Free Essay

Single Loop vs Double Loop Learning

In: Business and Management

Submitted By rdewanda1
Words 1026
Pages 5
Single loop learning is the most common type of learning and involves problem solving and improving the system but does not seek any answers as to why the problem arose. On the other hand Double loop learning uses feedback from past actions to restructure the set assumption patterns and seek alternative solutions. It is necessary for higher order problem solving and leadership. We see a series of such examples in our daily lives, which involve the use of single loop and double loop learning techniques.

As a part of this study we will be analyzing the use of these learning techniques in the implementation of e-governance projects and try to overview whether the replacement of single loop learning with the double loop learning techniques in these mission mode projects yielded better outcomes and results. The study will try to hit the target by being very specific and studying the RajSWAN (Rajasthan State Wide Area Network) Project.

The government’s aim behind the implementation of RajSWAN project was to establish an effective communication infrastructure and create a highway for electronic transfer of information in the form of voice, video and data between the various departments of the state machinery with an aim to improve the administrative efficiency and effectiveness of Government programmes and schemes thereby resulting in an improved quality of service to the citizen of this state. It also aims to strengthen the disaster management capacity. RajCOMP is a State designated agency, which has further selected Bharti Airtel Ltd. (‘Implementing Agency’) for the implementation of the RajSWAN project.

The figure clearly states the use of single loop learning technique in the creation of infrastructure readiness in the RajSWAN Project. The challenge was to prepare these PoP sites as per SWAN guidelines, layout diagrams and site preparation plans including civil, electrical, furniture work, bandwidth services and IT infrastructure equipment installation and Acceptance testing and allocation of funds for the entire state. Collection of data and appointment of office in-charge for these locations was also a big challenge.

Fig. 1 To fix the problem the Department of Information Technology, Government of Rajasthan used to follow the following process:
1. Allocate funds to district e-Governance societies and follow up through various letters including Official letters to district administration, departments and various stakeholders. There was no formal process/ mechanism to monitor the progress of preparation of these sites. No attempt was made to analyse and cater to the problems involved in this issue as to why the different administrative levels are not able to create these PoP’s. In the absence of a proper team, letters were the only medium through which this assignment was driven by government.

The result of this entire exercise involving the use of single loop learning was that the Project got delayed by 12 months from the date of purchase order and the agreement signing with the implementing agency was still pending due to non-readiness of the PoP sites and various technical issues at the Government of Rajasthan’s end.

DOUBLE LOOP LEARNING was then brought into immediate effect for the implementation of this project and for seeking a solution to the infrastructure bottlenecks. The following steps were identified: A Project Management Unit (PMU) was set up with a team of four members to resolve this issue. Proposals were invited from the various stakeholders including district administration, state departments, implementation agencies, IT consultants, Ministry of IT, DOT, DoIT based on which formal plans were prepared. The targets of infrastructure set up, given to the district administration agencies, were reviewed and set to realistic standards. Data related to various departments and vertical PoP sites were collected, analysed qualitatively and quantitatively and locations were finalized. Nodal officers for all the sites were appointed and an online portal was created wherein all the nodal officers were provided user credentials. The nodal officers were trained and asked to update the progress on daily/weekly basis in the portal. Regular video conferencing was conducted and the Collectors of districts who completed the site preparation work before time were rewarded, and the best practices followed by them were shared in the forums with other districts. Based on the feedback, three small teams consisting of 2 members each (1 person from the PMU) were formed. Prime responsibilities of these teams were to get the sites handed over in a lock and key condition to the implementing agency, capacity building/ awareness trainings of the departments/district administration and creation of awareness among the districts regarding the various e-governance initiatives. District administration was asked to provide full support to the team and ensure compliance such as handover of sites on the spot, data validation etc. during the visits. The implementing agency was asked to create a pilot phase of project and ensure a go live of 10 sites in 2 districts (at each level DHQ, BHQ and horizontal sites) no later than 31-03-2012 with an unconditional support from the department and state government.

All these initiatives, identified for the smooth implementation of this project by overcoming the infrastructure hurdles, involved the extensive use of double loop learning at each stage. The entire PMU came out with extraordinary and excellent results within a short span of time and the major milestones achieved can be summarized as below:

 The project agreement between the state designated agency and the implementing agency was finalized and signed in a month’s time after the set up of the PMU.
 The point of presence sites (PoPs) in all the 33 districts of the State of Rajasthan were handed over by the district administration to the implementing agency.
 The Pilot phase of this project including the commissioning of 10 PoP’s in 2 districts i.e. Ajmer and Jodhpur (1 SHQ, 2 DHQ’s, 2 BHQ’s) as well as a horizontal office at each of these levels was completed successfully on 31st of March, 2012 and the entire RajSWAN project is now in the implementation phase in the State of Rajasthan.

