Free Essay

Smart Watch

In: Computers and Technology

Submitted By vyshnavi
Words 5708
Pages 23
PTC’07 Proceedings

4G MOBILE NETWORKS – TECHNOLOGY BEYOND 2.5G AND 3G Jun-seok Hwang*, Roy R. Consulta** & Hyun-young Yoon*** Seoul National University Republic of Korea ABSTRACT Based on the study, 4G mobile technology is in a determining and standardization stage. Although 4G wireless technology offers higher data rates and the ability to roam across multiple heterogeneous wireless networks, several issues require further research and development. Since 4G is still in the cloud of the sensible standards creation, ITU and IEEE form several task forces to work on the possible completion for the 4G mobile standards as well. 3GPP LTE is an evolution standard from UMTS, and WiMAX is another candidate from IEEE. These technologies have different characteristics and try to meet 4G characteristics to become a leading technology in the future market. Under these circumstances, this paper will present about the current trends and its underlying technologies to implement the 4G mobile technology. This paper also shows some of the possible scenarios that will benefit the 4th generation technology. KEYWORDS 4G Mobile Technologies, 3GPP Long Term Evolution, WiMAX, WiBro, Software Defined Radio, Open Architecture 1. INTRODUCTION In a world of fast changing technology, there is a rising requirement for people to communicate and get connected with each other and have appropriate and timely access to information regardless of the location of the each individuals or the information. The increasing demands and requirements for wireless communication systems ubiquity have led to the need for a better understanding of fundamental issues in communication theory and electromagnetic and their implications for the design of highly-capable wireless systems. In continuous development of mobile environments, the major service providers in the wireless market kept on monitoring the growths of 4th generation (4G) mobile technology. 2G and 3G are well-established as the mainstream mobile technology around the world. 3G is stumbling to obtain market share for a different reasons and 4G is achieving some confidence. In 2010, the total mobile subscriber base in North America, Europe and Asia Pacific, is expected to grow up to 2500 millions and penetration will be over 50% [1]. This kind of demand growth will require the support of higher capacity networks.

Page 1 of 16

PTC’07 Proceedings


Given the technology at large, 4G mobile technology as an example, will give people a more convenience and ease in lifestyle. With the “anytime, anywhere, anything,” capability, 4G wireless technology will benefit every individual regardless of time and place. Considering global standpoint, this technology stands to be the way to communicate and connect all the time with more ubiquitous means. Therefore, given the ubiquitous networking, e-commerce (or even m-commerce), unified messaging, and peer-to-peer networking, expansion to the mobile and wireless surroundings must reach its maximum possibilities. [2] The trail going to 4G mobile technology embraces lots of significant trends. Major mobile players have been investing to 2G and the succeeding technology. 4G mobile technologies are perceived to provide fast and high data rate or bandwidth, and offer packetized data communications. Since 4G is still in the cloud of the sensible standards creation, ITU and IEEE form several task forces to work on the possible completion for the 4G mobile standards as well. Users’ experiences of latest booming Internet forces industry to investigate means to provide high data rate regardless of mobility. 4G is being discussed as a solution to the inquiry and its vision and requirements are being standardized in various standardization bodies. 4G service vision is given from this research. There still have large room for the purpose of service application vision: 3G is being delayed in its commercialization and about a decade of change is left for 4G. However, we believe this paper will promote discussion of 4G services by presenting our vision of 4G services. In this paper, we also outline the current trend of next generation of wireless communications and investigate 4G candidate technologies. Based on this investigation, four scenarios will be discussed to predict and analyze 4G. The final section will provide some policy implications and issues.

