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Answer:

a) Matrix: The mxn matrix A = (aij) in which aij = 1 if ei (( si, and aij = 0 otherwise we call such a matrix, in which each entry is 0 or 1, a (0, 1) matrix.

b) The Term Rank of A Matrix: The term rank of A is the number of elements in a partial transversal of largest possible size.

For the figure, the term rank is 4.

c) Chromatic function: Let G be a simple graph and Let PG (K) be the number of ways of coloring the vertices of G with K colors so that no two adjacent vertices have the same color. PG is called the chromatic function of G.

For example, if G is the free, shown in the figure then PG (k) = K (K-1)2

d) Chromatic Index of G: if G is K colorable (e) but not (K-1) colorable (e) we say that the chromatic index of G is K and write X` (G) = K.

For example, the figure shown for which X’ (G) = 4.

e) MAP: A map is defined as a representation, usually on a flat surface of a whole or part of an area. The job of a map is to describe spatial relationships of specific features that the map aims to represent.

Define

A flow of a network: A flow in a network is a function p that assigns to each are a non-negative real number p(a), called the flow in a, in such a way, that,

i) For each are - a, p(a) ≤(( (a);

ii) The out-degree and in-degree of each vertex, other than v or w, are equal.

What is edge-disjoint paths?

Edge-disjoint paths: The maximum number of paths from v to w, no two of which have an edge in common such path are called edge-disjoint paths.

For this figure, the edge-disjoint paths is E1 = {ps, qs, ty, tz} and E2 = {uw, xw, yw, zw}.

1) Matrix representation of a graph 2) The eight circle problem 3) Six people at a party.

Discuss the application domain of

Explain that any simple graph with in vertices has ……… edges is connected.

Prove that the ………. of spanning trees at ……..

Brooks algorithm.

Matrix Representation of a graph?

Answer:

If G is a graph with vertices labelled {1, 2, ….. , n} its adjacent matrix A is the nxn matrix whose ij-th entry is the number of edges joining vertex I and vertex j. in addition, the edges are labelled {1, 2, ….., m} its incident matrix M is the nxm matrix whose ij-th entry is 1 if vertex i is incident to edge j, and o otherwise.

The Eight Circles Problem?

Answer:

Place the letters A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H into the eight circles in figure, in such a way that letter is adjacent to a letter is next to it in the alphabet.

There are 8! = 40320 ways of placing eight letters into eight circles. The move systematic approach –

1) The easiest letters to place are A and H because each has only one letter to which it cannot be adjacent.

2) The hardest circles to fill are those in the middle as each is adjacent to others.

This suggest that we place A and H is in the middle circles. If we place A to the left of H, then the only possible for B and G are shown in figure.

The letter C must now be place on the left-hand side of the diagram, and F must be placed on the right-hand side. Then the figure –

Describe application domains?

Answer:

Application domains are – - Computer graphics - Robotics - Geographic information systems - CAD/CAM

Computer Graphics: Computer graphics is concerned with creating images of modeled seems for display on a computer screen, a printer, or other output device. The scenes vary from simple two-dimensional drawings, 3-dimentional scenes including light, tenures etc. it also includes over a million polygons or curved surface patterns.

Because, scenes consist of geometric objects, geometric algorithms play an important role in computer graphics.

Robotics: As robots are geometric objects that operate in a 3-dimensional space the real world, the geometric problems arise at many places.

Other geometric problems occur in the design of robots and work cells in which the robot has to operate.

Geographic Information Systems: A geographic information system, or GIS for short, stores geographical data like the shape of countries, the height of mountains, population density or rainfall.

The combination of different types of data is one of the most important operations in a GIS. So geometric algorithm plays important role.

CAD/CAM: CAD concerns itself with the design of products with a computer. CAM involves many geometric problems. CAD answer different types of questions which require geometric algorithm.

Others applications –

- Molecular modelling

- Pattern recognition

Convex Hulls:

A subset S of the plane is called Convex if and only if for any pair of points p, q ( s the line segment pq is completely contained is S. The convex hull CH (s) of a set S is the smallest convex set that contains S, it is the intersection of all convex sets that contain S.

Describe Six People at a Party

Answer:

Problem: Show that in any gathering of six people, there are either three people who all know each other or three people none of whom knows either of the other two.