Therefore, the above-mentioned study exemplifies “Double Loop learning” wherein the existing policies/processes were modified/re-engineered to make the entire Project Management more efficient and effective.

Similar Documents

Free Essay

Single Loop Learning vs Double Loop Learning

...Nadja Hill HAD assignment 4 9/25/13 Single loop learning is when individuals solve an issue by simply looking at the organization’s policies, values, and rules to come up with a solution. This learning form allows people to follow a process that’s been put in place in order to resolve a problem. Single loop learning is for simple problems that can be fixed by knowing what’s expected from looking at past events and comparing the results. This is considered the simplest learning form. This is a good learning form for an organization because it can lead to adaptive learning. People will begin to adjust to certain processes because of certain changes that take place. When individuals see a certain process repeatedly, they will tend to reflect those behaviors. For example, an organization is trying to limit the amount of slip and falls especially during rainy weather. Problems solvers discover that these accidents are taking place because of the access waters that drips off the umbrellas once the individual is inside the building. So now a way for them to minimize slips and falls is to provide plastic covers to everyone entering in with wet umbrellas. The organization installed appliances with these plastic covers at every entrance with a sign instructing people to take one. Now everyone knows to grab a plastic cover when entering the building when applicable. Double loop learning is when problem solvers or individuals eliminate issues by looking at organizations policies,...

Words: 562 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Mechanistic and Bureaucratic Organisations Will Probably Struggle to Encourage Organisational Learning. Critically Evaluate This Statement in Relation to the Mechanistic and Learning Perspectives.

...To evaluate this statement we first need to define what the mechanistic and learning approach is. Then define exactly what organisational learning is and what impact the characteristics of the mechanistic approach will have on it. The two approaches involve theories and models about the adaptability and the learning skills of organizations. Bureaucracies clearly lack these characteristics in comparison to other approaches. The mechanistic approach operates the organisation in the same way a machine operates - efficient, specialised, reliable, predictable, logical and with no opinions (has no heart). The model which refers to this approach would be the Taylor model (Taylorism - 21st century scientific management). Frederick Winslow Taylor was a mechanical engineer who strived to improve industrial efficiency. He was a pioneer in the field of scientific management. The Taylor model consists of 4 components. 'Division of labour' where responsibility is shifted from worker to manager. 'One best way' where the scientific methods determine the most efficient way to operate. 'Scientific selection and training' which means the best person is selected depending on experience and qualifications. They are trained to work as efficiently as possible. Finally, 'monitor performance' where operations and performance is observed and monitored through an organisational hierarchy and through supervision. This basic concept further developed into Fordism and finally into TQM.......

Words: 1956 - Pages: 8

Premium Essay

Cd Key

...= input.nextInt(); long longValue = input.nextLong(); double doubleValue = input.nextDouble(); float floatValue = input.nextFloat(); String string = input.next(); Console Output System.out.println(anyValue); JOptionPane.showMessageDialog(null, "Enter input"); GUI Input Dialog String string = JOptionPane.showInputDialog( "Enter input"); int intValue = Integer.parseInt(string); double doubleValue = Double.parseDouble(string); Message Dialog Primitive Data Types byte short int long float double char boolean 8 bits 16 bits 32 bits 64 bits 32 bits 64 bits 16 bits true/false Arithmetic Operators + * / % ++var --var var++ var-addition subtraction multiplication division remainder preincrement predecrement postincrement postdecrement Assignment Operators = += -= *= /= %= assignment addition assignment subtraction assignment multiplication assignment division assignment remainder assignment Relational Operators < >= == != less than less than or equal to greater than greater than or equal to equal to not equal Logical Operators && || ! ^ short circuit AND short circuit OR NOT exclusive OR if Statements if (condition) { statements; } if (condition) { statements; } else { statements; } if (condition1) { statements; } else if (condition2) { statements; } else { statements; } switch Statements switch (intExpression) { case value1: statements; break; ... case valuen: statements; break; default: statements; } loop Statements while (condition) { statements; } do {......