Page 2 of 16

PTC’07 Proceedings


The idea of convergence means that the creation of the atmosphere that can eventually provide seamless and high-reliable and quality broadband mobile communication service and ubiquitous service through wired and wireless convergence networks without the space problem and terrestrial limitation, by means of ubiquitous connectivity. Convergence among industries is also accelerated by formation of alliances through participation in various projects to provide convergence services. 4G mobile systems will mainly be characterized by a horizontal communication model, where such different access technologies as cellular, cordless, wireless LAN type systems, short-range wireless connectivity, and wired systems will be combined on a common platform to complement each other in the best possible way for different service requirements and radio environments [3]. The development is expected to inspire the trend of progressive information technologies a far from the current technical focus on fully mobile and widespread convergence of media. The trends from the service perspective include integration of services and convergence of service delivery mechanisms. In accordance with these trends, mobile network architecture will become flexible and versatile, and new services will be easy to deploy. 2.1.2. BROADBAND SERVICES Broadband is a basis for the purpose of enabling multimedia communications including video service, which requires transmission of a large amount of data; it naturally calls media convergence aspect, based on packet transport, advocating the integration of various media on different qualities. The increasing position of broadband services like Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line (ADSL) and optical fiber access systems and office or home LANs is expected to lead to a demand for similar services in the mobile communication environment. 4G service application characteristics will give broadband service its advantages; 1) Low cost To make broadband services available to the user to exchange various kinds of information, it is necessary to lower charges considerably in order to keep the cost at or below the cost of existing service.

Page 3 of 16

PTC’07 Proceedings

2) Coverage of Wide Area One feature of mobile communications is that it’s availability and omnipresent. That advantage is important for future mobile communication as well. In particular, it is important to maintain the service area in which the terminals of the new system can be used during the transition from the existing system to a new system. 3) Wide Variety of Services Capability Mobile communication is for various types of users. In the future, we expect to make the advanced system performance and functionality to introduce a variety of services not only the ordinary telephone service. Those services must be made easier for anyone to use. 2.1.3. INTERACTIVE BCN (ALL-IP) WITH HOME-NETWORKING, TELEMETRIC, SENSOR-NETWORK SERVICES Since technologies are becoming more collaborative and essential. Evolution of all network services based on All-IP network is needed for more converged services. IP-based unified network for far above the ground quality convergence services through active access is what broadband convergence network is all about. ALL-IP or Next Generation Network-IP based convergence of wired or wired backbone network, which may be the most rapidly deployed case of convergence. All-IP technology networking and IP multimedia services are the major trends in the wired and wireless network. The idea of the broadband convergence network (BcN) fit in the provision of a common, unified, and flexible service architecture that can support multiple types of services and management applications over multiple types of transport networks. [4] The primary purpose of putting 4G service application into more interactivedriven broadband convergence network is its applicability for home-networking, telemetric, and sensor-network service. Collaborative converged network will give a more beneficial service and application, especially if it is in broadband computing to the users and its providers. To give more emphasis on this service application, one example is homenetworking as its applicability binds to give more advantage to the users and the society in terms of broadband connectivity. Far more than broadband convergence network application, telemetric application will put more tangible emphasis on the 4G mobile technology application. 2.1.4. FLEXIBILITY AND PERSONALIZED SERVICE The key concern in security designs for 4G networks is flexibility. 4G systems will support comprehensive and personalized services, providing stable system

Page 4 of 16

PTC’07 Proceedings

performance and quality of service. To support multimedia services, high-datarate services with good system reliability will be provided. At the same time, a low data rate transmission cost will be maintained. In order to meet the demands of these diverse users, service providers should design personal and customized services for them. Personal mobility is a concern in mobility management. Personal mobility concentrates on the movement of users instead of users’ terminals, and involves the provision of personal communications and personalized operating environments. Implementing SDR to 4G offers an advantage benefits to service providers, manufacturers and subscribers as well; such as, for service providers; [5] 1) Enhance the effectiveness of the infrastructure resources. 2) Superior space efficiency 3) Decrease operational expenditure suitable to reduced need for hardware site upgrades. 4) Decrease capital expenditure because of rise in usage of accessible network elements. 5) Improbable and faster time to market for new service and applications. The benefit of SDR for manufacturers is through a decrease in the number of separate platforms which will be needed for the purpose of the diverse wireless technologies. 2.2. CANDIDATE SERVICES BEYOND 3G

2.2.1 3GPP LTE As hype about multiple standards paths in the wireless technology has caused significant confusion in the market, the initiative in 3GPP LTE or the so-called Third Generation Partnership Programme – Long Term Evolution is the name given to a project develops the Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) mobile phone standard to cope and manage with future requirements in terms of wireless technology. Objectives include improving efficiency, lowering costs, improving services, making use of new spectrum opportunities, and better integration with other open standards. Since the project is currently in progress, it has put itself some specific goals, much of which is leaning around upgrading UMTS to a technology name fourth generation mobile communications technology, essentially a wireless broadband Internet system with voice and other services built on top. The aim of the project comprises of: [6]
• • •

