People of the Seminole Nation of Oklahoma The phenomenological community of the people of the Seminole Nation of Oklahoma is a community rich in culture and tradition that has been passed through teachings from generation to generation. The community is located in eastern Oklahoma and includes the members of the Seminole Nation as well as other tribes that live in the area and members of other races that have married into the families of the community members. The purpose of this assessment is to describe the community and provide an analysis of this community and their needs. Description of Boundaries The People The Seminole Nation of Oklahoma is a federally recognized Seminole tribe based in the U.S. state of Oklahoma. It is the largest of the three federally recognized Seminole organizations. Its members are descendants of the majority of the Seminole in Florida in the 1830s, which were forcibly removed to Oklahoma. Native Americans make up 22% of the population of Seminole County (nso-nsn.gov). According to the Seminole Nation Tribal Enrollment Office the Seminole County service population is 5,315 Tribal citizens. The......

Words: 2273 - Pages: 10

Free Essay

Crisis of Florida

...Article review The Florida Crisis of 1826-1827 and the Second Seminole War Christopher Walker Dr. Saunders Jacksonian 4407 July 12, 2014 The Florida Crisis of 1826-1827 and the Second Seminole War Introduction In this critical review of The Florida Crisis of 1826 – 1827 and the Second Seminole War Canter Brown Jr., tells a very tragic, and hard fought story about the experience of the Seminoles and various groups involved in a plea for life. Brown tells this story in the form of an essay in which he shares his arguments and analysis as a historian, professor, a Floridian, and author in terms of the Florida Crisis. This paper will review Brown’s story as well as his main arguments and will evaluate the quality of Brown’s writing and focus on all areas and his weakness within this account. Summary This section contains a summary of The Florida Crisis of 1826-1827 and the Second Seminole War. The Florida Crisis of 1826-1827 and the Second Seminole is an article by Canter Brown Jr. and it addresses the history of Florida in the war between Seminoles along with other groups of people and the United States. Brown reveals the political, and racial aspects that lead to the history of the war in the United States. The author exclaimed that this war was marked as the most expensive Indian war of all times. This crisis that broke Florida involved the Seminole people and this is why the title “The Seminole War.” The crisis involved the Indian territories and associated......

Words: 1893 - Pages: 8

Free Essay

Unconquered

...Florida State University Campus is the Unconquered Statue, which sits right outside the football stadium. The statue depicts Chief Osceola throwing a spear into the ground while riding his horse Renegade on top of a round stone block that has the word Unconquered carved into it. There is also a small inscription in the base that says, “This statue does not depict a particular person or even. Rather, it symbolically portrays the unconquered spirit of the Seminole people of the 19th century and the timeless legacy of that sprit that continues to burn bright into the future”. The statue was constructed by Fritz White, who specializes in life size sculptures and monuments, the unconquered statue being his biggest project, which is double life size. It is made of bronze and has a stone base and all together stands a whopping thirty-one feet tall. It was unveiled October 10th 2003 but it wasn't until September 2nd when the word Unconquered was carved into the stone. The statue sits in front of Doak Campbell Stadium the home field of the Seminoles. The intended viewpoint of the statue is to be standing in front of it with the football stadium in the background. There is a tradition to light the end of the spear on fire the night before home football games as Florida State fans show their support. Fritz White uses the natural form of the house and the human and very little of the statue is stylized. Fritz used realism to create a lifelike statue which means the textures of the......

Words: 633 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Feature Article

...ENC 1101 13 October 2014 Becoming the Seminole Athlete Coming to FSU as a student athlete is a life changing experience as you shift from being under your parents into being on your own and managing yourself. You get to start early as a baseball player so that you can become acclimated with class and morning workouts. You are taken on a weeklong athlete orientation called Summer Bridge a week before summer classes begin. You along with other freshman athletes get to become familiar with the campus and what is expected out of an athlete here at Florida State. During the week, you are grouped with people from other sports so that you can get to know other people besides your teammates. In your group you do small bonding exercises and team work activities. One activity was a campus scavenger hunt where you have to take pictures in front of certain buildings and this allows you to get familiar with your new school. Summer is an easier adjustment from high school to college compared to fall. During summer you are required to take only two classes and have only early morning workouts. Having the afternoon to yourself is a good feeling because there is not much free time in the fall being a student athlete. Being a baseball player, you live in Whitehall Apartments which is right off campus. Living in the apartments with three other teammates and right next door to four others, you get to bond easily with each other. Transitioning from having your laundry done for you and......