Words: 73366 - Pages: 294

Premium Essay

Six Sigma

...com/0954-478X.htm TQM 19,1 6 Dynamics of organizational learning and continuous improvement in six sigma implementation Taina Savolainen Department of Business and Economics, University of Joensuu, Joensuu, Finland, and Arto Haikonen Genworth Financial, Helsinki, Finland Abstract Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine the dynamics of organizational learning and continuous improvement (CI) in the context six sigma implementation in business organizations operating in multicultural environments. Design/methodology/approach – A specific research question is: does learning mechanisms and continuous improvement practices support each other and how, and what type of learning can be identified in the improvement of business processes. The question is linked to one of the fundamental issues currently discussed in the field of organizational learning; how do organizations get “from here to there”, in other words, what is the dynamics of the processes of learning and how progressive learning is achieved. A case study of a few Finnish companies is made and a procedural implementation model is applied. Findings – The findings suggest that the learning process is characterized by measurement, detection and correction of errors, and cost reduction. In six sigma implementation, learning is a single-loop type of learning. It is an incremental change process which reminds a technical variant of the learning organization. Continuous improvement occurs through procedural......

Words: 5954 - Pages: 24

Premium Essay

Social Information Technology

...Computer programming (often shortened to programming) is a process that leads from an original formulation of a computing problem to executable computer programs. Programming involves activities such as analysis, developing understanding, generating algorithms, verification of requirements of algorithms including their correctness and resources consumption, and implementation (commonly referred to as coding[1][2]) of algorithms in a target programming language. Source code is written in one or more programming languages. The purpose of programming is to find a sequence of instructions that will automate performing a specific task or solving a given problem. The process of programming thus often requires expertise in many different subjects, including knowledge of the application domain, specialized algorithms and formal logic. Related tasks include testing, debugging, and maintaining the source code, implementation of the build system, and management of derived artifacts such as machine code of computer programs. These might be considered part of the programming process, but often the term "software development" is used for this larger process with the term "programming", "implementation", or "coding" reserved for the actual writing of source code. Software engineering combines engineering techniques with software development practices. Computer Programming Principles : Program Design Computer Programming is the process of writing, testing, troubleshooting, debugging and......

Words: 6404 - Pages: 26

Free Essay

Shared Values

...6301/$ - see front matter  2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. doi:10.1016/j.lrp.2009.12.005 68 percent of the families of Grameen Bank borrowers have crossed the poverty line. Motivation towards repayment is high, with rates currently running at 98.4 percent, and the bank has been profitable in every year of its existence except 1983, 1991 and 1992. The socially-oriented organizations in the Grameen Group now range from the country’s largest phone company to one supplying affordable healthcare. The Group’s on-going experience (over almost 30 years) of building firms whose purpose is to alleviate poverty has led to the emergence of the concept of ‘social business’, which can be viewed as still being under construction. Established multinational companies (MNC) have recently shown some interest in the Grameen experience and in its fight against poverty as part of a more general emphasis on corporate social responsibility (CSR). However shareholder value maximization remains the rule in the capitalist system, and e clearly e the reconciliation of this with social objectives is often problematic. Thus, although advocates of CSR like to propose that companies should be measured by a ‘triple bottom line’ of financial, social and environmental benefits, ultimately only one bottom line usually matters: financial profit. However, research has shown that, if managed strategically, CSR projects can indeed pay off, both socially and financially.1 In the midst of......

Words: 4189 - Pages: 17

Premium Essay

C Tutorial

...C Programming Tutorial C PROGRAMMING TUTORIAL Simply Easy Learning by tutorialspoint.com tutorialspoint.com i COPYRIGHT & DISCLAIMER NOTICE  All the content and graphics on this tutorial are the property of tutorialspoint.com. Any content from tutorialspoint.com or this tutorial may not be redistributed or reproduced in any way, shape, or form without the written permission of tutorialspoint.com. Failure to do so is a violation of copyright laws. This tutorial may contain inaccuracies or errors and tutorialspoint provides no guarantee regarding the accuracy of the site or its contents including this tutorial. If you discover that the tutorialspoint.com site or this tutorial content contains some errors, please contact us at webmaster@tutorialspoint.com ii T able of Contents C Language Overview .............................................................. 1 Facts about C ............................................................................................... 1 Why to use C ? ............................................................................................. 2 C Programs .................................................................................................. 2 C Environment Setup ............................................................... 3 Text Editor ................................................................................................... 3 The C Compiler ................................................