Solution: To solve this, we draw a graph in which represent each person by a vertex, and join two vertices by a solid edge if the corresponding people known each other, and by a dotted edge if not we must show that there is always a solid triangle or a dotted triangle.

Let V be any vertex. Then there must be exactly five edges includes with v, either solid or dashed and so at least three of these edges must be of the same type.

Let us assume that there are three solid edges, the case of at least three dashed edges is similar.

If the people corresponding to the vertices w and x, know each other, then v, w and x from a solid triangle similarly, if the people corresponding to the vertices w and y, or to the vertices x and y, know each other, then we again obtained a solid triangle.

Finally, it no two of the people corresponding to the vertices w, x and y know each other, then w, x, and y form a dotted triangle.

Define: 1) Chromatic Polynomial, 2) K-colorable, 3) K-chromatic graph

Answer:

K – Colorable: if G is a graph without loops, then G is k-colorable if we can assign one of k-colors to each vertex so that adjacent vertices have different colors.

K – Chromatic graph: if the graph G is k-colorable, but not (K-1) colorable, we say that G is K-chromatic or the chromatic number of G is k and write X (G) = K.

Chromatic Polynomial: The chromatic polynomial is a polynomial studied in algebraic theory, it counts the number of graph colorings as a function of the number of colors. So we can write that,

The chromatic polynomial of a graph G counts the number of its proper vertex colorings. It is commonly denoted by PG (k).

For, example, for the figure, PG (K) = K (K – 1) (K – 2)

Graph Theory

Definition

Graph: A graph is a representation of a set of points and of how they are joined up and any metrical properties are irrelevant.

Simple Graph: Graphs with no loops or multiple edges are called simple graphs.

Directed Graph: A Graph with direction is called directed graph.

Walk: A walk is a ‘way of getting from one vertex to another; and consists of a sequence of edges, one following after another.

For example: P ( Q ( R is a walk

Eulerian Graphs: A connected graph G is Eulerian if there exists a closed trail containing every edge of G,

Or,

A connected graph G is Eulerian if and only if the degree of each Vertex of G is even.

Hamilton Graph: A Hamilton cycle is a cycle that visits each vertex exactly once. A graph that contains a Hamilton cycle is called a Hamilton graph.

Convex Polygon: A convex polygon is a simple polygon cohose interior is a convex set. In convex polygon –

• Every internal angel is less than or equal to 180 degrees.

• Every line segment between two vertices remains inside or on the boundary of the polygon.

Concave Polygon: A concave polygon is a polygon that have an interior angle that is greater than 1800

Given for cubes whose faces are colored red, blue, Green and Yellow …. Figure below can ………… colors appear on each side of the resulting 4(1 stack? Solve.

Answer: We solve this problem by representing each cube by a graph with four vertices, R, B, G and Y. one for each color. In each of these graphs, two vertices are adjacent if and only if the cube in question has the corresponding colors on opposite face. The graphs corresponding to the cubes are shown in fig.

Now superimpose these graphs to form a new graph G.

A solution of the puzzle is obtained by finding two sub-graphs H1 and H2 of G. The sub-graph H1 tells us which pair of colors appear on the front and back each cube, and the sub-graph H2 tells us which pair of colors appears on the and right. To this end, the sub-graphs H1 and H2 have the following properties –

• Each sub-graph contains exactly one edge from each cube.

• The sub-graphs have no edges in common.

• Each sub-graph is regular of degree 2.

Describe Gift-Wrapping Algorithm

Answer: In Gift-wrapping algorithm we can start with an extreme point, find its neighbors in the hull by finding the supporting lines and continue from these neighbors in the same way. This algorithm is known as the gift wrapping algorithm.

We start with one vertex of the gift and wrap with hull around the gift by finding neighbor after neighbor.

Algorithm Gift Wrapping (P1, P2, .…, Pn)

Input: P1, P2, .…, Pn (a set of points in the plane)

Output: P (the convex hull of P1, P2, .…, Pn)

Begin

Set P to be the empty set

Let P be the point in the set with the largest x co-ordinate.

Add p to P;

Let L be the line containing P which is parallel to the x axis;

While P is not complete do.

Let q be the point such that the angle between the line –p-q and L is minimal among all points.

Add q to P;

L: = line –p – q –

P: = q

End.

Complexity: To add the Kth point ot the hull, we find the minimum and maximum angles among n-k lines. Therefore, the gift-wrapping algorithm complexity is O(n2).

