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Situacion Africa

In: Business and Management

Submitted By isabelbarreto
Words 488
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Contexto:
Inglaterra se encontraba en la cima de su poder colonial. La reina Victoria, dejo una época de esplendor, con un gran despliegue de poder político y prosperidad económica. Su largo reinado (1837-1901) también se destaca por su rigidez cultural. En el interior del país las diferencias entre ricos y pobres se acentuaron mucho, lo que preparó el terreno a la ideología de la lucha de clases.
Por otro lado, la teoría del darwinismo social aparece como un arma novedosa y peligrosa a la vez. Ésta planteaba diferentes grados de evolución cultural y afirmaba una separación entre blancos y negros. Obviamente los blancos, se presentaba como lo superior en dicha escala. Basándose en esto legitimaron la empresa civilizadora. O sea, debían imponer la estructura occidental al resto del mundo.
El descubrimiento de minas de diamantes en Sudáfrica motivó una gran inmigración británica, apoyada por los capitalistas mineros, y el estallido, en 1899, de la llamada "guerra de los bóers", que acabó con la victoria británica en 1902.
Hacia 1911 una serie de leyes buscaron consolidar el dominio de los descendientes colonos holandeses y de los ingleses sobre los negros, dando origen al llamado Apartheid.
En 1922, y debido a la depresión de la postguerra, los propietarios de las minas decidieron bajar los sueldos, despedir a muchos trabajadores y eliminar los “obstáculos del color”, con lo que los negros podrían aumentar su número en las minas.
De esta forma, los trabajadores blancos, con el apoyo del Partido del Trabajo (LP) y el Partido Nacional (NP), irían a la huelga con lemas como “Lucha por una Sudáfrica blanca” e instaurarían la República de trabajadores blancos.
Ya durante la Segunda Guerra Mundial (1939-1945), se produjeron cambios profundos en la economía y la sociedad surafricanas. Mientras que el oro continuaba siendo la principal industria, las manufacturas crecieron enormemente para satisfacer las demandas de la guerra. Por otro lado, la urbanización creció rápidamente: el número de habitantes de las ciudades se dobló y en 1946 había más africanos en las ciudades que blancos.
En aquella época Sudáfrica tenía y continuó teniendo el mayor nivel de vida del Continente, su industria era la más fuerte incluso por encima de la Argelia francesa, sus infraestructuras podían medirse con las de la mayoría de los países (en sus hospitales se realizó el primer trasplante de corazón, en 1967).

Bibliografía: http://www.nodo50.org/observatorio/apartheid2.htm http://www.observatori.org/mostrar.php?id=77&files_id=194&tipus=files&lng=cas http://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sud%C3%A1frica#Era_colonial_y_la_era_del_apartheid http://html.rincondelvago.com/descolonizacion-de-africa_1.html http://factorespromocion2010.blogspot.com/2010/06/apartheid-1.html http://www.todoarquitectura.com/v2/noticias/one_news.asp?IDNews=2512 http://www.voyagesphotosmanu.com/consolidacion_apartheid.html http://www.portalplanetasedna.com.ar/apartheid.htm http://ellegadodelahistoria.blogspot.com/2010/01/apartheid-contexto-historico-apartheid.html http://respuestas.wikia.com/wiki/Sud%C3%A1frica
http://www.mgar.net/africa/boers.htm

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