Words: 14106 - Pages: 57

Premium Essay

Lg C Program

...computer language. It keeps fluctuating at number one scale of popularity along with Java programming language, which is also equally popular and most widely used among modern software programmers. Audience This tutorial is designed for software programmers with a need to understand the C programming language starting from scratch. This tutorial will give you enough understanding on C programming language from where you can take yourself to higher level of expertise. Prerequisites Before proceeding with this tutorial, you should have a basic understanding of Computer Programming terminologies. A basic understanding of any of the programming languages will help you in understanding the C programming concepts and move fast on the learning track. Copyright & Disclaimer  Copyright 2014 by Tutorials Point (I) Pvt. Ltd. All the content and graphics published in this e-book are the property of Tutorials Point (I) Pvt. Ltd. The user of this e-book is prohibited to reuse, retain, copy, distribute or republish any contents or a part of contents of this e-book in any manner without written consent of the publisher. We strive to update the contents of our website and tutorials as timely and as precisely as possible, however, the contents may contain inaccuracies or errors. Tutorials Point (I) Pvt. Ltd. provides no guarantee regarding the accuracy, timeliness or completeness of our website or its contents including this tutorial. If you discover any errors on......

Words: 13419 - Pages: 54

Free Essay

Lol Girl

...meaningful. This book does have a history section in Appendix S and plenty of definitions later when the student is ready for them. If you will look at Lesson 1, you will see that we go right to work and write a program the very first day. The student will not understand several things about that first program, yet he can immediately make the computer do something useful. This work ethic is typical of the remainder of the book. Rest assured that full understanding comes in time. Abraham Lincoln himself subscribed to this philosophy when he said, “Stop petting the mule, and load the wagon.” The usual practice in most Java textbooks of introducing classes and objects alongside the fundamental concepts of primitive variable types, loops, decision structures, etc. is deferred until the student has a firm grasp of the fundamentals. Thus, the...

Words: 31284 - Pages: 126

Premium Essay

Complexity in Systems

...field of engineering systems. The paper concludes with some “short takes” -- pungent observations on complexity by various scholars -- and some overarching questions for subsequent discussion. AUTHOR A THEORY OF COMPLEX SYSTEMS Edward O. Wilson Herbert Simon SOURCE Consilience: The Unity of Knowledge “The Architecture of Complexity”, Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society, Vol. 106, No. 6, December 1962 as cited in Daniel Katz and Robert Louis Kahn, The Social Psychology of Organizations Kenneth Boulding DEFINITIONS OF COMPLEXITY Joel Moses Eberhardt Rechtin and Mark Maier Peter Senge “Complexity and Flexibility” (working paper) The Art of System Architecting The Fifth Discipline: The Art and Practice of the Learning Organization Dealing with Complexity: An Introduction to...

Words: 7863 - Pages: 32

Free Essay

Luovuus Osana Innovaatioprosessia

...Luovuus osana innovaatioprosessia I. Vänninen Sisältö 1. Johdanto 2. Aivojen plastisuus ja konservatiivisuus – modulaarisuuden syytäkö? 3. Alasidonnainen luovuus 4. Luovan ajattelun kognitiiviset prosessit 4.1. Luova prosessi Wallasin mukaan 4.2. Luovan ajattelun neurotiede: aktiiviset aivoalueet 4.3. Luovan ajattelun neljä prosessityyppiä: neurotieteen näkökulma 5. Miten luovuuden käy nykyisessä työelämässä? 1. Johdanto Kurssilla tekemämme systeemiajattelun harjoitustyö (Nurmi, Silventoinen & Vänninen 2008) auttoi oivaltamaan, että omien töiden organisoinnissa on luovuttava illusorisesta uskosta runsaaseen aikaresurssiin alussa kaukaiselta tuntuvat dead line-päivän lähestyessä. Työn painotusta on siirrettävä prosessin alkupäähän, jotta aikaa jää ajatusten kypsyttelylle. Kiire ja stressi vähentävät luovuutta jopa puoleen, mutta saa samalla ihmiset kuvittelemaan olevansa luovia – kun on kerta niin paljon tekemistä, josta täytyy selvitä. Kyseessä on tyypillinen systeemiarkkityyppi, itseään ruokkiva negatiivinen noidankehä (Burleson 2005: 446). Suorastaan pelottavia ovat Amabilen ja Contin havainnot siitä, että organisaatioiden tuottavuuteen parantamiseen tähtäävät rationalisointi- eli ”tuottavuusohjelmat” voivat vähentää kuukausien ajaksi luovuuden tuotosten, kuten tuotettujen patenttien, määrää, koska ihmisajattelun luovat prosessit häiriintyvät stressin, liiallisen työmäärän, epävarmuuden ja näistä aiheutuvien negatiivisten......

