Premium Essay

Sexual Harassment

In: Social Issues

Submitted By kkiansmirg
Words 33399
Pages 134
Working Paper Series No. 59

Sexual harassment in the workplace: a literature review

Carrie Hunt, Marilyn Davidson, Sandra Fielden and Helge Hoel
Manchester Business School, University of Manchester

Sexual harassment in the workplace: A literature review
Carrie Hunt, Marilyn Davidson, Sandra Fielden and Helge Hoel The Centre for Equality and Diversity at Work Manchester Business School, University of Manchester

2

© Equal Opportunities Commission 2007 First published Summer 2007 ISBN 978 1 84206 033 9 EOC WORKING PAPER SERIES The EOC Working Paper Series provides a channel for the dissemination of research carried out by externally commissioned researchers. The views expressed in this report are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the views of the Commission or other participating organisations. The Commission is publishing the report as a contribution to discussion and debate. Please contact the Research and Resources team for further information about other EOC research reports, or visit our website: Research and Resources Equal Opportunities Commission Arndale House Arndale Centre Manchester M4 3EQ Email: research@eoc.org.uk

Telephone: 0161 838 8340 Website: www.eoc.org.uk/research

You can download a copy of this report as a PDF from our website, or call our Helpline to order a copy: Website: Email: Helpline: www.eoc.org.uk/research info@eoc.org.uk 0845 601 5901 (calls charged at local rates)

Interpreting service available for callers to the Helpline Typetalk service available: 18001 0845 601 5901

CONTENTS
TABLES AND FIGURES ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 1 2 INTRODUCTION Page iii iv v 1

SEXUAL HARASSMENT AND BULLYING 5 2.1 Relationship between sexual harassment and workplace bullying 5 2.2 Power and 'organisational violation' 6 2.3 Forms of sexual harassment 8 2.4 How big a problem is sexual harassment in...

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Sexual Harassment

...Sexual harassment is a form of Sex Discrimination that occurs in the workplace. Unwelcome sexual advances, requests for sexual favors, and other verbal or physical conduct of a sexual nature constitute sexual harassment when. Submission to such conduct is made either explicitly or implicitly a term or condition of an individual's employment, submission to or rejection of such conduct by an individual is used as the basis for employment decisions affecting such individuals, or such conduct has the purpose or effect of unreasonably interfering with an individual's work performance or creating an intimidating, hostile, or offensive working environment. A key part of the definition is the use of the word unwelcome. Unwelcome or uninvited conduct or communication of a sexual nature is prohibited; welcome or invited actions or words are not unlawful. Sexual or romantic interaction between consenting people at work may be offensive to observers or may violate company policy, but it is not sexual harassment. The law prohibits unwelcome "sexual" conduct and words or actions "of a sexual nature." Some conduct, such as hugging, may be sexual or nonsexual and must be evaluated in context. Sexual harassment may be physical, such as kissing, hugging, pinching, patting, grabbing, blocking the victim's path, leering or staring, or standing very close to the victim. It may also be verbal, which may be oral or written and could include requests. Sexual harassment is making offensive......

Words: 1511 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Sexual Harassment

...In your opinion, what constitutes sexual harassment? What do you think causes sexual harassment in the workplace?  What should supervisors and companies do to minimize sexual harassment in the workplace? Sexual harassment has a very broad definition. What one person sees as sexual harassment may not be the same for the next person. For me what constitutes sexual harassment would have to be on the extreme side. I was raised with brothers and their friends with that I became callused to the language and actions. I would have to say when there is physical contact that would be entering the area of sexual harassment. I see a couple areas in the workplace that may lead to sexual harassment. The mixed message is the first culprit! Because we are different, what seems harmless in one eye can definitely be taken wrong in another’s eyes. I feel it is our responsibility to be aware of our body language, tone of voice and choice of conversation. As in any contact that we make with others, teachers, waiters or relatives we should conduct ourselves appropriately. Our level of comfort with the person we interact with will have an effect how we communicate. For a lot of people the workplace consumes a lot of their waking hours in the day. It is where most of our day is spent which puts us in contact with coworkers often. A false level of comfort can be a result of this. The comfort level can lead us to say things or do things that seem appropriate with that person but truly it is......