Definition of Property loss? write Graham’s Sean algorithm.

Answer:

Graham’s Sean Algorithm

Algorithm Graham’s Sean (P1, P2, .…, Pn)

Input: P1, P2, .…, Pn (a set of points in the plane)

Output: P (the convex hull of P1, P2, .…, Pn)

Begin

Let P1 be the point in the set with the largest x coordinate (and smallest y coordinate if there are several points with the same largest x coordinate);

Use algorithm simple-polygon to arrange the points around P1 in sorted order; let the order be P1, P2, .…, Pn;

q1: = p1;

q2: = p2;

q3: = p3;

m: = 3;

for k: = 4 to nd:

while the angle between –qmT and –qm-pk+1- is less than or equal to 1800 do m: = m-1;

m: = m+1

qm: = p;

End.

Id count is odd then Inside: = true

Else Inside := false

Determine whether a point is inside a polygon and write algorithm?

To determine whether a point is inside or outside the polygon, the first intuitive approach to try to reach the outside boundary of the polygon from the given point. When we try this approach, we count the number of intersections with edges of the polygon until the outside is reached. In general the point is inside the polygon if and only if the number of intersections is odd, and outside the polygon if and only if the number of intersections is even.

In the figure, for the point P1 the number of intersections is 2, so the point is outside from the polygon and for point P2 the number of intersections is 1. So the point is inside of the polygon.

Algorithm

Algorithm point in polygon (P, 1)

Input: P (a simple polygon with vertices P1, P2, .…, Pn and edges e1, e2, …, en) and p (a point).

Output: Inside (A Boolean variable)

Begin

Pick an arbitrary point s outside the polygon;

Let L be the line segment q – s;

Count: = 0;

For all edges es of the polygon do

If e1 intersect L then

Increment count;

If count is odd then inside: = true

Else inside: = false

End

Describe how to construct a simple polygons & write down Sean Algorithm.

Answer: To construct a simple polygon, consider a large circle c that contains all the points. Sean the area of C by a rotating line originally originating from the center of C. Let’s assume that the rotating line never touches more than one point from the set at a time. Then the rotating line connect the points in the order they are encountered in the Sean and we get a simple polygon.

However, there is a problem. We solve this problem by sort the points according to their position in the circle centered at? These position can be computed by sorting the angles between a fixed line and the lines from Z to the other points. If two points have the same angle, they are further sorted according their distance from z. we then connect to the point the smallest angle and to the point with the largest angle, and connect the other points in order.

Here, we also calculate slopes because it is easier to calculate slopes than angles.

Algorithm

Algorithm simple polygon (P1, P2, .…, Pn);

Input: P1, P2, .…, Pn (points in the plane)

Output: P (a simple polygon)

Begin

For i = 2 to n do

Compute the angle xi between the line –P1-Pi and the x axis;

Sort the points according to the angles x2, …. xn

P is the polygon defined by the list of points in sorted order.

End.

Cycle Graphs: A connected graph that is regular of degree 2 is a cycle graph. We denote the cycle graph on n vertices by Cn.

Path graphs: The graph obtained from cycle graphs Cn by removing an edge is the path graph on n vertices, denoted by Pn.

Wheels: The graph obtained from Cn-1 by joining each vertex to a new vertex v is the wheel on n vertices, denoted by Wn.

Regular graphs: A graph in which each vertex has the same degree is a regular graph. If each vertex has degree r, the graph is regular of degree r or r-regular.

Bipartite Graphs: If the vertex set of a graph G can be split into two disjoint sets A and B so that each edge of G joins a vertex of A and a vertex of B, then G is a bipartite graph.

A complete bipartite graph is a bipartite graph in which each vertex. In a is joined to each vertex in B by just one edge.

Cubes: of special interest among the regular bipartite graphs the cubes. The K cube Qk is the graph whose vertices correspond to the sequence (a1, a2, .…, ak) where each a1 = 0 or 1 and whose edges join those sequences that differ in just one place.

The complement of a simple graph: If G is a simple graph with vertex srt v(G), its complement G is the simple graph with vertex set V(G) in which two vertices are adjacent if and only if they are not adjacent in G.

Atonic Graphs: of interest among regular graphs are the platonic graphs, armed from the vertices and edges of the five regular solids the ………., cube, icosahedron and dodecahedron.

Describe the minimum cornceior problem.