Download rates of 100Mbps, and upload rates of 50Mbps for every 20MHz of spectrum Sub-5ms latency for small IP packets Increased spectrum flexibility, with spectrum slices as small as 1.6MHz. Coexistence with legacy standards (users can transparently start a call or transfer of data in an area using an LTE standard, and, should coverage

Page 5 of 16

PTC’07 Proceedings

be unavailable, continue the operation without any action on their part using GSM/GPRS or W-CDMA-based UMTS) 3GPP LTE is planned as a development to existing 3GPP standards. The project was aimed as the standard technology for 2.5 GHz “3G extension band.” Compared to UMTS, 3GPP LTE is exclusive and solely packet-switched and IPbased which means that circuit switched core network does not exist. 2.2.2. WIMAX AND WIBRO WiMAX is Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access and this technology is a standard created by IEEE to form the IEEE 802.16 standard Based pm this standard, WiBro is the service name for Mobile WiMAX in Korea. WiBro uses the Mobile WiMAX System Profile. The system profile contains a comprehensive list of features that the equipment is required or allowed to support As a result, WiBro offers the same capabilities and features of Mobile WiMAX. It describes this technology as an alternative to cable and DSL and a standards-based technology enabling and allowing the delivery of last mile wireless broadband access. The aim of the project comprises of: [7] Peak downlink sector data rates up to 46 Mbps, assuming a DL/UL ratio of 3:1, and peak uplink sector data rates up to 14 Mbps, assuming a DL/UL ratio of 1:1, in a 10 MHz channel Support end-to-end IP-based QoS Available different channelization from 1.25 to 20 MHz to comply with varied worldwide requirements. In a prevailing market, operators are more interested and involved in using WiMAX for low cost, low expense voice transport and delivery of services. WiMAX has a two stage evolution steps. First, the expansion of the overall fixed wireless market will not going to happen as a result of WiMAX technology, slow migration of purchasing behavior from proprietary equipment to WiMAX equipment. In adopting and implementing WiMAX equipment, service providers will be skeptical pending and until prices drop to the point where service providers cannot manage to pay to disregard WiMAX. Currently, users will see the beginning of the 2nd stage of WiMAX, which is the dawn of metro area portability. Since 802.16e or the so called Broadband Wireless Access Standards was approved already, laptops and other mobile devices can now embed with WiMAX chipsets, so the user can now have Internet access ubiquitously with in WiMAX areas. So, the WiMAX’s 2nd stage might be very disruptive and upsetting to 3G operators and could drive a round of WiMAX network overlays in urban zones.

Page 6 of 16

PTC’07 Proceedings

2.2.3. IEEE 802.20 The IEEE 802.20 or so-called Mobile Broadband Wireless Access (MBWA) specification is also the first IEEE standard that explicitly addresses the needs of mobile clients in moving vehicles. The design parameters of the specification include support for vehicular mobility up to 250 Km per hour. This criterion will support use in fleet cars and trucks, as well as in the high-speed commuter trains in use throughout much of the world. Whereas 802.16e's roaming support is generally limited to local and regional areas, 802.20 shares with 3G the ability to support global roaming. Like 802.16e, 802.20 supports QoS to give good quality for low-latency services, unlike 3G cellular data service, which is an inherently high-latency architecture [8]. Both 802.16e and 802.20 also share synchronous efficiency between uplinks and downlinks, as opposed to the asynchronous nature of 3G cellular networks, which have lower-efficiency uplinks, relative to their downlinks. Higher efficiency uplinks can be beneficial to those business users who must perform large data synchronizations or uploads to central corporate systems from their mobile systems. The 802.20 standard plans to combine a number of the desirable features of 802.16e with those of 3G cellular data networks, while reducing the limitations of both those modalities. Thus, 802.20 solutions will address the need for a broad spectrum of functionality for mobile business and personal computing implementations. 3. 3.1. SCENARIOS SCENARIO OUTLINE

A key feature of 4G is likely to be the availability of significantly higher data rates than for third-generation (3G) systems. It has been suggested that data rates up to 100 Mbps for high mobility and 1 Gbps for low mobility should be the target value. These data rates suggest higher spectral efficiencies and lower cost per bit will be key requirements for such future systems. Additional important and expected features are likely to be increased flexibility of mobile terminals and networks, multimedia services, and high-speed data connections. Future convergence systems will clearly be another feature. Based on these visions and characteristics of the 4th generation (4G) for future wireless telecommunication, new spectrum allocation issue, and technology feasibility, the advent of 4G service will bring a number of changes of competition environment, regulation and policy as well as service change into future wireless communication. Accordingly, it is very important we expect what kinds of possibility we have for the 4G service to prepare well.

