Free Essay

Sir Definition

In: Science

Submitted By foreverlovejane
Words 1653
Pages 7
Definitions of systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS), sepsis, septic shock, and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome

Systemic inflammatory response syndrome

Two or more of the following clinical signs of systemic response to endothelial inflammation:


• Temperature > 38°C or < 36°C
x Heart rate > 90 beats/min

• Tachypnoea (respiratory rate > 20 breaths/min or hyperventilation (Paco2 < 4.25 kPa))

• White blood cell count > 12 ⋅ 109/l or < 4 ⋅ 109/l or the presence of more than 10% immature neutrophils
In the setting (or strong suspicion) of a known cause of endothelial inflammation such as:

• Infection (bacteria, viruses, fungi, parasites, yeasts, or other organisms)

• Pancreatitis
x Ischaemia
x Multiple trauma and tissue injury
x Haemorrhagic shock
x Immune mediated organ injury
x Absence of any other known cause for such clinical abnormalities

Sepsis

Systemic response to infection manifested by two or more of the following:


• Temperature > 38°C or < 36°C
x Raised heart rate > 90/min

• Tachypnoea (respiratory rate > 20 breaths/min or hyperventilation (Paco2 < 4.25 kPa))

• White blood cell count > 12 × 109/l or < 4 × 109/l or the presence of more than 10% immature neutrophils

Septic shock

Sepsis induced hypotension (systolic blood pressure < 90 mm Hg or a reduction of >40 mm Hg from baseline) despite adequate fluid resuscitation

Multiple organ dysfunction syndrome

Presence of altered organ function in an acutely ill patient such that homoeostasis cannot be maintained without intervention

Pathogenesis

Systemic sepsis may complicate an obvious primary infection such as community acquired pneumonia or a ruptured abdominal viscus. Frequently, however, an infective source cannot be identified and the type of organism cultured may provide no clue to its anatomical origin.

Infections that complicate critical illness may arise from the gastrointestinal tract. This region is particularly sensitive to poor perfusion, which may lead to increased bowel permeability and translocation of organisms and endotoxin from the lumen of the gastrointestinal tract into the portal venous and lymphatic circulations. The subsequent release of cytokines and other inflammatory mediators by hepatic Kupffer cells and circulating monocytes may then initiate a sequence of events that culminates in the clinical signs of sepsis and multiple organ failure.

Scientific background

The movement of oxygen, the regulation of its distribution between and within tissues, and the monitoring of cellular metabolism are all important in the clinical management of critically ill patients. Patients with sepsis or the systemic inflammatory response syndrome have a haemodynamic disturbance characterised by a raised cardiac output and reduced systemic vascular resistance. Although delivery of oxygen may be maintained or even increased by pharmacological means, most patients have poor peripheral uptake of oxygen.

The cause of this phenomenon remains unclear. However, sepsis and systemic inflammatory response syndrome are associated with damage to the vascular endothelium, which normally produces vasoactive substances that regulate microvascular blood flow to ensure that all organs are adequately oxygenated. The microcirculation may therefore be disrupted. In addition, inflammatory mediators may modulate directly the intracellular mechanisms that regulate use of oxygen, including mitochondrial function. These two factors mean that patients with sepsis or the systemic inflammatory response syndrome commonly develop multiple organ failure, to which many succumb. Nevertheless, not all patients at risk of developing sepsis and multiple organ failure do so, and individual susceptibility varies widely.

Each patient’s clinical response to the activation of inflammatory cascades may be determined by abnormalities of gene transcription and regulation that modulate the release of vasoactive substances such as nitric oxide, endothelins, and cyclo-oxygenase products (thromboxanes, prostaglandins, etc). Additionally, changes in the effectiveness of endogenous defence systems such as cellular antioxidant protection, repair, and apoptosis may be relevant in determining outcome. In any event, the clinical result of these perturbations is tissue hypoxia.

Detection of tissue hypoxia

The clinical signs of tissue hypoxia are largely non-specific. However, increased respiratory rate, peripheries that are either warm and vasodilated or cold and vasoconstricted, poor urine output, and mental dullness may indicate organ dysfunction and should prompt a search for reversible causes. The following biochemical and physiological measurements may be helpful.