Words: 401 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Sexual Harassment

...deserve to. Without the crucial punishment, many people think that they can get away with just about anything. This is when sexual harassment becomes a major issue. “Sexual harassment is a form of sex discrimination. It includes unwelcome sexual advances, requests for sexual favors, and other physical or verbal conduct of a sexual nature or conduct directed at a person because of his or her gender...”(Tufts University). Unfortunately, sexual harassment is a serious problem in our country and the rest of the world. It is something that one hears about on a daily basis, and it really starts to become disturbing. Sad to say, sexual harassment happens in many different environments, many people do not do anything to prevent it, and the consequences need to become much more serious; therefore, the law needs to start cracking down more on these disgusting people. This type of abuse occurs in many different environments, and people seem to get away with it no matter where it happens. From young teens, to elder grandparents, people of all ages are both giving and receiving this horrible behavior. Everyone knows that the most common type of harassment is directed towards a female, which almost completely takes out the idea of a male being harassed. Even though it is nearly not as common, it is still something that goes on unnoticeable. Sexual harassment really becomes a problem when it is occurring at a workplace. This makes things more complicated because one would......

Words: 1020 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Sexual Harassment

...Sexual Harassment Sexual harassment is considered a form of sex discrimination under Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964. The EEOC (Equal Employment Opportunity Commission) defines sexual harassment as unwelcome sexual advance, requests for sexual favors, or other verbal or physical conduct of a sexual nature. Sexual harassment can happen from the opposite sex as well as the same sex. There are two forms of sexual harassment; one is the most commonly know by people is called quid pro quo. It is the exchange of sexual favors for job benefits. Identifiable elements to determined quid pro quo from the case Pease vs. Alford Photo Industries are.  You are a member of a protective class  You were subjected to unwelcome sexual harassment in the form of sexual advances or requests for sexual favors from a supervisor or individual with authority over the plaintiff.  Harassment complained of was based on sex.  Submission to the unwelcome advances was an express or implied condition for receiving some form of job benefits, or refusal to submit to sexual demands resulted in a tangible job detriment.  Employer knew or should have known of the harassment. The second form of sexual harassment is called Hostile work environment. Its is unwelcome conduct constituting hostile work environment harassment must be sufficiently severe or pervasive to alter the conditions of the victim’s employment and create an abusive working environment. An example of this could......

Words: 10643 - Pages: 43

Free Essay

Sexual Harassment

...Sexual Harassment is a problem that affects all segments of the public and private sectors. It seems that over the past ten years the incidence of sexual harassment has increased dramatically. Some examples of high profile sexual harassment include Bill Clinton and Monica Lewinsky, Bill Clinton and Paula Jones, and Kobe Bryant and a Colorado teenager. These are just a few examples of how far reaching sexual harassment is in today’s society. One of the major problems with sexual harassment is the ability to identify whether sexual harassment is real and what do if it happens. Often, sexual harassment is a matter of he said, she said and there are often no witnesses to the alleged sexual harassment. Another problem with sexual harassment is the ability to discipline in a consistent manner. Employers often struggle treating employees consistently due to many factors such as length of employment, performance, and rank in the company. During the case all of these issues will be addressed and supported with information from the text, governmental laws, and industry leaders in sexual harassment and HRM. One of the largest problems with sexual harassment is the identification that harassment has actually occurred. Sexual harassment as defined by the text is “Unwelcome sexual attention that causes the recipient distress and results in as ability on the part of the recipient to effectively perform the job”. (Human Resource management 601) Most of the time sexual harassment is a he......