Page 7 of 16

PTC’07 Proceedings


Several scenarios are described to display the situations of the wireless communication industry as the 4G. These scenarios are based on different wireless access technologies such as WiMAX, WiBro, 3G LTE, and IEEE802.20. In the on-going 4G studies in the standardization bodies and relative industries, one of the aims is to establish an integral wireless system that would seamlessly connect the enhanced forms of existing 3G wireless systems such as WCDMA with HSDPA. In this scenario, existing carriers will maintain present customer base and services are integrated 4G. On the other hand, however, it has become possible by technological innovation that non-3G wireless services develop as competitors against 3G services such as WiMAX, or further enhanced IEEE 802 standards. In addition, individuals and organizations have started providing open and free wireless communication services by opening up, through various technologies. Figure 2 shows that these different evolution path toward 4G. For the scenarios we provided in the paper, we assumed that the advent of 4G service will be after 2012. 4G service will be determined whether it can support 4G characteristics technically, and hold the market with service differentiation from competitors. In order to forecast the form of realization of 4G systems, we construct four scenarios in the paper. 3.2. SCENARIO OPTIONS

3.2.1. SCENARIO 1 The first scenario is that current 3G service is evolved into 3GPP LTE (long term evolution) which is one of the candidate technologies for 4G. Under the 3GPP LTE, 4G technology will be used basically in 3G spectrum and platform that means existing carriers maintain present customer base and services are

Page 8 of 16

☛ ✛✘ ★✜ ✚ ✧

☛ ✛✙✗ ✦✥ ☛ ✛✤✗ ✣✜ ✚ ✘ ✢ ✚ ✘ ✢ ☛ ✛✙✗ ✦✣✜ ✚ ✘ ✢ ✢ ✕ ☎✔✓✟✑ ✌✏☛ ✎✌☎✡✁ ✟✝✁ ☎✂ ✄✁ ✒ ✠ ✍ ☛ ✍ ☞ ☛✠ ✞ ✆ ✄✁

❏❑❍■ ❏❑❍■ ❏❑❍■ ❑■●●●● ❆❆❆❆ ❄❄❄❄ ❏❍ ❋✎❃✝❈❈❈❈ ❇❅❃❁❁❁❁ ❁❁❁❁ ❁❁❁❁ ❀❀❀❀ ❊❃❉✝ ❆❇ ❂❃ ❊❃❉✝ ❆❇ ❂❃ ❋❋❋ ❊❃❉✝ ❆❇❄❄❄❄ ❂❃ ❊ ❉ ❆ ❂

✿✿ ✿✿

✾✣ ✾✣ ✾ ✾✣ ✣✽✽✽✽

✻✼✺✣ ✻✼✺✣ ✻✼✺✣ ✼✣✹✹✹✹ ✻ ✺

☛ ✛✙✔✖ ✚ ✘ ✗

✸ ★✷

✭ ✍✬✍✄ ✘ ✑ ✗ ✔ ✍✪ ✩ ✫

✭ ✍✬✍✄ ✘ ✑ ✗ ✦✑ ✮ ✯

✶✶✶✶✶✶✶✶ ✰✱ ✰✱ ✰✱ ✰✱ ✰✱ ✰✱ ✰✱



PTC’07 Proceedings

integrated 4G. To support broadband service there will be an additional spectrum band with current 3G spectrum band. 3GPP LTE plan to support All-IP based backbone network to connect with other heterogeneous networks seamlessly. In this scenario, 3G incumbent service providers will maintain current subscribers and 3G services will be integrated to 4G. On the other hand, WiMAX and other services will not have a market power but they will be a complement service to 3GPP LTE.