Answer: We can reformulate the problem in terms of weighted graphs. We denote the weight of the edge e by 10(e), and our aim is to find the spanning true T with least possible total weight W (T).

For example,

If there are five cities, shown in figure, then we start by choosing the edge AB (2) and BD (3). We cannot choose the edge AD (4). Since it would create a cycle ABD. So we choose the edge DE (W5). We cannot then choose the edges AE by BE. Since we would create a cycle, so we choose the edge BC. This complete the tree.

Define cut vertex?

A separating set in a connected graph is a set of vertices whose delrhion disconnect G. If a separating set contains only one vertex V, we call V a cut vertex.

Here, V is a cut-vertex.

Describe Convex Hull algorithm?

Algorithm Convex Hull (P)

Input: A set P of points in the plane.

Output: A list containing the vertices of CH (P) in clockwise order.

1. Sort the points by x-coordinate, resulting in a sequence P1…..Pn.

2. Put the points P1 and P2 in a list Lupper, with P1 as the first point.

3. For i 3 to n

4. Do append Pi to Lupper

5. While Lupper contains more than two points and at least three points in Lupper do not make a right turn.

6. Do delete the middle of the last three points from Lupper.

7. Put the points Pn and Pn-1 in a list L lower with Pn as the first point.

8. For i ( n-2 down to 1

9. Do append Pi to Llower.

10. While Llower contains more than 2 points and the last three points in Llower do not make a right turn.

11. Do delete the middle of the last three points from Llower.

12. Remove the first and last point from Llower to avoid duplication of the points where the upper and lower hull meet.

13. Append Llower and Lupper and the result list L.

14. Return L.

Example: A natural way to represent a polygon is by listing its vertices in clockwise order, starting with an arlmtory one. So, the problem we want to solve is this: given a set P = {P1, P2, .…, Pn} of points in the plane, compute a list that contains those points from P that are the vertices of CH (P), listed in clockwise order,

Input: Set of points;

P1, P2, P3, P4, P5, P6, P7, P8, P9

Output: Representation of Convex Hull.

P4, P5, P8, P2, P9

Algorithm Slow Convex Hull (P)

Input: A set P of points in the plane.

Output: A list L containing the vertices of CH (P) in clockwise order.

1. E. Q

2. For all ordered pairs (P, q) E P(P with P not equal to q.

3. Do valid ( true

4. For all points r E P not equal to Porq

5. Do if r lies to the left of the directed line from p to q.

6. Then valid ( false

7. If valid then add the directed edge pq to E.

8. From the set (/E of edges construct n list L of vertices of CH (P) sorted clockwise order.

Application Domains

- Computer Graphics

- Robotics

- Geographic information systems.

- CAD/CAM

Describe travelling salesman problem?

Answer: In this problem, a travelling salesman wishes to visit several given cities and return to is starting point, covering the least possible total distance. For example, if there are five cities A, B, C, D and E and if the distances are given. In figure, then the shortest possible routes is A ( B ( D ( E ( C ( A giving a total distance at 26, as well can be seen by inspection.

This problem can also be reformulated in terms of weighted graphs. In this case, the requirement is to find a Hamilton cycle of least possible total weight in a weighted complete graph.

One possible algorithm is to calculate the total distance for all possible Hamiltonian cycles, but this is far too complicated for more than about five cities. For example, if there are 20 cities, then the number of possible cycle is (191)/2 which is about 6(1016.

Define (1) spanning tree, (2) Cycle rank of graph G, (III) cutset rank of graph G.

Answer:

1) Spanning Tree: Given any connected graph G, we can choose a cycle and remove any one of its edges and the resulting graph remains connected. We repeat this procedure with one of the remaining cycles, containing until there are no cycles left. The graph that remains is a tree that connects all the vertices.

A graph is planar if and only if it contains no sub-graph contractible

Answer:

Sketch of proof: Assume first that the graph G is non-planar. Then, by Kuratowski’s theorem, G contains a sub-graph H homeomorphic to K5 or K3 or successively contracting edges of H that one incident to a vertex of degree 2, we see that H is contractible to K5 or K3.

Now assume that G contains a sub-graph H contractible to K3 and let the vertex V of K3 arise contracting the sub-graph Hv of H.

The vertex V is incident in K3.3 to three edges e1, e2 and e3. When regarded as edges of H, these edges are incident to three vertices v1, v2 and v3 of Hv. If V1, V2 and V3 are distinct, then we can find a vertex w of H and three paths from W to these vertices, intersecting only at w.