Metabolic acidosis

A low arterial pH and high blood lactate concentration may be important. Anaerobic production of lactate may occur secondary to global hypoxia (for example, cardiorespiratory failure or septic shock) or focal hypoxia (for example, infarcted bowel) or through non-hypoxic causes (for example, delayed lactate clearance, accelerated aerobic glycolysis, or dysfunction of pyruvate dehydrogenase). A wide arterial-mixed venous carbon dioxide pressure gradient ( > 1 kPa) has been shown to be relatively insensitive as a marker of anaerobic tissue metabolism.

Oxygen extraction ratio

The uptake of oxygen by tissues (Vo2) is normally independent of oxygen delivery (Do2). If delivery fails the oxygen extraction ratio (Vo2:Do2) rises to maintain a constant rate of uptake and fulfil tissue demand. The compensatory mechanisms fail only at very low oxygen delivery levels (termed Do2Crit), when extraction starts to fall and become dependent on delivery. However, patients with sepsis or the systemic inflammatory response syndrome have a low oxygen extraction ratio, indicating poor tissue uptake or use. Changes in oxygen delivery and uptake relations have been used to identify occult tissue hypoxia and predict outcome since those who survive septic shock tend to achieve normal oxygen extraction levels.

Increasing oxygen delivery in these patients should produce a corresponding increase in uptake. However, in practice this is difficult to ascertain because of problems in measurement and the need for tissue oxygen demand to remain constant.

Recent randomised clinical trials have also indicated that patients receiving treatment designed to increase oxygen delivery and uptake may have greater mortality than controls. A high mixed venous oxygen saturation, measured through a pulmonary artery catheter, indirectly indicates a low oxygen extraction ratio.

Gastric mucosal pH (pHi)

Gastric mucosal pH can be measured using a tonometer, originally a saline filled balloon placed in the gastric lumen. If the arterial bicarbonate concentration is known, the carbon dioxide tension in the saline samples withdrawn from the balloon can be used to calculate the pH. Several studies have found that a falling or persistently low gastric mucosal pH is associated with poor prognosis in critically ill patients. However, whether gastric mucosal pH truly provides evidence of gastric mucosal hypoxia remains uncertain. Tonometers are now becoming semiautomated and use air instead of saline. Measurement of gastric-arterial carbon dioxide tension or gastric-end-tidal carbon dioxide tension differences has been suggested instead of gastric mucosal pH.

Injury to individual organs

Lung injury

About 35% of patients with sepsis develop mild to moderate acute lung injury and a quarter have fully developed acute respiratory distress syndrome. Affected patients have increased pulmonary vascular permeability, which leads to alveolar oedema and refractory hypoxaemia. Lung injury rarely occurs in isolation. It is usually the pulmonary manifestation of a pan-endothelial insult with inflammatory vascular dysfunction. The annual incidence of acute respiratory distress syndrome is about 6 cases per 100 000 population. Data on incidence and outcome of acute lung injury, which was defined relatively recently, are sparse.

Acute lung injury and the acute respiratory distress syndrome may have different causes as the acute respiratory distress syndrome is partly determined by the nature of the underlying or precipitating condition. Moreover, the precipitating condition and coexisting multiple organ failure dictate outcome. The increased permeability of the alveolar capillary membrane in these conditions suggests that lowering filling pressures by aggressive diuresis or early ultrafiltration may improve oxygenation. However, any concomitant decrease in cardiac output can result in an overall fall in oxygen delivery and may prejudice the perfusion of other organs.

Cardiovascular injury

Myocardial dysfunction also complicates sepsis and the systemic inflammatory response syndrome. Ventricular dilatation occurs in patients with septic shock, and the ejection fraction may be reduced to around 30% despite an overall rise in measured cardiac output. Patients who die tend to have had lower end diastolic volumes and less compliant ventricles during diastole than survivors. Normal volunteers given endotoxin also develop left ventricular dilatation during diastole, suggesting that cardiac function is greatly affected in septic shock. The cellular changes behind ventricular dilatation are unknown.