✈ ▲ ✉ s ♣ ♣ ❧ ♦♠ ❧ ❦ ❵ ❲◗ ❝❳ ❯ ❲◗ ✈❨▲✙✉✡st♣r♣q❧❃♦✐♠♥❧❨❦❪❵✂❲❡◗✼❝❴❳❥❯✂❲❡◗✟ ❨✙✡trq❃✐♥❨❪✂❡✼❴❥✂❡✟❚❚ ❖❖ ❲❳ ❝ € ❲ ❖ ❳ ❲ € ❵ ❚ ❝ €❳ ❲ ❖❳ ❬ € ❤ ❢ € ◗ ❚ ❲❳❳ ❢ ❲❴❳■❝❇€✂❲❃ ❖◆ ❳❨❲✟€❱❵◆❚❨❝❇€❴❳❨❲❃ ❖✐❳■❬✟€❃❤✂❢✂€❣◗✟❚❨❲❴❳❡❳✂❢■ ❴■❇✂❃❬❬ ◆❩❩ ❨✟❱◆❨❇❴❨❃❤❤ ✐■✟❃✂✂❣✟❨❴❡✂■❬❬ ❚❚ ❃❡✟❚❚ ❃❞❜❴❨■❵❵ ◆✂❴■❪❃❬❬ ✼❩❩ ❨✟❱◆❚❚ ❙❘€€ ◆◆▲▲ ❖ ❝◗ ❖ ❝ ❛ €❳ ❲ ❖ ❩ ❫❳ ❭ ❲ ❖ ❳ ❲ € ❯ ❖◗ ❖ ▼ ❖❃❝❡◗✟ ❖❃❝❞❛❜€❴❳❨❲■ ❖◆❩✂❫❴❳■❭❪❲❃ ❖✼ ❳❨❲✟€❱❯◆ ❖❙◗❘ ❖◆▼◆

✈ ❫❳ ❖ ⑧ ❸ ❷ ⑩ ❖ ⑧ ✈③❫❴❳✤ ❖❱⑧③❸❣❷❣⑩❶ ❖❱⑧❅ ③❴✤❹❹ ❱③❣❣❶⑨⑨ ❱❅♠♠ ❧ ❦ ❵❳ ❝ ① ❫◗ € ❚ ❖◗ ❬ ❲ ❚ ❚ ❫ ❬ ❳ ❲ ❖❳ ❬ € ❤ ❢ ❧❨❦❪❵❴❳❨❝⑦①◆❫❡◗⑥€◆❚❥ ❖❙◗◆❬✂❲◆❚❃❚❥❫❃❬✙❳❨❲❃ ❖✐❳■❬✟€❃❤✂❢◆ ❨❪❴❨⑦◆❡⑥◆❥❫❫ ❙◆✂◆❃❥❃✙❨❃❤❤ ✐■✟❃✂◆€€ ⑤ ❫❳◗ ❚ ❫ ❬ €❳ ❲ ❖ ❩ ❫❳ ❭ ❲ ❖ ❳ ❲ € ① ⑤❥❫❴❳④◗✟❚③❫❃❬❇€❴❳❨❲■ ❖◆❩✂❫❴❳■❭❪❲❃ ❖◆ ❳❨❲✟€②①✔ ❥❴④✟③❃❇❴❨■❵❵ ◆✂❴■❪❃❬❬ ◆❩❩ ❨✟②✔❲❲ ✇✇

✈ ❫❳ ❖ ⑧ ❸ ❷ ⑩ ❖ ⑧ ➃ ▲ ✉ s ♣ ♣ ❧ ♦ ✈■❫❴❳❣ ❖❱⑧③❸❣❷❣⑩❶ ❖❱⑧➄➃❪▲✙✉✡st♣r♣q❧❃♦✐ ■❴❣❹❹ ❱③❣❣❶⑨⑨ ❱➄❪✙✡trq❃✐♠♠ €❳ ❲ ❖ ❩ ❫❳ ❭ ❲ ❖ ❳ ❲ € ❯ ❖◗ ❖ ▼ ❲ ➁ €❴❳❃❲■ ❖◆❩✂❫❴❳■❭❪❲❃ ❖✼ ❳❨❲✟€❱❯◆ ❖❙◗❘ ❖◆▼✟❲➂➁❨ ❴❃■❵❵ ◆✂❴■❪❃❬❬ ✼❩❩ ❨✟❱◆❚❚ ❙❘€€ ◆✟➂❨❫❫ ➀ ❖❳ ❲ ❭ € ❫❳ ❭ ⑤ ❝ ❢◗ ❢ ❛ ❵ ❚ ❝ ❲ ❬ ❚ ❲◗ ❖ ▼ ❲ ❻ ➀❑ ❖✐❳■❲❃❭◆€■❫❴❳■❭❃⑤■❝✼❢❿◗✔❢❾❛❽❵◆❚❨❝❼❲❃❬◆❚❨❲✐◗❘ ❖◆▼✟❲❥❻■ ❑◗◗ ✐■❃◆■❴■❃■✼❿✔❾❽◆❨❼❃◆❨✐❘€€ ◆✟❥■❫❫ ❺❺