It follows that we can replace the sub-graph Hv by a vertex w and three paths leading out of it. If this construction is carried out for each vertex of K3.3 and the resulting paths joined up with the corresponding edges of K3.3 then the resulting sub-graph is homeomorphic to K3.3 follows from kuratowski if theorem that G is non-polar.

What is Homeomorphic Graph?

Answer

Homeomorphic Graph: To graphs to be homeomorphic if both can be obtained from the same graph by inserting new vertices of degree 2 into its edges.

For example, any two cycle graphs are homeomorphic,

K3, 3 and K5 are non-planar?

Answer:

Proof: Suppose first that K3,3 is planar, has a cycle u ( v ( w ( x ( y ( z ( u of length 6, any plane drawing must contain this cycle drawn the form of a hexagon, as shown in figure.

Now the edge we must the either wholly inside the hexagonal or wholly outside it. We deal with the case in which we was inside, the hexagon, the other is similar. Since the edge ux must not cross the edge wz, it must lie outside the hexagon; the situation is now as in figure: b. it is then impossible to draw the degree vy, as it would cross either ux or wz. This gives the required contradiction.

Now suppose that K5 is planar.

Since K5 has a cycle v ( w ( x ( y ( z (v of length 5, any plane drawing must contain this cycle, drawn in the form of a pentagon, as shown figure.

Now the edge wz must lie either wholly inside the pentagon or wholly outside it. Since the edges vx and vy do not cross the edge wz. They must both lie outside the pentagon, the figure is shown below –

But the edge xz cannot cross the edge vy and so must lie inside the pentagon. Similarly the edge wy must lie inside the pentagon, and the edges wy and wz must hem cross. This gives the required contradiction.

What is Dual graphs?

Dual graphs: Given a plane of a planar graph G, we construct another graph G called the dual of G. the construction is in two stages –

1) Inside each face of G we choose a point v – these points are the vertices of G.

2) Corresponding to each edge of G we draw a line that crosses e and joins the vertices v in the faces f adjoining e these lines are the edges of G.

Describe Euler’s Formula?

Answer:

If G is a planar graph, then any plane drawing of G divides the set of points of the plane not lying on G into regions, called faces. In each case, the face f4 is unbounded, it is called the infinite face.

We map the graph onto the surface of a sphere by stereo graphic projection.

We now rotate the sphere so that the point of projection lies inside the face we want as the infinite fare, and then project the graph down onto the plane tangent to the sphere at the South Pole. The chosen face is now the infinite face.

So, we now prove the Euler’s formula that, what even the plane drawing of a planar graph we take, the number of faces is always, the same.

Describe Hall’s marriage problem?

Answer:

Hall’s marriage theorem: The marriage theorem, proved in 1935 by Philip Hall, answers the following question, known as the marriage problem. If there is a finite set of girls, each of whom knows several boys, under what conditions can all the girls marry the boys in such a way that each girl marries a boy she knows.

For example, if there are four girls {g1, g2, g3, g4} and five boys {b1, b2, b3, b4, b5} and the friendship are shown in figure, then a possible solution is for g1 to marry b4, g2 to marry b1, g3 to marry b3 and g4 to marry b2.

This solution is by taking G to be the bipartite graph in which the vertex set is divided into two disjoint sets v1 and v2, and where each edge joins a girl to a boy she knows.

A complete matching: A complete matching from v1 to v2 in a bipartite graph G (v1, v2) in a one-one correspondence between the vertices in v1 and a sub-set of the vertices v2, such that corresponding vertices are joined.

Marriage Condition: For the solution of the marriage problem, every K girls must know collectively at least k boys, for all integers k satisfying 1≤K≤m, when m denotes the total number of girls.

Solution

Here,

E = {b1, b2, b3, b4, b5} and so, F = {g1, g2, g3, g4}

S1 = {b1, b4, b5}

S2 = {b1}

S3 = {b2, b3, b4}

S4 = {b2, b4}

Theorem 251: Necessary and sufficient condition for a solution at the concerned problem is that each set collectively knows at least k boys for 1≤K≤m.

Proof:

Using induction on m, assume that the theorem is true if the number of girls is less than m.

The theorem is true if m = 1.

Suppose that there m girls. There are two cases to consider.