Systemic vascular resistance is also low in sepsis, possibly through overexpression of vasodilator substances such as nitric oxide and cyclo-oxygenase products in the vascular smooth muscle. The consequent loss of vasoregulation may result in poor distribution of perfusion and tissue hypoxia.

Optimisation of left ventricular filling pressure, inotropic support, and vasoconstrictors such as noradrenaline are all beneficial in septic shock. In addition, novel pressor agents such as nitric oxide synthase inhibitors have been advocated recently

for patients with refractory septic shock. Increased knowledge of the changes in vascular biology that characterise sepsis and the systemic inflammatory response syndrome may allow transient genetic manipulation of the expression of vasoactive mediators that control microvascular distribution of blood flow.

Renal failure

Acute renal failure is a common complication of sepsis and the systemic inflammatory response syndrome. This may reflect changes in the distribution of intrarenal blood flow between the cortex and medulla. The ability of patients to maintain intravascular homoeostasis may also be impaired. The early use of haemofiltration to correct fluid imbalance and (possibly) remove circulating inflammatory mediators has been advocated, but the benefits are unproved. It is essential to restore circulating volume and achieve an adequate blood pressure and cardiac output to prevent and treat acute renal failure.

Dysfunction of gastrointestinal tract

The bowel is particularly susceptible to ischaemic insults. Hypoperfusion of the gastrointestinal tract is thought to be important in the pathogenesis of multiple organ failure as outlined above. Hepatic dysfunction, possibly resulting from reduced blood flow relative to metabolic demand, is also common in critically ill patients. Maintaining adequate flow and perfusion pressure are the only proved treatments to correct these deficiencies. Inotropic drugs with dilator properties such as dopexamine may selectively enhance splanchnic perfusion and oxygenation. Nevertheless, well controlled trials of augmented oxygen transport (possibly guided by gastric tonometry) are needed to establish the role of the gastrointestinal tract in multiple organ failure.

Similar Documents

Free Essay

To Be a Texan

...not the things that I think of when I hear the word Texan. Texans are often depicted, especially by the media, as being racist hicks who don’t understand technology and ride horses to work and school; yet Texans are just like everyone else. To prove it, this paper will consider different definitions of the term Texan and how Texans really are. In the Oxford dictionary it shows that the definition of Texan is a person or animal native to or inhabiting Texas. This definition is completely factual but leaves out a few things about Texans. In the Urban dictionary there are several definitions that people have written about Texans. The one that describes a true Texan is “someone with a sense of pride in their home state. Someone who, although they may not wear boots and ten-gallon hats, still feels like a cowboy. A Texan sticks to his word, and is generally polite and friendly, but wont take shit from anyone. Not all Texans are from Texas, for example John Wayne, and not all those from Texas are Texans. A Texan is also a person who can use the word y’all correctly, know that phrases like “yep” and “I tell you what” are sentences in themselves, and knows what real Mexican food is”. This definition really describes what it means to be a Texan. The term Texan is often associated with words like racist, redneck, and uneducated. Like other states our people are mixed with different personalities we have rednecks that farm and like to hunt, we have, unfortunately, some racist people......

Words: 807 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Beowulf and Green Knight

...Kayla Hinojosa English 2321 Short Paper (3/20) April 4, 2013 “Cultural values defined in ‘Beowulf’ and ‘Sir Gawain and the Green Knight’ ” The cultural values depicted in “Beowulf” and “Sir Gawain and the Green Knight” are those of courage, honor, strength and humility among many others. Now, while exploring the ethos of the cultures in these pieces of literature the reader can deduce that each value means something different. What defines courage (and other values) in “Beowulf” differs from the definition of courage in “Sir Gawain” in many ways including the struggles Beowulf himself faced with Grendel, in “Sir Gawain” with the encounter with the lord’s wife, among other events in both poems. To begin with, in “Beowulf” these values are defined through the heroic code, which was held in the Anglo-Saxon culture in which this poem takes place. Beowulf himself is the definition of a “hero”, exemplifying values such as courage and strength. For example, one challenge that Beowulf held was the battle with Grendel. He shows exceptional strength when he is able to rip of Grendel’s arm which we see in the text itself, "The monster's whole body was in pain; a tremendous wound appeared on his shoulder. Sinews split and the bone-lapping’s burst. Beowulf was granted the glory of winning". The ability to cause so much physical pain to a giant monster shows just how powerful and strong Beowulf is. Strength here is sort of defined as physical power and ability rather than spiritual......

