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She Is Awesome

In: Philosophy and Psychology

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Unsur Kekuatan Tamadun Melayu : Ekonomi Alam Melayu merupakan tamadun manusia dan pertanian yang paling purba. Pada waktu tersebut, alam Melayu bukanlah tempat tinggalan masyarakat mundur yang hanya menjalankan aktiviti ekonomi sara diri tetapi sebenarnya hubungan perdagangan telah lama wujud dengan tamadun luar. Terdapat banyak kejayaan yang telah dicapai tamadun Melayu yang memberi impak positif kepada budaya ekonomi sekarang. Tamadun Melayu telah merapatkan jurang perdagangan antara negara kita dengan negara lain. Hasil daripda proses perdaganagn yang wujud ketika zaman tamadun Melyu , membolehkan kita meneruskan aktiviti perdagagan dengan lebih berkesan. Alam Melayu adalah punca untuk berbagai-bagai rempah ratus seperti lada, kayu manis, buah pala dan cengkih. Menurut pendapat para sarjana, beras, gangsa, dan penternakan ulat sutera pada asalnya muncul di Asia tenggara dan selepas itu baru tersebar ke negara China. Menurut D.G.E. Hall (1955) ukuran sukatan dan berat di India dan China iaitu tahil dan kati adalah asalnya daripada Bahasa Melayu. Sarjana Rusia, Petrov berhujah bahawa kayu manis yang diedarkan semasa zaman kerajaan Rom adalah datang dari Asia Tenggara dan India Selatan, walaupun barangan tersebut dianggap berasal dari Afrika dan Arab. Sebenarnya pedagang Arab sejak zaman Rom yang mengawal perdagangan rempah ratus dan laluan perniagaan telah merahsiakan tempat asal penemuan kayu manis itu. Kegiatan ekonomi utama yang tersebar di kawasan pedalaman adalah pertanian, penternakan, perburuan, pemungutan hasil hutan, penangkapan ikan dan pelbagai jenis kraf tangan iaitu pembuatan alat kerja petani dan barang rumah tangga. Walaupun dalam teks – teks Melayu lama tidak banyak menyatakan kemajuan pertanian secara langsung, tetapi ada dirakamkan maklumat tentang hasil pertanian, tanaman, makanan, dan haiwan. Maklumat ini membantu memahami susunan dan tahap perkembangan hasil pertanian yang paling bernilai dari segi perdagangan, selain jenis makanan yang banyak tersebar di pelbagai negeri Melayu pada waktu itu. Satu perkara yang menarik adalah makanan yang dinyatakan dalam teks Melayu adalah makanan halal. Babi dan arak tidak ditemui. Ini menunjukkan bahawa di alam Melayu sudah berkembang tamadun yang kaya makanan asli dan serasi dengan Islam. Kapal dan pelayaran adalah dasar kehidupan dan kegiatan ekonomi di Alam Melayu. Darjah atau kadar perkembangan kapal, pelayaran dan perkapalan menggambarkan tahap kemajuan dan ekonomi masyarakat tersebut. Orang Melayu terkenal sebagai pelaut yang menggunakan kapal sendiri untuk membawa barang dagangan ke seluruh dunia. Keadaan ini bukan sesuatu yang janggal kerana teknologi perkapalan tertua di dunia adalah dicipta oleh orang Melayu. Sumber China ada mencatatkan kehadiran kapal – kapal Melayu di pelabuhan tenggara China pada abad pertama. Kapal itu dikatakan besar – besar belaka. Ada antara kapal tersebut sehingga 50 meter panjang dan berupaya membawa kargo seberat 250 hingga 1000 tan dengan penumpang seramai 600 – 700 orang. Kapal – kapal dari alam Melayu yang belayar ke China membawa barangan seperti sutera, tembikar dan peralatan besi. Sehingga abad ke – 11, tidak banyak kapal China yang belayar ke Nusantara untuk mendapatkan hasil dari kawasan ini. Perdagangan yang dijalankan antara kedua – dua kawasan itu dikendalikan oleh kapal – kapal Melayu. Pada kurun ke – 17 hingga 18 terdapat pelbagai jenis kapal dan perahu tempatan di Kepulauan Melayu seperti jong, ghurab, lancang, kakap, dan kelulus. Kemudian muncul pula jenis kapal Melayu yang dipengaruhi teknik pembuatan dari Barat selepas orang Eropah tersebar di kawasan alam Melayu. Pada kurun ke – 17 hingga 19, orang Melayu biasa menggunakan kapal perang sebagai kapal perdagangan. Ini kerana di kawasan laut Nusantara terdapat banyak lanun, Malah orang Eropah juga sering melanggar kapal perdagangan supaya dapat mengawal jalan laut dan perdagangan di kawasan tersebut. Maka para pelaut terpaksa melindungi diri dengan senjata seperti meriam dan lela. Pada masa tersebut, hanya kapal dagang berukuran kecil dan sederhana sahaja yang digunakan. Menurut para sarjana, ada dua sebab utama kehilangan kapal – kapal besar Melayu. Pertama kapal besar hanya dapat memaksimumkan keuntungan pada keadaan aman. Tetapi ia kurang cekap pada keadaan untuk menentang kapal Eropah. Kedua ada kebarangkalian wujud monopoli perdagangan oleh pihak Belanda. Saudagar dari alam Melayu yang berniaga di Nusantara juga pernah melawat negara di Timur Tengah, Afrika, dan India yang terletak di sepanjang jalan pelayaran. Menurut sarjana Russia, S. Kullanda terdapat bukti bahawa penduduk Nusantara mempunyai