✈ ❚ ❖ € ❖ ❛ € ❚ ❝❳ ✈◆❚❥ ❖✼€✟ ❖⑥❛◆€◆❚❨❝❴❳④ ◆❥❫❫ ✼✟€€ ⑥◆◆❨❴④◗◗ ❚ ❲ ❭ ❫ ➁ ❫ ❵ ❝ ❲❳ ❭ ➆♠ ❚ ❖◗ ❝❳ ❯ ❲◗ ❖ ❲ ❖ ❳ ❲ € ➁ ❚❨❲❃❭❥❫➂➁❨❫❱❵✂❝✂❲❑❳■❭✤➆✐♠❱❚❥ ❖❙◗✼❝❴❳❥❯✂❲❡◗✟ ❖➅❲❃ ❖◆ ❳❨❲✟€➂➁❨ ❨❃❥➂❨❱✂✂❑■✤✐❱❥❫❫ ❙✼❴❥✂❡✟❚❚ ➅❃❬❬ ◆❩❩ ❨✟➂❨❫❫ ❲❲ ■❨❃❨❃❇❴❨❨❵❵ ◆✂❴■❪❃❬❬ ◆❩❩ ❨✟➂❨❼❃◆❨✟❃✝⑩⑩ ⑤ ❤ ❝ ❭ ❝ ❬ €❳ ❲ ❖ ❩ ❫❳ ❭ ❲ ❖ ❳ ❲ € ➁ ❫ ❲ ❬ ❚ ❲ € ❤ ⑤■❤❨❝❃❭❨❝❃❬❇€❴❳❨❲❨ ❖◆❩✂❫❴❳■❭❪❲❃ ❖◆ ❳❨❲✟€➂➁❨❫❼❲❃❬◆❚❨❲✟€❃❤✝


3.2.2. SCENARIO 2 The second scenario is that fixed wireless, led by IEEE, enhances techniques to support mobility and fulfill 4G characteristics. Especially, mobile WiMAX (IEEE 802.16e) technology, WiBro in Korea, is very close to 4G technology which includes OFDM and MIMO. Moreover, there will be a possibility that IEEE 802.20 technology support high mobility to compensate low mobility of WiMAX. In this scenario incumbent service providers based on 3G get smaller market power and there will be a chance for new service providers which control current subscriber connections. In this scenario, a competition structure in the market will be shifted and changed. 3.2.3. SCENARIO 3 The third scenario is that both 3G LTE and WiMAX exist. They are in a complementary relationship with each other. Subscribers would possess both 3GPP LTE and WiMAX terminals, and they will adapt to use either of them according to the usage scene and needs. By the SDR (software defined radio) technology, subscribers will get flexibility between different services. Additionally, there could be s new mobile access service as well in a new spectrum band. Current minor service provider will try to adopt this new radio access technology

Page 9 of 16

PTC’07 Proceedings

to get future market power, and also new service providers will appear to enter the market. In this scenario, a number of different service providers will compete for the leadership break out upon introduction of 4G 3.2.4. SCENARIO 4 The last scenario is that subscribers switch over to cost-free transmission services, due to the fact that 3G LTE and WiMAX do not successfully deployed with high cost and dissatisfied service. Arrival of wireless IP phones utilizing high quality VoIP through various networks would enable free transmission services to absorb the need of both voice calls and multimedia service so that handheld makers will get much power than service providers based on the Software defined Radio (SDR) technology. These handheld makers will lead service integration including free transmissions by developing their own multi-mode handsets that would not require reliance upon particular operators. Therefore, in this scenario, service providers would get limited market such as high qualitysensitive business users. However, handheld manufacturers and contents providers regard the free transmission market that secures subscribers as important, and develop unique products and services that would appeal to the users. If this scenario is realized, there will be a dramatic change in the value chain of wireless communication industry. 3.3. SCENARIO ANALYSIS