Words: 896 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Sexual Harassment

...Working Paper Series No. 59 Sexual harassment in the workplace: a literature review Carrie Hunt, Marilyn Davidson, Sandra Fielden and Helge Hoel Manchester Business School, University of Manchester Sexual harassment in the workplace: A literature review Carrie Hunt, Marilyn Davidson, Sandra Fielden and Helge Hoel The Centre for Equality and Diversity at Work Manchester Business School, University of Manchester 2 © Equal Opportunities Commission 2007 First published Summer 2007 ISBN 978 1 84206 033 9 EOC WORKING PAPER SERIES The EOC Working Paper Series provides a channel for the dissemination of research carried out by externally commissioned researchers. The views expressed in this report are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the views of the Commission or other participating organisations. The Commission is publishing the report as a contribution to discussion and debate. Please contact the Research and Resources team for further information about other EOC research reports, or visit our website: Research and Resources Equal Opportunities Commission Arndale House Arndale Centre Manchester M4 3EQ Email: research@eoc.org.uk Telephone: 0161 838 8340 Website: www.eoc.org.uk/research You can download a copy of this report as a PDF from our website, or call our Helpline to order a copy: Website: Email: Helpline: www.eoc.org.uk/research info@eoc.org.uk 0845 601 5901 (calls charged at local......

Words: 33399 - Pages: 134

Free Essay

Sexual Harassment

...Sexual Harassment Paper HRM320: Employment Law Professor Brian Lahargoue DeVry University Online Whitley Thomas Introduction Sexual harassment is an act that many individuals are involved in daily. Regardless of the reason why a person are harassed; sexual harassment is illegal, unwanted and makes the individual being harassed feel uncomfortable. Many people believe that women are the only individuals who can be harassed. This is a false belief, as men can be sexually harassed as well. Many individuals do not report sexual harassment for fear of a hostile work environment and to prevent embarrassment. Throughout this paper, we will discuss sexual harassment, the different types of sexual harassment and examples. Whether someone harasses someone on purpose or not it is still unacceptable and is punishable by law. Define sexual harassment as the term is used legally. According to Law.com, sexual harassment is defined as "unwanted sexual approaches (including touching, feeling, groping) and/or repeated unpleasant, degrading and/or sexist remarks directed toward an employee with the implied suggestion that the target's employment status, promotion or favorable treatment depend upon a positive response and/or "cooperation" (Sexual harassment, 2013). An example of sexual harassment would be an executive assistant's boss telling her he would give her a promotion or incentive if she went on a date with him.  Explain how sexual harassment differs from gender......

Words: 1635 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Sexual Harassment

...Sexual harassment is a form of Sex Discrimination that occurs in the workplace. Unwelcome sexual advances, requests for sexual favors, and other verbal or physical conduct of a sexual nature constitute sexual harassment when. Submission to such conduct is made either explicitly or implicitly a term or condition of an individual's employment, submission to or rejection of such conduct by an individual is used as the basis for employment decisions affecting such individuals, or such conduct has the purpose or effect of unreasonably interfering with an individual's work performance or creating an intimidating, hostile, or offensive working environment. A key part of the definition is the use of the word unwelcome. Unwelcome or uninvited conduct or communication of a sexual nature is prohibited; welcome or invited actions or words are not unlawful. Sexual or romantic interaction between consenting people at work may be offensive to observers or may violate company policy, but it is not sexual harassment. The law prohibits unwelcome "sexual" conduct and words or actions "of a sexual nature." Some conduct, such as hugging, may be sexual or nonsexual and must be evaluated in context. Sexual harassment may be physical, such as kissing, hugging, pinching, patting, grabbing, blocking the victim's path, leering or staring, or standing very close to the victim. It may also be verbal, which may be oral or written and could include requests. Sexual harassment is making offensive......