hubungan dengan Madagascar, Afrika Timur dan negara Mediterranean sejak Sebelum Masihi (SMsh). Pelabuhan di Nusantara pada masa itu berfungsi sebagai pelabuhan persinggahan dan pembekal perkhidmatan kepada pedagang dan pelaut asing yang melalui kawasan ini dalam perjalanan mereka ke China dan India, atau menunggu angin monsun yang berlawanan untuk meneruskan perjalanan atau pulang. China, India dan Siam adalah antara rakan paling penting dalam hubungan urus niaga dengan negeri Melayu. Contohnya pedagang dari India terdiri daripada pedagang borong yang kaya dan mempunyai stok simpanan barang paling banyak berbanding pedagang lain. Pedagang India ini datang ke Melaka untuk membeli gaharu putih, tawas, sutera putih, mutiara, lada hitam, buah pala, dan cengkih. Setiap tahun kurang lebih sepuluh buah kapal datang ke Melaka. Mata wang adalah alat yang sangat penting dalam perdagangan. Alat pembayaran di alam Melayu biasanya menggunakan mata wang emas, perak dan tembaga. Terdapat juga pelbagai jenis bahan ganti wang seperti barang kemas dan candu. Tom Pires mencatatkan bahawa kerajaan Melayu Melaka mempunyai mata wang sendiri. Ibn Batutta ada mencatatkan penggunaan wang emas dan wang timah di Samudera – Pasai sekitar tahun 1345 hingga 1346. Wang emas adalah emas tulen yang tidak dilebur manakala wang timah berbentuk kepingan kecil. Dalam teks sejarah Melayu – Islam terdapat banyak maklumat tentang duit dan pembayaran. Ada maklumat tentang pelbagai unit mata wang, kredit, hutang, dan cukai. Antara unit mata wang yang disebutkan dalam teks Melayu adalah bahara, dinar, dirham, rial dan ringgit. Berdasarkan maklumat ini didapati bahawa di alam Melayu telah wujud sistem kewangan dan mata wang sendiri. Kami dapat simpulkan bahawa berlaku perubahan keadaan ekonomi di alam Melayu sejak kurun ke – 13 hingga 19. Contohnya karya dari kurun 13 – 17 (HRP, SM, dan HA) ada menyebut mata wang dari Arab dan Asia Tengah tetapi dalam teks kurun 18 – 19 mata wang tersebut tidak disebut lagi. Catatan berhubung unit mata wang hanya dijumpai dalam teks Sejarah Johor. Mata wang dirham emas ditempa pada zaman kerajaan. Sultan Alauddin Riayat Shah al-Kahar telah mentapkan ringgit atau wang perak Spaniol sebagai piawai mata wang Aceh. Kadar pertukaran pada masa tersebut adalah 4 Dirham = Satu ringgit Spaniol. Selain Melaka dan Aceh, hampir semua negeri Melayu di semenanjung seperti Johor, Pahang, Perak, Kedah, Kelantan dan Terengganu telah menempa wang mereka sendiri, selewat – lewatnya pada kurun ke – 17. Antara bahan pembayaran digunakan adalah emas, perak, permata, dan ringgit yang digunakan untuk berbagai tujuan bayaran iaitu ufti, mas kahwin, rasuah, perang, dan denda. Semua maklumat ini dapat dirujuk dalam teks Melayu HRP, SM, HA, HS, PSNJ dan TN. Sistem kredit dan perdagangan secara hutang sudah wujud di alam Melayu sejak dahulu lagi dan turut digunakan di seluruh Nusantara. Terdapat lapan hingga sepuluh buah tongkang Cina kelihatan setiap tahun di Riau menjual barangan mereka secara kredit selama dua atau tiga minggu. Pembeli yang biasanya terdiri di bawah naungan. Orang Kaya akan berusaha menjual barang yang baru dibeli untuk mendapatkan hasil yang dikehendaki oleh pedagang Cina tadi. Sistem ini menyebabkan persaingan hebat dalam kalangan pemimpin negeri dan mewujudkan medan kuasa yang hanya dipegang individu tertentu. Maklumat tentang hubungan antarabangsa adalah terdiri daripada rujukan atau bahan yang berkaitan hubungan politik, ekonomi dan kebudayaan. Antara keistimewaan kawasan alam Melayu adalah kedudukan strategik pelabuhan di alam Melayu yang menjalankan fungsi sebagai medium entrepot dalam hubungan perdagangan antara China dengan India dan negeri – negeri di sekitar Laut Merah dan Mediterranean. Dalam karya Suma Oriental oleh Tome Pires, Melaka adalah sebuah kota yang diwujudkan untuk perdagangan, lebih baik daripada kota – kota lain di dunia, di hujung monsun dan di pangkal monsun yang lain. Di Melaka ditemui para pedagang yang bukan hanya dari China, Siam, Arab, India, Parsi, dan Turki.
Menurut teks SM, negeri Arab mengekalkan hubungan dengan alam Melayu sebagai rakan perniagaan dan hubungan intelektual yang utama. Maklumat tentang India pula lebih kepada hubungan perdagangan kain, namun maklumat berkaitan hubungan kebudayaan dan agama tidak ditemui. Hubungan dengan China pula hanya dari segi hubungan politik, tetapi maklumat hubungan ekonomi tidak ada. Dalam SM juga terdapat catatan pertama tentang orang Eropah. Sejak Perang Salib pertama alasan paling utama orang Eropah menjalinkan hubungan dengan alam Melayu adalah untuk mengaut untung berlebihan daripada kegiatan perdagangan. Contohnya apabila Alfonso d’Albuquerque tahu bahawa Melaka adalah bandar yang kaya, beliau segera mengatur strategi untuk menawan Melaka.