Words: 1048 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Sir Gawain and the Green Knight Essay

...Honor and Courage Persevere The poem Sir Gawain and the Green Knight, translated by John Gardner, is set in the Middle Ages. This was a time in history when people focused on the values and ideals of the Code of Chivalry, a code of honor intended to govern knightly behavior. As Arthur and his knights get together to feast and celebrate Christmas and the new year their festivities were interrupted by a man of green who wandered about searching for adventure so that he can disprove his chivalry. The two values that are most clearly stated in the poem are courage and honor. It will become clear by the actions of the characters that courage and honor is shown in several different areas of the poem. According to the Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary, courage is defined as “mental or moral strength to venture, persevere, and withstand danger, fear, or difficulty.” Courage can be shown in a variety of ways. In this particular instance the Green Knight challenged King Arthur or any of the knights of the roundtable to take his ax and hit his bare neck. He said to them, “And I will stand still for your stroke, steady on the floor, / provided you honor my right, when my inning comes, / to repay” (Sir Gawain and the Green Knight 213). Clearly, the Green Knight shows a tremendous amount of courage, knowing the danger that it is going to befall him if one of the knights takes up the ax to his neck. Sir Gawain is another instance where courage was lost and then found. After a year,......

Words: 763 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

To Be Human Then and Now

...To Be a Human- Then and Now Throughout the span of time humankind has asked the question: What does it mean to be human? Some of the world’s greatest men have contemplated over this question and there are a vast number of theories on what makes a human. A scientist might take a more literal opinion of the question, thinking that we are human because we are higher on the evolutionary chain; we are physically, emotionally and mentally complex. While others might take a more philosophical position on the matter, like René Descartes who originally spoke the famous phrase: “I think, therefore I am”. A philosopher would value the fact that humans can intelligently communicate their thoughts, and these thoughts can change the very existence of man as a whole through invention and innovation. Religious groups would base their opinion of humans on their faith; we are human simply because we are not God. At times science, philosophy and religion can confuse a person opinion on what it actually means to be human. Maybe the concept of being human is much simpler then some may think. Being human could simply mean that we as a collective race are imperfect. The idea of human imperfection is not easily explained by science, philosophy or religion. They can all sometimes be too complex to understand. Science exemplifies the human race as a species, philosophy praises human race as thinkers and religion looks at the human race as sinners and how we all must be perfect to please......

Words: 2340 - Pages: 10

Free Essay

Sir Gawain

...Sir Gawain and the Green Knight contains many themes. Some of these themes are more obvious than others. Love, lust, loyalty, deceit, trust, courage, virtue, and righteousness are most of the themes within the poem. There are some more that are hidden within the concepts of the ideas that the poem presents. In Sir Gawain and the Green Knight, translated by John Gardner, many different themes are addressed throughout the story. The translation by John Gardner portrays these themes by using specific characters, medieval symbolism, and various settings within the story. Sir Gawain and the Green Knight is a great work of medieval literature. The story is considered to be verse romance. There are not many solid facts on the story. The story was composed in the second half of the fourteenth century. It is likely that Sir Gawain and the Green Knight was written around 1375. The author of the piece remains unknown, but we do know of the northwestern dialect of Middle English with which he wrote the poem. The unknown author also consciously wrote in an old-fashioned style. The author is usually referred to as the Gawain poet or the Pearl poet. Three poems were included with Sir Gawain and the Green Knight. "Pearl", "Patience", and "Purity" were all with Sir Gawain and the Green Knight in the same manuscript. This is the reason the author is named as the Pearl poet, in addition to the Gawain poet. All four poems were uniquely named Cotton Nero A.X. This is due to the......