Words: 1511 - Pages: 7

Free Essay

Sexual Harassment

...When people think of sexual harassment, they typically think of a group of guys saying dirty jokes to a woman. Although that is an example of sexual harassment, it goes much further. Sexual harassment is unwelcome sexual advances, requests for favors of a sexual nature. Including other physical and/or verbal conduct of a sexual nature constitute sexual harassment when this behavior implicitly or explicitly affects a person’s employment, unreasonably interferes with an employee’s work performance, or creates a hostile, intimidating, or offensive work environment. Sexual harassment is a form of sexual discrimination that violates Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964. Title VII applies to employers with 15 or more employees, including state and local governments. It also covers employment agencies and labor organizations as well as the federal government. (www.ecoc.gov) Sexual harassment like many other things has a history. The concept of sexual harassment is not an old one, it is a relatively new term that was started in the 1970s. The term was used in 1973 in “Saturn’s Rings”, a report written by Mary Rowe. This report was given to the Chancellor and President of MIT. The report included multiple types of gender issues that were going on at the institution. Rowe stated that in her opinion she was not the first to use the term because it was talked about in some women’s groups in Massachusetts in the early 1970s. MIT may have been one of the first large......

Words: 2152 - Pages: 9

Premium Essay

Sexual Harassment

...Abstract This paper explores sexual harassment and the various elements that are associated with sexual harassment. The definition of sexual harassment and some of the behaviors that are considered sexual harassment are discussed. This paper also describes the difference between sexual harassment and gender discrimination. Quid pro quo sexual harassment is explained with examples, along with what constitutes a hostile work environment. The reasonable person standard and how to determine if the behavior is unwelcome are two ways that companies can help to protect themselves. A sample draft of a sexual harassment policy is included at the end of this paper with reasons of inclusion. Sexual harassment is a very serious issue in the workplace, different from gender discrimination, and includes many different elements including a hostile work environment. According to the EEOC website, sexual harassment includes, “unwelcome sexual advances, requests for sexual favors, and other verbal or physical harassment of a sexual nature.” Although these are the typical forms of sexual harassment that most people think of, the EEOC website continues, “Harassment does not have to be of a sexual nature, however, and can include offensive remarks about a person’s sex.” (Sexual harassment, 2010) This means that any sort of offensive joke about sexuality is also sexual harassment. Harassment does not have to happen with members of the opposite sex, it can also be of the same sex. A...

Words: 1696 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Sexual Harassment

...Sexual harassment can be defined as a form unwelcome verbal, visual or physical conduct of a sexual nature that can be described as being severe or pervasive in nature. It is a discrimination against sex which violates Title VII articulated in The Civil Rights Act of 1964. This federal law formally forbids any discrimination in employment on the basis color, race, sex, religion or national origin and employers with 15 or more employees are restricted under this law. The overall effects of such activities at places of work are that they cause a hostile working environment which means that they directly affect working conditions of most workers. Sexual harassment can be able to take place anywhere beginning from schools, universities and places of work. There is a verb small difference between occasional unwanted sexual advances and comments that people thing that they might be deemed inappropriate. Sexual harassment can really affect the way your employees approach all that you are doing. The main focus of this research paper will be on the status of sexual harassment at places of work in the United States. The research paper will be able to investigate the current state of sexual harassment in the workplace in the United States. As it stands at the moment, there is no specific cause of sexual harassment at the place of work. Although there is this notion that sexual harassment is mainly caused by provocative dressing or enticing behaviors by the victims, high chances are......

Words: 2848 - Pages: 12

Free Essay

Sexual Harassment in the Workplace

...Sexual Harassment in the Workplace Sasha Greer Webster University Abstract Sexual harassment in the workplace is when an employee such as a manager or coworker make other coworkers feel uncomfortable with the use of sexually explicit photos, touching or verbally. It can often go unnoticed because many employees feel that there is nothing that they can do to prevent it or they feel that the company will not do anything about it. Sexual harassment can happen to anyone, male or female. There are laws that will protect the victims but in order for the system to work, a claim has to be made. Employers are required to have a sexual harassment policy and it should be handed out to the employees and also posted where everyone can have access to it. If employees are aware of what is considered sexual harassment and the consequences of the actions, they will be more likely not to commit it. Sexual Harassment in the Workplace Sexual Harassment has been an ongoing problem for individuals throughout history. It is often left unreported due to the shame that it causes to the victim and the fear of them losing their jobs. Within the last thirty years sexual harassment has been taken seriously and people have been convicted for the crime. In the United States, sexual harassment within employment, housing, or in Colleges or Universities is Illegal ("Sexual Harassment - Fact Sheet - Feminist Majority Foundation," n.d.). What is Sexual......