Words: 2598 - Pages: 11

Free Essay

Litature

...Nazi Flag was to get people to have a conversation about it. He stated, “It’s good to address it, but there is no need to kill someone over it.” He also stated, “Hitler stole the Nazi flag and that the Swastika Symbol was originally a Hindu Symbol that meant good luck. In the next room, there were display of Indian Artifacts, a Hut and a picture of Georgia’s Creek Indian Chief William McIntosh (ca.1778-1825). William McIntosh was a controversial Chief of The Lower Creeks in the nineteenth century in Georgia. Williams McIntosh supported the United States and its efforts to end those who opposed the invasion of white settlers on Indian Land. William McIntosh supported General Andrew Jackson in the Creek War of 1812-1815 and The First Seminole War (1817-18). Because of his participation in the drafting and signing of The Treaty of Indian Springs of 1825 that led to...

Words: 647 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Center for Job Training

...Center for Innovation Job Training Initiative A key component of any endeavor to build a quality core of personnel is an honest assessment of current and future internal needs and external influences. Leaders and managers of nonprofit organizations should study workload history, trends in the larger philanthropic community, pertinent changes in the environment in which they operate (layoffs, plant closings, introduction of a new organization with a similar mission, legislative developments, etc.), personnel demands associated with current and planned initiatives, operating budget and costs, and the quality and quantity of the area worker pool, both for volunteer and staff positions. "Nonprofit Organizations, and Human Resources Management - Encyclopedia - Business Terms | Inc.com." Small Business Ideas and Resources for Entrepreneurs. N.p., n.d. Web. 21 Feb. 2013. <http://www.inc.com/encyclopedia/nonprofit-organizations-and-human-resources-management.html>. Workforce Development serves to improve employment opportunities in the Central Florida region by addressing the needs of the unemployed, underemployed and those experiencing difficulty in obtaining and/or maintaining unsubsidized employment. Job seekers receive assistance in finding employment, exploring careers, and upgrading their skills through education and training "Nonprofit Organizations, and Human Resources Management - Encyclopedia - Business Terms | Inc.com." Small Business Ideas and Resources......

Words: 841 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Seminole Gas and Electric

...Law Environment and Development Journal LEAD REVIEW OF NESREA ACT 2007 AND REGULATIONS 2009-2011: A NEW DAWN IN ENVIRONMENTAL COMPLIANCE AND ENFORCEMENT IN NIGERIA Muhammed Tawfiq Ladan COUNTRY LEGISLATION 8/1 VOLUME LEAD Journal (Law, Environment and Development Journal) is a peer-reviewed academic publication based in New Delhi and London and jointly managed by the School of Law, School of Oriental and African Studies (SOAS) - University of London and the International Environmental Law Research Centre (IELRC). LEAD is published at www.lead-journal.org ISSN 1746-5893 The Managing Editor, LEAD Journal, c/o International Environmental Law Research Centre (IELRC), International Environment House II, 1F, 7 Chemin de Balexert, 1219 Châtelaine-Geneva, Switzerland, Tel/fax: + 41 (0)22 79 72 623, info@lead-journal.org Country Legislation REVIEW OF NESREA ACT 2007 AND REGULATIONS 2009-2011: A NEW DAWN IN ENVIRONMENTAL COMPLIANCE AND ENFORCEMENT IN NIGERIA Muhammed Tawfiq Ladan This document can be cited as Muhammed Tawfiq Ladan, ‘Review of NESREA Act 2007 and Regulations 2009-2011: A New Dawn in Environmental Compliance and Enforcement in Nigeria’, 8/1 Law, Environment and Development Journal (2012), p. 116, available at http://www.lead-journal.org/content/12116.pdf Muhammed Tawfiq Ladan, Professor of Law, Department of Public Law, Faculty of Law, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria, Email: mtladan@gmail.com Published under a Creative Commons......

Words: 14024 - Pages: 57

Premium Essay

Case Analysis: Seminole Gas and Electric

...Introduction Norman Cahill financial vice president of Seminole Gas and Electric is reviewed the minutes of the meeting of the firm’s board of director. The major topic discussed was whether Seminole should refund a $500 million issued of 26 year, 16 percentage, and mortgage bonds issued in 11 months earlier. Three of the board member has taken markedly different positions. The bond has been issued the previous October, when interest rates were at their peak. At that time , Cahill and the board of director thought that interest rates were at a high and would likely decline in the future , but they had no idea that the slump would come so soon and be so sharp. Now, less than a year later, rated utility bonds such as those of Seminole, can be sold to yield only 12.5 percentages. Since Cahill anticipated a decline in interest rates when the $500 million was sold has had insisted that the bonds be made immediately callable. The investment bankers handling the issue wanted Seminole to make the bonds non-callable for a year period, but Cahill resisted this proposal. Cahill estimated that Seminole could sell a new issue of 25 year bonds at an interest rate of 12.5 percentages. The call of old and sales of new bonds would takes place in about five to seven weeks. Cahill has proposed, at the last director’s meeting that the company call the 16 percentage bonds and refunds them with a new 12.5 percentage issue. Although the refunding cost would be substantial, he believe that the......