Words: 2666 - Pages: 11

Premium Essay

Beowulf

...Beowulf/SGGN Essay Beowulf, a strong and courageous king, willing to defend his people and his honor at any given moment, was the definition of an epic Anglo-Saxon hero. He conquered his enemies with strength and power and ruled over his people with wisdom. From the 7th century, in which Beowulf was written, to the late 14th century there was an evolution in the type of heroic characters that were portrayed in epic stories. You can see this change in Sir Gawain and the Green Knight. Gawain, a noble knight of king Arthur, was humble and full of integrity. Although claiming to be the least of Arthur’s knights he was well respected across the land. He was a man of his word and a true representation of a chivalric hero. Both characters in these stories were brave and daring and shared some heroic qualities but they held individual traits as well that made them distinct and one of a kind. Beowulf is depicted in the self titled poem to be adventurous, brave, strong, determined, and willing to take any challenge. The poem focuses on three main battles that help the audience determine his character; his fight against Grendel, his victory over Grendel’s mother, and his defeat with the fire breathing dragon. In these confrontations you can understand that he was a hero, a guardian, and a protector. He rescued those in need by conquering whatever was threatening them. One example is shown when Beowulf is introducing himself to King Hrothgar. He says, “ I battled...

Words: 1418 - Pages: 6

Free Essay

Pluto in Orpheus Versus Pluto in Sir Orfeo

...The author of Sir Orfeo changes the character Pluto because the original representation on Orpheus poem contradicts his Christian believes. If we look in the definition of Pluto, it means Rich Father), in Roman religion, god of the infernal regions, the equivalent of the Greek Hades (q.v.), or Pluto (Rich One). Also known to the Romans as Orcus, he was believed to be the brother of Jupiter and was greatly feared. (Encyclopedia Britannica) In the original poem of Orpheus Pluto is presented as the god of the underworld. For the Christianity is only one god. The following paper will point some of the significant contradiction that we can find in the character Pluto in the two poems. There are too many things in the original character of Pluto that contradict the Christian believes. One of these aspects is the representation of Pluto as all-powerful god. When Orpheus travel to the underworld to rescue his wife He tells Pluto and Proserpine: “ oh deities of the underworld, to whom all we must live must come, hear my words, for they are true” (Orpheus)this is a contradiction for the Christianity that believes that Jesus Christ is the one who all living thing must come. In the same speech Orpheus Said that: “we all are destined to you, and sooner or later will pass to your domain” (Orpheus) This statement is a clear contradiction to the Christian believes that all thing are made for the glory of one almighty God and all living thing will be judge by Jesus Christ the son of God....

Words: 513 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Sec280 Week 1

...Dear Sir, It has come to to my attention that you are curious about ping sweeps, and port scans. In the next couple of paragraphs I will explain what each of them are. Next, I will also tell you about the different types of port scans. Then, I will go about explaining how they can impact the company. Next, I will tell you based on the information I provided to you if it is something you should be worried about. First, what is a ping sweep? A ping sweep can also be called an ICMP Sweep. ICMP stands for Internet Control Message Protocol, its primilarily designed to work with our companies operating system and send an error message indicating that a service request is not available. It also can also check and see if the computer's on a domain is not able to connect to the hub or router. Now, a ping sweep is essentially the computer sends a "ping" to a particular destination whether its the domains router, hub switch, etc.. Now, you maybe wondering what is a "ping" is. It is essentially an echo where a computer sends a message and sees if it gets anything back. And if it does it assigns the message back as a protocol number. Sir, there are different ways to perform a ping sweep, I can always go in the command prompt and type the following in; fping,gping and nmap, now I can only use this for the Unix operationg system and I can use pinger software for Windows operating system. You also need to be aware that when I send out a ping it sends out multiple pings to see if a......

