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Senior Advisor

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본 연구는 고객만족을 달성하기 위해서는 판매원의 고객지향성이 전제되어야 한다는 가정에서 출발하였다. 판매원의 고객지향성에 관해서는 기존연구가 부족하였으며, 특히 실증적인 연구가 이루어지지 않았다,

지수개발의 첫 단계로서 판매원 고객지향성의 개념을 기존문헌들의 고찰, 전문가와의 면담, 연구자의 추론을 바탕으로 재정립하였다. 그 결과 판매원의 고객지향성은 마케팅 컨셉트의 실천적 요소, 인간적 요소, 시간적 요소, 비용적 요소 및 기술적 요소의 5개 차원으로 정리되었다.

고객지향지수 측정을 목적으로 총 39개 문항이 개발되었는데 척도정화의 과정을 거쳐 최종 22개 문항으로 정리되었다. 척도정화과정에서 마케팅 실천적 요소는 신념적 요소와 고객응대적 요소 두 개의 하위개념으로 분리되었다.

고객지향지수의 인덱스로서의 가치를 높이기 위해 구성요소간의 가중치를 회귀분석을 통해 구한 후, 가중치가 부여된 구성요소간의 선형결합으로 이루어진 함수가 본 연구에서 도출한 고객지향지수(COIS: Customer Orientation Index of Salesperson)이다.

COIS의 특성을 관찰하고 진단도구로서 활용할 목적으로 COIS와 판매원 성과와의 상관관계를 분석하였다. 이를 위해 조정변수를 도입했는데, 그 내용은 판매원과 고객간의 관계의 질(RQ: Relationship Quality), 미래거래에 대한 기대(AFI: Anticipation for Future Interactions), 판매원의 전문성(SE: Salesperson Expertise) 등 세 변수이다.

하위집단 회귀분석을 해본 결과 세 변수들은 모두 조정변수의 역할을 하는 것으로 판명되었다. 즉, 관계의 질이 높은 상황에서는 고객지향성과 성과간에는 정의 관계가 존재하나, 관계의 질이 낮은 상황에서는 부의 상관관계를 보였다. 미래거래에 대한 기대에 관해서도 그 기대가 높은 상황에서는 고객지향성과 성과간에 정의 상관관계를 보였으나, 기대가 낮은 상황에서는 부의 상관관계를 나타냈다. 판매원의 전문성과 관련해서는, 전문성이 높은 판매원의 경우에는 고객지향성과 성과간에 정의 상관관계를 가지고, 전문성이 낮은 판매원의 경우에는 부의 상관관계를 가지는 것으로 나타났다.

이러한 결과를 놓고 볼 때, 판매원의 고객지향성이 높다고 해서 반드시 높은 성과를 기대할 수 없다는 사실이 발견되었다. 따라서, 판매원의 고객지향성과 성과의 관계를 설명하는 데 있어서는 조건부 틀이 보다 적합함을 알 수 있다.

연구결과를 바탕으로 판매원 관리의 진단도구를 개발하였다. 첫째, 판매원 포트폴리오 개념으로서 고객지향성과 성과를 기준으로 한 매트릭스를 통해서 판매원 집단의 건전성을 진단해 볼 수 있었다. 또한 각 유형별로 바람직한 포트폴리오를 구성하기 위한 전략적 대안을 제시하였다.

둘째, 판매원 배치 모형을 개발하였다. 고객지향 욕구지수를 도입하여 B2B 영업 등 특수부문에 어떤 판매원을 배치하여야 하는 가에 대한 해답을 제시하였다.

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