Words: 5229 - Pages: 21

Free Essay

Shrimp

...The Shrimp Commodity System A Sustainability Institute Report by Denise Johnston, Chris Soderquist and Donella H. Meadows There’s a basic fear between your world and mine. I don’t know why. What I came to say was, teach the children about the cycles. The life cycles. All the other cycles. That’s what it’s all about, and it’s all forgot.” —Gary Snyder. “To/From Lew” July 2000 © Sustainability Institute PO Box 174 Hartland Four Corners VT 05049 Inquiries to d.meadows@dartmouth.edu Table of Contents Commodity Project Background ...................................................................................... page 2 The Shrimp System .......................................................................................................... page 3 Wild Shrimp Fisheries Shrimp Aquaculture Model Purpose and Development..................................................................................... page 4 Model Structure ................................................................................................................ page 5 Scenarios from the Model................................................................................................. page 9 Scenario 1: Unbounded Aquaculture Scenario 2: The Environment Strikes Back Scenario 3: Help for the Fishery Scenario 4: Best Practice for the Shrimp Farmers Summary of Dynamic Lessons ....................................................................................... page 12 Notes on Process to......

Words: 6855 - Pages: 28

Premium Essay

A Business Report on Accounting

...Giant PepsiCo has been making use of Visual to conduct the learning program for their employees in order to initiate the success of the new ideas within the context of the company. Many leaders and managers in the company prefer to align the educational system and its offerings with the goals and objectives of the organisation which is not an easy task to do, so it is a must that communication initiates are reinforced along with proper training and education so that this will help the employee to understand the goals of the organisation very clearly and also develop their skills and motivate them to contribute and perform at their best. The leaders have to draw a clear picture by means of literacy programs in order to ensure that the employees are very clear and work form heart and soul and also for rewards obviously. Learning and its relationship to the Organisation Even if an organisation concludes that learning provides the answer to its further development it has to consider, not only the approach, but also how people learn in different contexts. WithConstructivism, Behaviourism, Neuroscience, Multiple Intelligences, Right Brain/Left Brain Thinking, Communities of Practice, Learning Styles and Piaget's Developmental Theory to name but a few, all making a case for consideration, the complex issue of learning becomes self-evident. Yet, understanding how people learn is core to any organisational approach to learning....

Words: 4371 - Pages: 18

Free Essay

Eviews

...Financial Econometrics With Eviews Roman Kozhan Download free books at Roman Kozhan Financial Econometrics Download free eBooks at bookboon.com 2 Financial Econometrics – with EViews © 2010 Roman Kozhan & Ventus Publishing ApS ISBN 978-87-7681-427-4 To my wife Nataly Download free eBooks at bookboon.com 3 Contents Financial Econometrics Contents Preface 6 1 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 Introduction to EViews 6.0 Workfiles in EViews Objects Eviews Functions Programming in Eviews 7 8 10 18 22 2 2.1 2.2 2.3 Regression Model Introduction Linear Regression Model Nonlinear Regression 34 34 34 52 3 3.1 3.2 3.3 Univariate Time Series: Linear Models Introduction Stationarity and Autocorrelations ARMA processes 54 54 54 59 www.sylvania.com We do not reinvent the wheel we reinvent light. Fascinating lighting offers an infinite spectrum of possibilities: Innovative technologies and new markets provide both opportunities and challenges. An environment in which your expertise is in high demand. Enjoy the supportive working atmosphere within our global group and benefit from international career paths. Implement sustainable ideas in close cooperation with other specialists and contribute to influencing our future. Come and join us in reinventing light every day. Light is OSRAM Download free eBooks at bookboon.com 4 Click on the ad to read......

Words: 24327 - Pages: 98

Premium Essay

Nueropsychology

...-------- LATERAL METHODS OF LOCALIZATION - assign specific functions to particular places in the cerebral cortex - LESION STUDIES: any pathologic or traumatic discontinuity of brain tissue - SURGERY: Wada Test (anesthetize one hem), Tumor Removal, Split Brain - INFERENCE STUDIES (talk while balancing broom) - FUNCTIONAL IMAGING - PET (positron emission tomography): track blood flow associated w/ brain activity; used to assess physiology, including glucose & oxygen metabolism, and presence of specific neurotransmitters - SPECT (single photon emission computed tomography): measure blood; takes 2 days to eliminate radioactive tracer - MRI: visual imaging; most detailed brain structures; good spatial resolution & images in short time periods - MEG: 3D magnetic field can be calculated; expensive, not readily available for clinical applications DOUBLE DISSOCIATION - if you damage A, you lose X but not Y - if you damage B, you...

Words: 4014 - Pages: 17