Words: 946 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Divine Command Theory

...Mr. Fairlie’s Final Journey by August Derleth As a child, August Derleth was a big fan of the Sherlock Holmes series written by Sir Arthur Conan Doyle. In 1926 he heard that Sherlock Holmes was no longer going to be written. Derleth wrote Doyle asking permission to keep alive the spirit and style of Doyle’s work. Derleth wanted to do a pastiche of Sherlock Holmes called the Solar Pons series. Derleth got the go ahead to write the Solar Pons series using the same characters with different names, a plot location one block away, and the same writing style as Doyle’s. Sherlock Holmes’ character is named Solar Pons in Derleth’s work. The Solar Pons mysteries are among the closest imitations of Doyle’s Sherlock Holmes stories. The series has enjoyed critical and popular success. Mirroring Doyle’s style, Derleth uses dialect, flashback, and foreshadowing to interact and entertain the reader with the Solar Pons character in Mr. Fairlie’s Final Journey to solve the case. The book concerns the investigation into the death of Jonas Fairlie, who was murdered on a train while on his way to consult Solar Pons. To solve the mystery, Solar Pons and his companion, Dr. Lyndon Parker, travel to Fairlie's home town of Frome, Somerset and from there to Scotland, Cheltenham in Gloucestershire and finally to a remote area on the coast of Wales. Pons and Parker work together to retrace the last days of Jonas Fairlie’s life to solve the murder case. The first method that Derleth uses to show......

Words: 1491 - Pages: 6

Free Essay

Debate Phrase

...Useful Debating Phrases  (in not quite as small print)     (1) 1st Proposition opening, definition, teamline,  own arguments (3) 2nd Proposition rebuttal of 1st Opp., rebuild own case, own  arguments (5) 3rd Proposition general rebuttal, rebuild own case (8) Proposition Reply (1st or 2nd speaker) biased summary (2) 1st Opposition accepting definition / redefinition, teamline,  rebuttal of 1st Proposition, own arguments (4) 2nd Opposition rebuttal of 2nd Prop., rebuild own case, own  arguments (6) 3rd Opposition general rebuttal, rebuild own case (7) Opposition Reply (1st or 2nd speaker) biased summary opening the debate: ● [some nice opening, e.g. quote] on the fact that ... ● Ladies and Gentlemen, welcome to  ● And our third speaker, ..., will do the  this debate. rebuttal. ● Welcome from this side of the  rebutting arguments, rebuilding your case: house... ● But before I come to my own  ● The motion for debate today is: ... arguments, let us first have a look at  defining the motion: what ... has said. ● Now we as today's  ● I will continue our case in a minute,  proposition/opposition strongly  but before that there are some things  believe that this is true/not true, but  about the ... speech that need to be  before we come to our actual  addressed. argumentation, let us first define  ● The first prop/opposition speaker has  some important terms in this debate. told us ...; on the contrary ... ● We believe that what is meant by ... is  ●......

Words: 573 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Sons of Ben

...many writers inspired by the artistic and cultural movement that was taking place between the 15th and 17th century. Within this period, there was a little place called the Mermaid Tavern, right in the heart of London. Here, a group of men, who would later become some of the most renowned writers from the Renaissance era, would gather around and discuss literature. This network of friends was led by the famous Ben Jonson, so it comes to no surprise the group would acquire the name Sons of Ben. During these informal meetings, these writers would discuss their views on literature, what influences them, and how they can influence each other. Sons of Ben promoted a cavalieristic style of writing that was not very common in this time period; Sir John Suckling and Robert Herrick were just some of the men who participated in the group and grew to be considered some of England’s finest writers. Ben Johnson, both a friend and rival of Shakespeare at the time, was the core of Sons of Ben. Jonson’s work revolved primarily around the emerging urban society. He often wrote about intelligence in the form of understanding, rejecting narrow mindedness, fanaticism, extremism, and snobbery. A famous piece of his titled Come My Celia demonstrates this by telling of a story about a love that should be acted upon in the moment without worrying about the rumors that would fly around about them. Jonson was considered a cavalier poet, someone who aimed to express the joy and simple......