Words: 3036 - Pages: 13

Premium Essay

Agency Visit

...Agency Visit: The Florida Center for Addictions and Dual Disorders Jon-Laurence Esnard BSHS / 332 4.16.2011 Crystal Neal Agency Visit: The Florida Center for Addictions and Dual Disorders The Florida Center for Addictions and Dual Disorders is one of the most recognized rehabilitation facilities in the state of Florida as it is one of the only types of organizations of its type. The Florida Center is the most highly recommended of the three facilities of its kind in the state offering a 62 day and 90 day residency treatment program which specializes in handling clients with co-existing substance abuse and psychiatric disorders (Tri-county Human Services, 2011). The small grey buildings that comprise the Florida Center for Addictions and Dual Disorders are inconspicuously placed near a beautiful nature preserve in the small rural town of Avon Park, Florida. Interviewing the assistant head of the board of clinicians that oversee all decisions made with the Florida Center, Patti Collins, at the Florida Center for Addictions and Dual Disorders on March 31st, 2011, and upon entering the facility, one is overwhelmed by the sense of community amongst the clients and staff whom work and reside there. The Florida Center treats a wide array of clientele which vary extensively in age, culture, disability, and drug of choice (d.o.c.) about 75% of which whom have been sentenced to complete either the 62 or 90 day in-patient treatment program as part of their probation......

Words: 1170 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Spss Sample

...analyzing tool to predict and analysis the data by using several model of calculation. The database I choose is the Employee Attitudes data provided under course material. This is my interested field and I am going to use SPSS to make a prediction. Data Source: EmployeeAttitudesStudents.sav from course material. This database contains information collected in a survey of nearly 1,000 employees of Seminole County Government, Florida. Questions regarding working conditions, compensation, quality of management, etc were asked. Variables in this file are all categorical (mostly ordinal, with a couple of nominal) so they would be appropriate from multiple regression analysis. Statement of Problem According to the research material I found online, Salary Basics - Developing a Strong Compensation Philosophy, good payment attract and retain employees for the company. In order to analysis this situation, I choose two variables as my main factor. The first one is the question "I am paid as well as other organizations with similar jobs", and the second question is "Years worked for Seminole Country Government". So here H0 null hypothesis is that Pay rate compared with other company does not affect number of years they worked for government. State H1 the research hypothesis is that Pay rate compared with other company does affect number of years they worked for government. Definition of Variables Two variable are described as above, "I am paid as well as other organizations......

Words: 821 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Objectification In Schools

...While some schools and most colleges have removed Native American team names and mascots, one of the few universities that has stuck with their questionable name has been The Florida State Seminoles. In 2005 they were granted a waiver by the NCAA because of the support from the Florida Seminole Tribal Council. While many use this as a major arguing point to why these names, mascots, and symbols aren't an issue because they have the full support of the tribe, there are massive holes in this argument. The agreement to keep the name “Seminole” came from the Florida Seminole Tribal Council, out of Central Florida, who operates many luxury casinos and hotels, often branding and profiting from the Seminole name and logo. The thing is that the majority of the Seminole Nation doesn’t reside in Florida. The vast majority of the Seminole Nation resides in Oklahoma, a product of the Seminole wars, the Indian Removal Act, and The Trail of Tears, all who do not support the usage of their tribes name for team names and logos. According to an online article in The Nation by Dave Zirin, “Fans treat this much-touted agreement like they have a “racism amnesty card” in their back pocket. The approval of the Seminole Nation, they will tell you makes it all A-okay. Actually it doesn’t.” The majority of Oklahoma Seminoles who do not profit from the name, who do not live with a first world status and who did not make enough money from the name to purchase the Hard Rock Cafe for nearly 700 million......

Words: 1644 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

History Outline

...Lauren Pikolycky Seelhorst Outline Sections are from Chapter 13 The Spoils System * It was the system of rewarding political supporters with jobs in the government. * This new system had many scandals. * When the Democrats rose to power in the White House, they replaced most of the people in offices with their own people (the common man). * These people were illiterate, incompetent, and plain crooks. * Samuel Swartwout: * Was awarded the lucrative post of collector of the customs of the port of New York. * Nearly nine years later, he left his accounts a million dollars short. * He was the first person to steal a million dollars from the Washington government. The Tricky "Tariff of Abominations" * Tariffs protected American industry against competition from European goods. * Tariffs also drove up prices for all Americans and invited tariffs on agricultural exports. * Congress increased the general tariff in 1824. * Supporters of Andrew Jackson promoted a high-tariff bill. It was passed in 1828. * The Tariff of 1828 was also called the "Yankee Tariff,” the "Black Tariff" and the "Tariff of Abominations.” * It was hated by Southerners because it was an extremely high tariff and they felt it discriminated against them. * Southern states formed formal protests. * The South was having economic struggles and the tariff was a scapegoat. * Denmark Vesey led a slave rebellion in Charleston, South...