For the purpose of understanding of each scenario’s impact on the wireless communication industry, we analyze each scenario based on feasibilities about technology and expected time plan. In addition that we examine the question as to whether each scenario fulfills 4G characteristics which are expected previous research and market situation. Furthermore, we investigate each scenario and find its own pros and cons. 3.3.1. FEASIBILITY TECHNICAL FEASIBILITY

Based on the 4G characteristics as we mentioned earlier in this paper, 4G should fulfill convergence, broadband, flexibility, personalized services and All-IP network, Basically standards of 4G candidate services plan to meet these characteristics. In the first scenario, 3GPP LTE include reduced latency, higher user data rates up to 100 Mbps with high mobility, improved system capacity and coverage, and reduced overall cost for the operator. Additionally, it is expected that IP-based 3GPP services will be provided through various access technologies. In the second scenario, mobile WiMAX and IEEE 802.20 also meet all the requirements for mobile Internet access. It supports multiple handoff mechanisms, power-saving mechanisms for mobile devices, advanced QoS and

Page 10 of 16

PTC’07 Proceedings

low latency for improved support of real-time applications [9], Furthermore, mobile WiMAX was designed from the ground up to be an All-IP technology.

WiMAX 802.16e, WiBro
Key technology Duplex Channel Bandwidth Peak data rate (network) Mobility Coverage Frequency Band Commercial ready DL UL OFDMA, MIMO TDD/FDD 10 MHz 46 Mbps 14 Mbps Middle 2 ~ 5Km (typical) 2 ~ 6GHz 2007 ~ 2008

IEEE 802.20
OFDMA, MIMO TDD/FDD 5 ~ 20 MHz 260 Mbps 60 Mbps High (~250 Km/h) MAN scale Below 3.5 GHz unexpected

OFDMA/SC-FDMA, MIMO TDD/FDD 1.25 ~ 20 MHz 100 Mbps 50 Mbps High (~250 Km/h) < 20km, WAN scale WCDMA band with additional band 2009 ~ 2010

In the scenario 1, subscribers will get broadband service with high mobility without any confusion because WCDMA providers can make their current infrastructure reusable for 3GPP LTE. However, current WCDMA use spectrum resources that are limited and typically too expensive for cost effective high capacity and high throughput broadband services. In the scenario 2, subscribers will experience new technology with a two-to-three year time advantage over the first scenario, 3GPP LTE, which is still in the early stage of development. However, in the beginning of mobile WiMAX deployment, it will not get the voice revenues of mobile operators, as cellular networks offer a cost-effective infrastructure for voice communications with an extensive coverage that WiMAX is not designed to replace. In the scenario 3, subscribers will have choices between 3GPP LTE and mobile WiMAX. 3G service providers may deploy WiMAX as an overlay to their 3G networks and to make an evolution to 4G because in the beginning stage of each technology, technical characteristics are a bit different each other so that each technology can be compensate each other. However, because of the economic burden, service providers may focus on one service and competition will be very high.

Page 11 of 16

PTC’07 Proceedings

In the scenario 4, regulation issue is more important than feasibility of technologies such as VoIP and SDRs. Except technology development, there remain significant commercial, regulatory, and technological hurdles to overcome especially, spectrum sharing methodology should be implemented for the dynamic spectrum access related to SDR. After the challenges currently facing SDR are overcome, and then it will have the potential to irrevocably alter the wireless value chain by shifting the operational balance. SCHEDULING FEASIBILITY

If service providers or manufacturers are looking to implement a new technology, they must make sure that they have both the time and the resources to make it work. Not only technical consideration, also there are other things to be considered such as legal, operational, and expected time plan. The first commercial launch of HSDPA-based services was announced in December 2005 and operators in Europe and Japan have announced plans to launch services based on HSDPA in 2006. HSUPA/HSPA availability is not expected until the 2007 or 2008 timeframe. Since approved standards for LTE are not expected until 2007, it is not likely that products will be available until 2009 or later. The IEEE standard on mobile broadband, IEEE802.20, is currently on hold as a result of allegations of impropriety in the standards process. Initial contributions are similar in nature to IEEE 802.16e-2005 in that they use OFDMA address flexible channelization to 20 MHz, and provide peak data rates on the order of 100 MHz. Current contributions do not base the technology on Flash OFDM, though there are common elements. Assuming standards work resumes, efforts are at a stage where the technology could possibly be commercialized by 2008. By developing of SDR technology, the network controlled operations include service delivery and resource allocation within one access technology, “3 Mode Terminals.” This scheme is currently being extended to inter-access-system operations, “integration GSM/UMTS/WLAN, n-node terminals,” but essentially it will still be network controlled. With the initial liberalization of the spectrum market, load aware terminals with limited decision making capabilities can be expected; their reconfigurability will be still restricted to mode switching only. Ideally, they are likely to be replaced by radio environment aware terminals that will be reconfigurable to any access technology.[10]