1) If every k girls collectively knows at least k+1 boys, so that the condition is always true, with one boy to spare. The original condition then remains true for the other m-1 girls, who can be married by inductions completing the proof in this case.

2) If now there is a set of k girls who collectively know exactly K boys, then these K girls can be married by induction to the K boys. If any collection of h of these m-k girls, for h≤m-k, must know at least h of the remaining boys, otherwise fewer than h+k boys, contrary to our assumption. It follows that the original condition applies to the m-k girls.

They can therefore be married by induction in such a way that everyone is happy and the proof is complete.

Describe ……… theorem?

Answer: ………………………………. Paths connecting two given vertices v and w in a graph G. Now, the maximum number of paths from v to w, no two of which have an edge. In common such paths are called …… disjoint paths. Now, the maximum number of paths from v to ………….. vertex in common, except, of course v and w these are called vertex disjoint paths.

For example, in the graph there are four edge disjoint paths and two vertex disjoint ones.

In the figure, the sets E1 = {ps, qs, ty, tz} and E2 = {aw, xw, yw, zw} are vw disconnecting sets and V1 = {s, t} and v2 = {p, q, y, z} are vw-separating sets.

What us capacity?

A digraph to each area of which is assigned a non-negative real number called its capacity.

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...Bangladeshi local NGOs and their documents in related sea level rise. Sea level rise: Impacts on Bangladesh and the role of NGOs Introduction: climate change is one of the most raising issues in contemporary world. Global warming is an important cause if climate change. The temperature of the world is increasing day by day. As a result the ice of arctic areas is melting. And this is raising the sea level. Though the temperature is increasing equally all over the world but all the countries of the world are not equally affected by this global warming. Usually costal areas, islands, and lower lands are mostly affected by this sea level rise. They are flooded badly each year because of this sea level rise. Global warming not only affects the environmental life but also they affect the political economic and infrastructural basis. Bangladesh is one of the most vulnerable countries of sea level rise. As it is a costal and lower land, so here lives and properties are at a severe risk. One of the island of Bangladesh, named South Talpatti Island has already sank because of sea level rise. NGOs role is very important for Bangladesh. NGOs can play vital role in many ways. NGOs can supply knowledge and information through research which is essential for making strategy and action plan for Bangladesh Government....

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...COUNTRY. BANKS PROVIDE NECESSARY FUNDS FOR EXECUTING VARIOUS PROGRAMMERS UNDERWAY IN THE PROCESS OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT. THEY COLLECT SAVINGS OF LARGE MASSES OF PEOPLE SCATTERED THROUGHOUT THE COUNTRY, WHICH IN THE ABSENCE OF THE BANKS WOULD HAVE REMAINED IDEAL AND UNPRODUCTIVE. THESE SCATTERED AMOUNTS ARE COLLECTED, POOLED TOGETHER AND MADE AVAILABLE TO COMMERCE AND INDUSTRY FOR MEETING THE REQUIREMENTS. ECONOMY OF BANGLADESH IS IN THE GROUP OF WORLD’S MOST UNDERDEVELOPED ECONOMIES. ONE OF THE REASONS MAY BE ITS UNDERDEVELOPED BANKING SYSTEM. GOVERNMENT AS WELL AS DIFFERENT INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS HAVE ALSO IDENTIFIED THAT UNDERDEVELOPED BANKING SYSTEM CAUSES SOME OBSTACLES TO THE PROCESS OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT. SO THEY HAVE HIGHLY RECOMMENDED FOR REFORMING FINANCIAL SECTOR. SINCE 1990, BANGLADESH GOVERNMENT HAS TAKEN A LOT OF FINANCIAL SECTOR MORE TRANSPARENT, AND FORMULATION AND IMPLEMENTATIONS OF THESE REFORM ACTIVITIES HAS ALSO BEEN PARTICIPATED BY DIFFERENT INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS LIKE WORLD BANK, IMF, ETC. IN 1996, WORLD BANK PUBLISHED ‘BANGLADESH: AGENDA FOR ACTION’ IN WHICH IT HAS SUGGESTED A LOT OF RECOMMENDATIONS FOR ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT OF OUR COUNTRY. THESE RECOMMENDATIONS INCLUDE SPECIAL PRESENTATION FOR REFORMING BANKING SECTOR. BANK IS THE MOST IMPORTANT FINANCIAL INSTITUTION IN THE ECONOMY. IT PLAYS A VITAL ROLE IN THE ECONOMY BY PROVIDING MEANS OF PAYMENT AND IN MOBILIZING RESOURCES. THE ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT OF A COUNTRY DEPENDS ON THE......

