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2.1: Country/Economy Profiles

Finland
Key indicators, 2012
Population (millions) .......................................... 5.4 GDP (US$ billions) ........................................ 250.1 GDP per capita (US$) ................................. 46,098 GDP (PPP) as share (%) of world total ............ 0.24

GDP (PPP) per capita (int’l $), 1990–2012
50,000 40,000 30,000 20,000 10,000 1990 1992 1994 1996 1998 2000 2002 2004 2006 2008 2010
2012

Finland

Advanced economies

Global Competitiveness Index
Rank (out of 148) Score (1–7)

Stage of development 1
Factor driven Transition 1–2

GCI 2013–2014 ........................................................ 3 ..... 5.5
GCI 2012–2013 (out of 144) ....................................... 3 ......5.5 GCI 2011–2012 (out of 142) ....................................... 4 ......5.5

2
Efficiency driven Institutions

Transition 2–3

3
Innovation driven

Basic requirements (20.0%) .........................................7 ......6.0
Institutions .................................................................. 1 ......6.1 Infrastructure ............................................................ 21 ......5.6 Macroeconomic environment ................................... 36 ......5.4 Health and primary education ..................................... 1 ......6.8
Innovation Business sophistication

7 6 5 4 3 2

Infrastructure Macroeconomic environment Health and primary education Higher education and training Goods market efficiency

Efficiency enhancers (50.0%) .......................................9 ......5.3
Higher education and training ..................................... 1 ......6.3 Goods market efficiency .......................................... 15 ......5.0 Labor market efficiency ............................................ 20 ......4.8 Financial market development .................................... 5 ......5.6 Technological readiness ............................................ 11 ......5.9 Market size ............................................................... 55 ......4.2
Market size

1

Technological readiness Financial market development Labor market efficiency

Innovation and sophistication factors (30.0%) .............2 ......5.6
Business sophistication ............................................. 5 ......5.5 Innovation ................................................................... 1 ......5.8
Finland

Innovation-driven economies

The most problematic factors for doing business
Restrictive labor regulations ...............................................23.8 Tax rates............................................................................22.0 Access to financing ...........................................................16.8 Tax regulations ..................................................................10.1 Inefficient government bureaucracy .....................................7.5 Insufficient capacity to innovate ...........................................6.4 Poor work ethic in national labor force ................................3.3 Policy instability ...................................................................2.6 Inadequately educated workforce ........................................2.0 Foreign currency regulations ................................................1.6 Inadequate supply of infrastructure ......................................1.6 Inflation ................................................................................1.6 Government instability/coups ..............................................0.4 Poor public health ...............................................................0.2 Corruption ...........................................................................0.0 Crime and theft ...................................................................0.0
0 5 10 15 Percent of responses
Note: From the list of factors above, respondents were asked to select the five most problematic for doing business in their country and to rank them between 1 (most problematic) and 5. The bars in the figure show the responses weighted according to their rankings.

20

25

30

184 | The Global Competitiveness Report 2013–2014

2.1: Country/Economy Profiles

Finland
The Global Competitiveness Index in detail
INDICATOR VALUE RANK/148 6.06 6.07 6.08 6.09 6.10 6.11 6.12 6.13 6.14 6.15 6.16 INDICATOR VALUE RANK/148

1st pillar: Institutions
1.01 1.02 1.03 1.04 1.05 1.06 1.07 1.08 1.09 1.10 1.11 1.12 1.13 1.14 1.15 1.16 1.17 1.18 1.19 1.20 1.21 Property rights ....................................................... 6.4 ..............1 Intellectual property protection ............................... 6.2 ..............1 Diversion of public funds ........................................ 6.1 ..............4 Public trust in politicians ......................................... 5.5 ..............7 Irregular payments and bribes ................................ 6.6 ..............2 Judicial independence............................................ 6.6 ..............2 Favoritism in decisions of government officials ....... 5.3 ..............4 Wastefulness of government spending ................... 5.1 ..............6 Burden of government regulation ........................... 5.0 ..............4 Efficiency of legal framework in settling disputes .... 6.1 ..............2 Efficiency of legal framework in challenging regs. ... 5.9 ..............1 Transparency of government policymaking............. 6.1 ..............2 Business costs of terrorism .................................... 6.7 ..............3 Business costs of crime and violence..................... 6.3 ..............3 Organized crime ..................................................... 6.6 ..............5 Reliability of police services .................................... 6.7 ..............1 Ethical behavior of firms ......................................... 6.4 ..............2 Strength of auditing and reporting standards ......... 6.4 ..............2 Efficacy of corporate boards .................................. 5.8 ..............4 Protection of minority shareholders’ interests ......... 6.2 ..............2 Strength of investor protection, 0–10 (best)* .......... 5.7 ............57