Words: 770 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Semi

...INTRODUCTION Norman Cahill, financial president of Seminole Gas and Electric, is reviewed the minutes of the last meeting of the firm’s board of directors. The major topic discussed was whether Seminole should refund a $500 million issue of 26 years, 16 percent, mortgage bonds issued 11 months earlier. Three of the board members had taken markedly different positions on the questions. The bonds were issued when the interest rates were at their peak but the BODs thought that it would decline and insisted on a call premium of 10 percent if any bonds were called during the first year, with the premium declining by 0.5 percent a year until the 20th year, after which the bond could be called with no premium. Furthermore, Cahill estimated that company could sell a new issue of bond at an interest rate of 12.5 percent. The floatation cost on the refunding issue would be approximately 0.5 to 1 percentage point of issue, and there would be the period of approximately three weeks during which both issue would be outstanding, during which the excess funds could be invested in short-term treasury securities yielding to 10 percent. After the $500 million was sold, Chaill anticipated a decline in interest rates so the bonds made immediately callable. The investment bankers handling the issue wanted Seminole to make the bonds non-callable for 5 year period. The bankers insisted on call premium of 10 % if any bonds were called during the first year, with the premium declining by 0.5 % a......

Words: 3149 - Pages: 13

Free Essay

Hello

...Name: Leonardo Berry Number: 45 Positions: LM, RM, CM Date: Sunday, September 13th, 2015 Opponent: Orlando City SC U-17/18 Time: 11:00 AM Location: Seminole Soccer Complex Stadium 1900 Seminole Soccer Loop , Sanford, FL 32771 Date: Saturday, September 19th, 2015 Opponent: South Carolina Battery Academy U-17/18 Time: 10:00 AM Location: Loggers' Run Park Field 2 11185 W Palmetto Park Road, Boca Raton, FL 33428 Date: Sunday, September 20th, 2015 Opponent: IMG Academy U-17/18 Time: 12:30 PM Location: Loggers' Run Park Field 2 11185 W Palmetto Park Road, Boca Raton, FL 33428 Date: Saturday, September 26th, 2015 Opponent: Kendall SC U-17/18 Time: 10:00 AM Location: Loggers' Run Park Field 2 11185 W Palmetto Park Road, Boca Raton, FL 33428 Date: Saturday, October 10th, 2015 Opponent: Weston FC U-17/18 Time: 12:30 PM Location: Weston Regional Park-Field 8 20200 Saddle Club Road, Weston , FL 33327 Date: Saturday, October 24th, 2015 Opponent: Capital Area Railhawks - CASL U-17/18 Time: 11:00 AM Location: WRAL Soccer Center - Durham Bulls Stadium (Turf) 7700 Perry Creek Road, Raleigh, NC 27616 Date: Sunday, October 25th, 2015 Opponent: North Carolina Fusion U-17/18 Time: 10:00 AM Location: Bryan Park Field 1 6105 Townsend Rd, Browns Summit, NC 27214 Date: Saturday, October 31st, 2015 Opponent: Chargers Soccer Club U-17/18 Time: 1:00 PM Location: Loggers' Run Park Field 2 11185 W Palmetto Park Road, Boca Raton, FL 33428 Date: Saturday,......

Words: 798 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

European Arrival in Florida

...Florida was the first part of what is now the continental United States to be visited by Europeans. The earliest known European explorers came with the Spanish conquistador Juan Ponce de León. According to the "500TH Florida Discovery Council Round Table", on March 3, 1513, Ponce de Leon, organized and equipped three ships which began an expedition (with a crew of 200, including women and free blacks), departing from Punta Aguada Puerto Rico. Puerto Rico was the historic first gateway to the discovery of Florida, which opened the doors to the advanced settlement of the U.S. They introduced Christianity, cattle, horses, sheep, the Spanish language and more to Florida.[11][broken citation] Ponce de León spotted the peninsula on April 2, 1513. According to his chroniclers, he named the region La Florida ("flowery land") because it was then the Easter Season, known in Spanish as Pascua Florida (roughly "Flowery Easter"), and because the vegetation was in bloom.[12] Juan Ponce de León may not have been the first European to reach Florida, however; reportedly, at least one indigenous tribesman whom he encountered in Florida in 1513 spoke Spanish.[13] From 1513 onward, the land became known as La Florida. After 1630, and throughout the 18th century, Tegesta (after the Tequesta tribe) was an alternate name of choice for the Florida peninsula following publication of a map by the Dutch cartographer Hessel Gerritsz in Joannes de Laet's History of the New World.[14][15][16] The......

Words: 768 - Pages: 4