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О российско-китайском сотрудничестве в области космоса

История российско-китайских отношений в сфере космических технологий насчитывает вот уже более 50 лет. Ещё на заре становления китайской ракетно-космической отрасли большая группа специалистов из Советского Союза помогала создавать её научно-исследовательскую и производственно-технологическую базу. За прошедшие с того времени годы формат отношений, конечно, изменился, но взаимовыгодное сотрудничество продолжает неуклонно развиваться. В 2000 году в рамках Российско-Китайской комиссии по подготовке регулярных встреч глав правительств была сформирована Подкомиссия по сотрудничеству в области космоса, которая с тех пор провела уже одиннадцать заседаний, на которых рассматривались различные вопросы двустороннего взаимодействия в этой области. В 2010 году начата реализация вот уже четвёртой по счёту Программы российско-китайского сотрудничества в области космоса (на 2010-2012 годы), включающей 46 тем. В настоящий момент наиболее масштабным проектом двусторонних отношений в сфере космических технологий является совместное исследование Фобоса и Марса. Данный проект реализуется на базе соглашения, которое было подписано руководителями космических ведомств России и Китая 26 марта 2007 г. в Кремле, во время визита в Российскую Федерацию Председателя КНР Ху Цзиньтао. Данным Соглашением предусматривается, что вместе с российским космическим аппаратом «Фобос-Грунт» к Марсу будет направлен и китайский микроспутник «Инхо-1», изготовленный Шанхайской исследовательской академией космической техники. После выхода КА «Фобос-Грунт» на орбиту вокруг Марса произойдет отделение китайского микроспутника. Благодаря уникальной возможности нахождения на орбите Марса сразу двух космических аппаратов будут проведены совместные эксперименты по радиопросвечиванию его атмосферы и изучению магнитосферы, что существенно обогатит представления ученых об этой планете. Продолжается работа российских и китайских специалистов по подготовке совместного проекта по созданию спутниковой системы подвижной персональной связи в интересах государств-участников Шанхайской организации сотрудничества. В настоящее время готовятся технические задания на систему спутниковой связи и эскизный проект на ее космический сегмент. В июне 2010 г. в Институте медико-биологических проблем РАН стартовал моделирующий эксперимент марсианской экспедиции «Марс 500», в котором вместе с тремя россиянами и двумя представителями Европейского космического агентства принимает участие и гражданин КНР, сотрудник китайского Центра подготовки космонавтов Ван Юэ. Помимо научно-технической составляющей российско-китайское сотрудничество в области космоса включает также и целый ряд других направлений – это и взаимодействие по линии общественных организаций, средств массовой информации, популяризаторская деятельность среди школьников и студентов. Так, партнерские отношения уже установили Российская академия космонавтики имени К. Э. Циолковского и Китайское общество космонавтики, российский журнал «Новости космонавтики» и китайский журнал «Исследования космоса». Регулярными стали различные мероприятия, проводимые Представительством Роскосмоса в Китае в пекинской средней школе «Лухэ», учащиеся которой изучают русский язык. Что касается пилотируемой космонавтики, о которой нельзя не упомянуть в присутствии уважаемого Геннадия Ивановича, то пока наши страны не имеют опыта совместных полётов российских и китайских космонавтов, однако, возможно через несколько лет кто-нибудь из присутствующих здесь китайских студентов, выбрав космическую профессию, будет работать бок о бок с российским коллегой на борту российской, китайской или международной орбитальной космической станции.

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