Words: 1125 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

Newton Law

...#11 NEWTON'S THIRD LAW OF MOTION Objective: Students will experiment with LEGO® materials to gain an understanding of Newton's third law of motion. *Vocabulary: SIR ISAAC NEWTON FORCE MOMENTUM NEWTON'S THIRD LAW OF MOTION MASS VELOCITY Create a LEGO® launch pad and projectile using an 8x16 brick, LEGO® bricks, rubber bands, string, and pencils as shown. Use the scissors to snip the string and smoothly launch the projectile brick. Have students observe the amount of recoil by measuring the launch pad's movement in the opposite direction. Stage an informal challenge where students strive to get the most distance out of their recoil. Hint: Increasing the projectile mass, or the velocity of the launch, should increase this distance. Activity 1: Materials: LEGO® bricks, String, Large rubber bands, Scissors, Rulers, Smooth, round pencils to act as rollers. Activity 2: Preparation: Prepare and test your own device prior to having your students do this experiment. Challenge your students to collectively design a larger version of the Conservation of Momentum Machine built in activity 1. Form small groups and encourage them to work together to create this super slider using LEGO® materials and found objects. Discussion: Lead a discussion focusing on key vocabulary terms. Introduce Sir Isaac Newton and his third law of motion: For every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction. This means it is not possible to exert a force on an object without......

Words: 1255 - Pages: 6

Free Essay

The Sampler

...and the old bad fellow. Two dissimilarities. The short story deals with the questions if tThe man takes advantage of the free samples offered in the shop or if the shop girl is prejudiced against the old poor fellow. The short story is about an old fellow, who comes to the plum pudding store once a week. The problem is that the man does not buy any plum puddings, but he samples them. Therefore he gets the plum puddings for free and actually steals from the store (– definition as a thief). We see the story through the woman’s eyes, therefore the shop girl has the prejudice that the man is poor and cannot afford the product. Even though the man was neatly dressed, she still has the prejudice that he is poor. The good girl The shop girl is very friendly and open-minded. Even though the girl knows what the man is up to she lets him come to the store each week, and actually asks him if he wants a spoon to sample the puddings. “Well, let him come if he wants it that bad” “Would you like to sample them, sir? Here is a spoon for you to use.” The girl lets the old man sample from the store. And later she wants to buy him a pudding; it would give her such pleasure. The man samples not just one The man samples every pudding in the store, but he never buys anything, and he has done it for years. He says he is never satisfied with the plum puddings therefore he gets to sample the next one. (E.g.) ”This is not bad either, but a little too heavy.” The shop girl therefore......

Words: 615 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

The Defence of Poesy

...The Defence of Poesy by Sir Philip Sidney, written c. 1580–82; published 1595 Member of a family that had risen to prominence under the Tudor monarchy, Sir Philip Sidney (1554–86) won admiration at an early age for his courtly skills and intellectual curiosity. His wide travel in continental Europe included diplomatic missions on behalf of Elizabeth I. He advocated support for the Protestant Netherlands in their military resistance to the rule of Catholic Spain. When an English force was sent to the Netherlands in 1585, Sidney was given command of a garrison, and died from wounds sustained in a military engagement. Sidney’s major writings probably belong to the period 1578–84, though none can be dated with certainty. Arcadia, a prose narrative interspersed with verse, combines chivalric romance, pastoral, comedy, and debate on ethics and politics. It survives in a complete earlier version and an unfinished expanded version. Astrophil and Stella, a cycle of 108 sonnets and 11 songs, is one of the first English adaptations of Petrarchan love poetry. By turns witty and tormented, it is a lightly disguised and no doubt fictionally embellished treatment of Sidney’s thwarted love for Penelope Devereux, sister of the Earl of Essex. The most likely date for the composition of the Defence is 1580–82. Like Sidney’s other writings, it circulated only in manuscript during his lifetime, and was published by two separate printers in 1595 under the titles Defence of Poesy and Apology......

Words: 1045 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Math and Physics

...Cantes Submitted by: Jovilyn Bumohya Date of submission: January 5, 2009 iii CONTENTS TITLE PAGE. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iii CONTENTS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vii ACKNOWLEDGEMENT. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xii CHAPTER I: THE PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUND A. Statement of the Problem. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 B. Objectives of the Study. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 C. Hypothesis. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 D. Significance of the Study. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 E. Scope and Delimitation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 F. Definition of Terms. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 CHAPTER II: MOST DIFFICULT SUBJECTS FOR HIGHSCHOOLSTUDENTS: MATH AND PHYSICS A. Introduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 B. Discussion. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 CHPATER III: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION A. Summary. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 B. Conclusion. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 C. Recommendation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 BIBLIOGRAPHY. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 vii ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The researcher would like to extend her heartfelt......

Words: 1424 - Pages: 6