Words: 1165 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Paper-Sexual Harassment

...Decisions: Sexual Harassment The Rationale behind the Communication Decisions: Sexual Harassment The problem of sexual harassment is increasingly "coming out of the closet". Companies are starting to realize that the problem is real; some managers are admitting that it could affect their staff, and more victims are starting to gather the courage to complain. And in terms of recent labor legislation, victims do have legal recourse. Yet most people do not fully understand the problem, its causes, its consequences, or its extent. Even more difficult is the question: How does one deal with such behavior? Before considering the causes and consequences of, and possible cures for, this deep-rooted problem, we shall have to define it. We shall also describe six different types of harassers, and consider who the victims are usually. Every man and woman, who becomes aware of the implications of this issue, can help both companies and individuals to address this insidious and destructive problem. The U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) describes sexual harassment as a form of gender discrimination that is in violation of Title VII of the 1964 Civil Rights Act. In 1998, the U.S. Supreme Court made employers more liable for sexual harassment of their employees. Moreover, the Society for Human Resource Management has reported that 62% of companies now offer sexual harassment prevention training programs, and 97% have a written sexual harassment......

Words: 1039 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Sexual Harassment Paper

...Sexual harassment is a form of discrimination that happens in familiar environments far too often. It frequently occurs in our place of employment. It’s a subject that needs to be taught to all employers, employees, and other individuals in the work place on how to prevent and counter these activities. Employers should implement and strictly enforce a guideline which directly informs all parties of the consequences if not followed. Employees should understand that they should have no fear of harassment since the policy is there to back them up. In doing so, this should make the environment much more comfortable for every individual since there is a policy in place to support them in a situation that may arise. Moran (2008) wrote that “sexual harassment consists of the request for sexual favors as well as touching, joking, commenting, or distributing material of a sexual nature that an individual has not consented to and finds offensive” (p. 261). It’s a form of unlawful sex discrimination. Under federal law in the United States, sexual harassment is unwanted verbal or physical behavior of a sexual nature that occurs in the workplace or in an educational setting under certain conditions. Such behavior is illegal if it creates an environment that is hostile or intimidating, if it interferes with a person’s work or school performance, or if acceptance of the harasser’s behavior is made a condition of employment or academic achievement (Microsoft Student, 2007). The......

Words: 1173 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Sexual Harassment Paper

...Sexual Harassment Paper HRM320: Employment Law Professor Maccarthy DeVry University Online Felicia Rodriguez Sexual Harassment Paper Sexual Harassment can happen to anyone of any sex. Harassment can occur between employees of the same sex or different sex. Sexual Harassment includes sexual comments, inappropriate touching, unwelcome sexual advances, and request of sexual favors, verbal or physical conduct that creates an offensive or sexually charged working environment. Many people don’t understand the laws behind sexual harassment in the work force. Sexual Harassment is a form of sex discrimination that occurs in the workplace. People who are victims of sexual harassment may sue under the Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, which prohibits sex discrimination in the workplace. In the Federal courts sexual harassment was not recognized as a form of sex discrimination until the 1970s, because the problem was that it was originally perceived as isolated incidents of flirtation in the workplace. Employers are now aware that they can be sued by the victims of the workplace that are being sexually harassed. The courts and employers generally use the definition of sexual harassment contained in the guidelines of the U.S Equal Employment Opportunity commission (EEOC). This language has been formed as the basis for most state laws prohibiting sexual harassment. The guidelines state that unwelcome sexual advances, requests for sexual favors, and other verbal or......

Words: 1648 - Pages: 7