6th pillar: Goods market efficiency (cont’d.)
No. procedures to start a business* .......................... 3 ............10 No. days to start a business* .................................. 14 ............68 Agricultural policy costs.......................................... 4.1 ............44 Prevalence of trade barriers ................................... 5.4 ..............6 Trade tariffs, % duty* .............................................. 0.8 ..............4 Prevalence of foreign ownership............................. 5.3 ............29 Business impact of rules on FDI ............................. 5.0 ............32 Burden of customs procedures .............................. 6.1 ..............2 Imports as a percentage of GDP* ........................ 41.8 ............83 Degree of customer orientation .............................. 5.2 ............29 Buyer sophistication ............................................... 4.8 ..............4

7th pillar: Labor market efficiency
7.01 7.02 7.03 7.04 7.05 7.06 7.07 7.08 7.09 7.10 Cooperation in labor-employer relations ................. 5.2 ............21 Flexibility of wage determination ............................. 2.8 ..........143 Hiring and firing practices ....................................... 3.7 ............92 Redundancy costs, weeks of salary* .................... 10.1 ............40 Effect of taxation on incentives to work .................. 3.8 ............57 Pay and productivity............................................... 4.1 ............57 Reliance on professional management ................... 6.3 ..............2 Country capacity to retain talent............................. 5.8 ..............2 Country capacity to attract talent ........................... 3.5 ............68 Women in labor force, ratio to men* ..................... 0.95 ............12

2nd pillar: Infrastructure
2.01 2.02 2.03 2.04 2.05 2.06 2.07 2.08 2.09 Quality of overall infrastructure ............................... 6.5 ..............3 Quality of roads ...................................................... 6.1 ..............9 Quality of railroad infrastructure .............................. 5.9 ..............6 Quality of port infrastructure ................................... 6.4 ..............5 Quality of air transport infrastructure....................... 6.2 ..............6 Available airline seat km/week, millions* ............. 392.6 ............48 Quality of electricity supply ..................................... 6.7 ..............5 Mobile telephone subscriptions/100 pop.* ......... 172.5 ............11 Fixed telephone lines/100 pop.* ........................... 16.5 ............76

8th pillar: Financial market development
8.01 8.02 8.03 8.04 8.05 8.06 8.07 8.08 Availability of financial services ............................... 6.1 ..............8 Affordability of financial services ............................. 5.8 ..............6 Financing through local equity market .................... 4.7 ............17 Ease of access to loans ......................................... 4.2 ............12 Venture capital availability ....................................... 4.0 ............11 Soundness of banks .............................................. 6.5 ..............6 Regulation of securities exchanges ........................ 6.2 ..............2 Legal rights index, 0–10 (best)* ................................. 8 ............28

3rd pillar: Macroeconomic environment
3.01 3.02 3.03 3.04 3.05 Government budget balance, % GDP* ..................-1.7 ............55 Gross national savings, % GDP* .......................... 17.7 ............80 Inflation, annual % change* .................................... 3.2 ............55 General government debt, % GDP* ..................... 53.3 ..........101 Country credit rating, 0–100 (best)* ...................... 92.0 ..............7

9th pillar: Technological readiness
9.01 9.02 9.03 9.04 9.05 9.06 9.07 Availability of latest technologies ............................ 6.5 ..............1 Firm-level technology absorption ............................ 6.0 ..............7 FDI and technology transfer ................................... 4.4 ............86 Individuals using Internet, %* ............................... 91.0 ..............7 Fixed broadband Internet subscriptions/100 pop.* . 30.4 ............16 Int’l Internet bandwidth, kb/s per user* .............. 159.5 ............14 Mobile broadband subscriptions/100 pop.*........ 106.5 ..............3