--------------------------------------------
[ 1 ]. Shaharir, M.Z. 2013. Membicarakan Sains Matematik dalam Acuan Bahasa Melayu dan Islam. Batu Caves : PTS Akademia.
[ 2 ]. Ahmad Jelani, H. 2006. Perdagangan dan Perkapalan Melayu di Selat Melaka : Abad ke – 15 hingga ke – 18. KL : DBP.
[ 3 ]. Sanep, A. & Salmy Edawati, Y. 2012. Dinar Emas : Sejarah dan Aplikasi Semasa. Bangi : Penerbit UKM.

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...• The narrator tells us that a clan called the Spear-Danes, in "days gone by" (that's the past, to you) had some awesome heroic kings. • The first of these hero-kings is Shield Sheafson, who is basically awesome because he could rampage and pillage with the best of them—both on the battlefield and in the mead hall, if you get our drift. He is an orphan, but he eventually becomes king and then subjugates other nearby clans, making them pay tribute to the Spear-Danes. • Shield's son is Beow, a wise, prudent, valiant prince who sympathizes with the hardships his people have endured. • Shield dies in the prime of his life and is buried at sea in a ship loaded with wealth and treasures, according to the custom of the Spear-Danes. It sails off and nobody knows what happens to it. • Beow becomes king and rules long and well. He is succeeded by Halfdane, a warlord who has three sons, Heorogar, Hrothgar, and Halga, and one daughter. Halfdane's daughter isn't given a name in the poem, although we assume that she had one, but we do learn that she marries Onela, the king of the Swedes. • Halfdane's son Hrothgar is fortunate in battle and gradually amasses the most followers and wealth of any of the princes, so he becomes king after his father. • To consolidate his power, Hrothgar builds a grand mead-hall, Heorot Hall, which does dual duty as a throne room and a hangout for the powerful members of his "court." Okay, we say court, but it's really just a bunch of tough barbarians in......

Words: 2117 - Pages: 9

Free Essay

California Science Center

...wonder why they have asthma also it was interesting to play the games they had and at the same time learn a good way to get their point across. The family discovery room was really fun for my daughter even though she is only two but it was fun. One great feature that I had the chance to see was to see the scuba diver to to the bottom of the tank and give medicine to the big humongous sea bass and it was more like a shot that was suppose to clear his eyes so that it won’t cause an infection. Creative World Unfortunately this part of the exhibit had a lot parts that were closed or broken. Building my own structure and then test it with the earthquake shake was nice except the part where many of the tools to build it were broken but I tried and it was fun. Many of these things in this exhibit were things we were taught growing up. Solar powered car racing was great but I don’t see solar power car happening for another 15 to 20 years which is far but not too far and the sail car were fun. Air and Space This was awesome to see some real life space crafts and how they fit in and just the way it looked like. I didn’t get the chance to go on the virtual ride but I plan to the next rime I go for sure. Now the to see the room where all the action was really awesome to see the computers they used and to see how the countdown happens and it felt just like it would probably feel at the moment of course except without the excitement of that day but it was so interesting......

Words: 1009 - Pages: 5