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...Guideline for Participation Committee Development and Standardisation Team Members: Iqbal Hossain Naheed Irshad Rodney Reed Sumaiya Islam Syed Afzal Hasan Uddin Development of this Guideline is sponsored by IFC-SEDF, H&M, Carrefour, Levi Strauss, Lindex, Tesco International Sourcing, Disney Corporation and JC Penny Prepared by Reed Consulting Bangladesh Ltd. www.reedconsultingbd.com Date of Submission: December 31 2011 Guideline for Participation Committee (PC) Development and Standardisation Chapter 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Table of Contents The purpose of the Participation Committee Membership of the Participation Committee The Office-holders of the Participation Committee The places for Management Representatives The places for Workers’ Representatives The powers of the Participation Committee compared to those of a Trades Union or in an EPZ a Workers’ Welfare Association Preparation for the formation of a Participation Committee or in preparation for new Representatives joining the Participation Committee 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 The duration of the Participation Committee Member Secretary of the Participation Committee Standard Documents Participation Committee Standard Procedures Election Procedure Role Description Participation Committee Member An implementation programme for the formation or development of a Participation Committee Grievance Procedure Company Suggestion Box – ‘3C Boxes’ (Comments, Complaints, Compliments) Flowchart of Participation Committee......

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...other senior executives currently Two DMD, One Principal (Training Center), Two SEVP, six EVP, Seven SVP, Eleven VP, Nine FVP, fifteen SAVP, sixteen AVP and eighteen FAVP are discharging their services in progression of the banks business. Managing Director Mr. A. A. M. Zakaria, Managing Director of the bank is an eminent banking personality having long 33 years of experience in banking industry. After successful completion of his B.A. (Hons), M.A. in Economics from Dhaka University, Mr. A. A. M. Zakaria has started his banking career in 1977 as Senior Officer of Rupali Bank. Before the current responsibility, Mr. A. A. M. Zakaria was the Deputy Managing Director of Dutch-Bangla Bank Limited. In his multi-greeted banking service, Mr. A. A. M. Zakaria participated in many courses, training program and workshops on banking at home and abroad. Mr. A. A. M. Zakaria joined in FSIBL on 7th August 2005 as Managing Director. Top management of the bank is supported by human resource strength of aroung 1200 executives and officers. For smooth functioning of the Bank, following committees have been formed: Management committee (MANCOM) comprises of senior members of the management headed by Managing Director of the bank. Head of HRD is the member secretary of the committee and Head of IMRD, Head of IC&C including DMD are the member of the committee. MANCOM meets on regular basis to discuss relevant agenda. Asset Liability Management Committee (ALCO) headed by the Managing Director,......

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...Question no 02: Examine the national achievements of Bangladesh by contributing peacekeeping operation across the world. Course name: UNO and World Peace Course code: 223 Student’s details: Bayjid Mahmud Sagar 7th batch & 6th semester Class roll: AF 103 CGPA 3.55 Peace and Conflict Studies, University of Dhaka. Introduction Forty three years after independence, Bangladesh has been identified as one of the next 11 emerging economies. In this financial year alone, its economy is expected to grow by six percent. Not only in economies it has established as well reputed in many sector. Now Bangladesh people working in united peace with dignity. Bangladesh is devoted and focused on the standards cherished in the UN Charter, the peaceful settlement of global debate. Bangladesh Forces have been joining in the United Nations Peacekeeping Operations (UNPKO) around the globe for over two decades. At this time activities of Bangladeshi peacekeepers are apparent in all the troubled ranges of the world, beginning from Haiti to East Timor from Lebanon to DR Congo. They had been all over the place and are resolved to remain so in the days to come and gained the certifications of a ‘Role Model’ in worldwide. About Peacekeeping Generally Peacekeeping refers to the active maintenance of a truce between nations or communities, especially by an international military force. Broadly refers to the deployment of national or, more commonly, multinational forces for the......