4th pillar: Health and primary education
4.01 4.02 4.03 4.04 4.05 4.06 4.07 4.08 4.09 4.10 Business impact of malaria ............................. N/Appl. ..............1 Malaria cases/100,000 pop.* ................................(NE) ..............1 Business impact of tuberculosis ............................. 6.9 ..............2 Tuberculosis cases/100,000 pop.* ......................... 7.5 ............25 Business impact of HIV/AIDS ................................. 6.8 ..............2 HIV prevalence, % adult pop.* ............................. 0.10 ............11 Infant mortality, deaths/1,000 live births* ................ 2.3 ..............6 Life expectancy, years*......................................... 80.5 ............26 Quality of primary education ................................... 6.8 ..............1 Primary education enrollment, net %* .................. 97.9 ............35

10th pillar: Market size
10.01 10.02 10.03 10.04 Domestic market size index, 1–7 (best)*................. 4.0 ............53 Foreign market size index, 1–7 (best)* .................... 4.8 ............57 GDP (PPP$ billions)* .......................................... 197.5 ............54 Exports as a percentage of GDP* ........................ 40.2 ............72

11th pillar: Business sophistication
11.01 11.02 11.03 11.04 11.05 11.06 11.07 11.08 11.09 Local supplier quantity ........................................... 4.5 ............95 Local supplier quality.............................................. 5.7 ..............7 State of cluster development.................................. 5.1 ............12 Nature of competitive advantage ............................ 6.2 ..............3 Value chain breadth................................................ 5.4 ..............7 Control of international distribution ......................... 5.0 ............12 Production process sophistication.......................... 6.2 ..............4 Extent of marketing ................................................ 5.4 ............16 Willingness to delegate authority ............................ 5.7 ..............4

5th pillar: Higher education and training
5.01 5.02 5.03 5.04 5.05 5.06 5.07 5.08 Secondary education enrollment, gross %* ........ 108.0 ............15 Tertiary education enrollment, gross %*................ 95.2 ..............2 Quality of the educational system ........................... 5.9 ..............2 Quality of math and science education .................. 6.3 ..............2 Quality of management schools ............................. 5.6 ............10 Internet access in schools ...................................... 6.6 ..............2 Availability of research and training services ........... 5.9 ..............6 Extent of staff training ............................................ 5.5 ..............2

12th pillar: Innovation
12.01 12.02 12.03 12.04 12.05 12.06 12.07 Capacity for innovation........................................... 5.7 ..............2 Quality of scientific research institutions ................. 5.7 ............10 Company spending on R&D................................... 5.6 ..............3 University-industry collaboration in R&D ................. 5.8 ..............2 Gov’t procurement of advanced tech products ...... 4.2 ............21 Availability of scientists and engineers .................... 6.3 ..............1 PCT patents, applications/million pop.* .............. 283.8 ..............3

6th pillar: Goods market efficiency
6.01 6.02 6.03 6.04 6.05 Intensity of local competition .................................. 4.8 ............86 Extent of market dominance .................................. 4.6 ............22 Effectiveness of anti-monopoly policy ..................... 5.6 ..............1 Effect of taxation on incentives to invest................. 4.0 ............48 Total tax rate, % profits* ....................................... 40.6 ............82

Notes: Values are on a 1-to-7 scale unless otherwise annotated with an asterisk (*). For further details and explanation, please refer to the section “How to Read the Country/Economy Profiles” on page 97. The Global Competitiveness Report 2013–2014 | 185

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...Case Analysis - FPL Energy FPL Energy is one of the nation’s leading independent generators of electricity. Dedicated to generating clean energy, 80 % of its capacity is fueled by clean and renewable resources. The United States is the nation with the largest generator of wind energy, and it operates the two largest solar fields in the world. FPL Group, with annual revenues of more than $8 billion, is one of the nation's largest providers of electricity-related services. Its principal subsidiary, Florida Power & Light Company, serves approximately 3.9 million customer accounts in Florida. FPL Energy, LLC, and FPL Group energy-generating subsidiary, is a leader in producing electricity from clean and renewable fuels. 2. Historical Overview FPL Group is a far different company today than the one Jim Broadhead joined in January of 1989 when he became president and chief executive officer. FPL Group was then engaged in a number of businesses unrelated to its core electric skills, including insurance and financial services, real estate, cable television, and agriculture. The company's principal subsidiary, Florida Power and Light, was considered a well-managed utility with an emphasis on quality. However, the utility's spiraling costs had resulted in electric rates among the highest in the Southeast. Today, FPL Group is nationally known as a high quality, efficient, and customer-driven organization focused on energy-related products and services. With a......

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