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...system of Bangladesh at independence consisted of two branch offices of the former State Bank of Pakistan and seventeen large commercial banks, two of which were controlled by Bangladeshi interests and three by foreigners other than West Pakistanis with fourteen smaller commercial banks. The newly independent government immediately designated the Dhaka branch of the State Bank of Pakistan as the central bank and renamed it the Bangladesh Bank. The Bangladesh government initially nationalized the entire domestic banking system and proceeded to reorganize and rename the various banks. Foreign-owned banks were permitted to continue doing business in Bangladesh. The insurance business was also nationalized and became a source of potential investment funds. Cooperative credit systems and postal savings offices handled service to small individual and rural accounts. The new banking system succeeded in establishing reasonably efficient procedures for managing credit and foreign exchange. Now, banks in Bangladesh are primarily of two types: Scheduled Banks: The banks which get license to operate under Bank Company Act, 1991 (Amended in 2003) are termed as Scheduled Banks. Non-Scheduled Banks: The banks which are established for special and definite objective and operate under the acts that are enacted for meeting up those objectives, are termed as Non-Scheduled Banks. These banks cannot perform all functions of scheduled banks. There are 52 scheduled banks in Bangladesh who......

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...needs of the disadvantaged for risk protection and relief against distress or peril, which can also provide a safety net for people who are chronically prone to fall below poverty line despite all their hard work and efforts. Developing countries like South Africa, the Philippines, Indonesia and India have significantly developed this type of financial services market. In recent times, India has undergone a strong structural transformation in terms of protecting the rights of the poor and subsequently, promulgated acts related to micro-insurance to provide both legal and political leverage for the micro-insurance agenda. NGOs and others are allowed to work as insurance agents provided that they follow the Indian Regulating and Development Authority (IRDA), which has set codes with regard to conduct pricing of product and protection of the insured. In Bangladesh, the latest Act, Microcredit Regulatory Authority (MRA) Act, permits insurance companies to provide insurance in rural areas and the social sector in general. The Act has allowed the micro-finance (MF) NGOs to provide insurance services to their members. At present, however, MF-NGOs are working beyond the limits implied under the MRA and more disturbingly, their activities are not based on any actuarial data base. There is, therefore, a pervasive suspicion that the clients are being defrauded, and at the very least, are being deprived of their rightful benefits. A recommendation is made in this report......

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...Paper The role of science and technology education at network age population for sustainable development of Bangladesh through human resource advancement Gazi Mahabubul Alam Faculty of Education, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. E-mail: gazi.alam@um.edu.my. Tel: +6037967 5077. Fax + 603-7967 5010. Accepted 25 September, 2009 Education is supposed to play a vital role for the development of a nation. Many countries made progression through education. Nevertheless, some of them also failed to retain the development achieved since these countries failed to supply required skilled workforce for emerging economics caused by globalization and rapid change of economic pattern. This now forces policymakers to prioritize the production of skilled manpower that can contribute for sustainable development. The countries that achieved sustainable development have given a high priority to science and technology education in formulating education policy. Bangladesh has no more alternatives in order to gain development, except properly utilizing its population. Bangladesh’s economy and human development could have grown faster than its actual progression in the last 25 years (that is, since independence in 1971), if it had earlier taken substantial steps in educational development. This paper has defined a ‘network age population’ for Bangladesh. This paper also suggests that this population is required to provide science and technology based......

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...commencement of business started on 17th April 1995. The sponsors are reputed personalities in the field of trade and commerce and their stake ranges from shipping to textile and finance to energy etc. Prime Bank is being managed by a highly professional and dedicated team with long experience in banking. They constantly focus on understanding and anticipating customer needs. As the banking scenario undergoes changes so is the bank and it repositions itself in the changed market condition. From 1999, Prime Bank introduces SME loan for small and medium enterprise(SME) .It provides SME loan from its 17brances for development SME in our country.It provides 2lac to 50lac taka loan according to rules and regulation of this bank. There are six SME loan pacage of this bank.Those are 1.Sahaj Rin 2.Sampad Rin 3.Chalti Rin 4.Moushami Rin 5.Digun Rin 6.Anchol About Prime bank: Prime Bank has already made significant progress within a very short period of its existence. The bank has been graded as a top class bank in the country through internationally accepted CAMELS rating. The bank has already occupied an enviable position among its competitors after achieving success in all areas of business operation. Prime Bank offers all kinds of Commercial Corporate and Personal Banking services covering all segments of society within the framework of Banking Company Act and rules and regulations laid down by our central bank. Diversification of products and services include......

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