Page 12 of 16

PTC’07 Proceedings

2006 HSDPA DL:14.4Mbps UL:384Kbps BW:5MHz

2007 HSDPA/HSUPA DL:14.4Mbps UL:5.76Kbps BW:5MHz

2008 HSPA DL:28Mbps UL:11.5Kbps BW:5MHz

2009 LTE DL:100Mbps UL:50Kbps BW:20MHz



IEEE 802.16e2004 DL:14.4Mbps UL:5.76Mbps BW:5MHz

IEEE 802.16e-2005 DL:14.4Mbps UL:5.76Mbps BW:5MHz

IEEE 802.16e2005 DL:50Mbps UL:4Mbps BW:10MHz

IEEE 802.20 DL: Mbps UL: Mbps BW:20MHz

Multimode Terminal (3 modes)

Multimode Terminal (n modes)

Multimode Terminal with load awareness network support

Source: 3GPP (, WiMAX Forum, SDR Forum

Considering an expected schedule, 4G will be commercialized after 2012 regardless of which services will be. Therefore, it will not be flourish in the future market, unless each technology should finalize its standards soon and develop systems. 3.3.2. MARKET TRENDS In consideration of the market situation, we review market acceptance and adoption of wireless data and deployments of 3GPP and WiMAX networks around the world. 3GPP LTE and WiMAX technologies encompass a huge range of evolving capability, but how well do these technologies actually address market needs. Basically, 3G operators have shown less interest in mobile WiMAX and are more interested in upgrading their own networks that would enable them to compete with WiMAX. In Korea, launching of WiBro has not been spectacular. What was supposed to become a flagship for Korea’s WiMAX technology can still be considered a pilot project. In July 2006, KT launched commercial service in Seoul and surrounding cities where it had provided pilot service. Both KT and SKT offer only the

→✌↔✌➝✓➙✦ ➜✛➛✟➙✡↔☎➏✔↕☎➑➉➒❘↔✡↔✛➣❃→✛➔✦➒➓➑✦➐✌➏q➌✛ ➎✼➍✡➌✛➋✓➊✟➊✟ ➈➉ ✌✌✓✦↔↔ ✛✟✡☎✔☎➉❘✡✛❃✛✦➓✦✌q✛➍➍ ✼✡✛✓✟✟➊➊ ➉➇➇ → ↔ ➝ ➙ ➜ ➛ ➙ ↔ ➏ ↕ ➑ ➒ ↔ ↔ ➣ → ➔ ➒ ➑ ➐ ➏ ➌ ➎ ➍ ➌ ➋ ➊ ➊ ➈

Page 13 of 16

PTC’07 Proceedings

Samsung PCMCIA card for the service. However, it is expected that WiBro adoption in Korea will be rather gradual and modest compared to initial estimations. Currently, UMTS is commercially launched by 107 operators in 50 countries with 79 more networks planned or in deployment. After Cingular Wireless launched the world’s first wide scale UMTS/HSDPA network in December 2005, 103 operators have announced their HSDPA deployment plans. [6] It is expected that nearly all UMTS operators will deploy HSDPA, essentially a simple upgrade to the existing system. Furthermore, this upgrade can be continued to 3GPP LTE in a few years. In a handheld industry, manufacturers have already shipped the world’s first handsets that support HSDPA, and in May of this year, 2006, the first commercial network with HSDPA handhelds was launched in South Korea. In addition to allowing data to be downloaded at up to 1.8 Mbps, the initial handsets offer such applications as satellite-transmitted Digital Multimedia Broadcasting (DMB) TV programs; have two to three-megapixel cameras, Bluetooth, radios and stereo speakers. Although there are still a lot of things to be considered, according to these market changes, to meet needs of consumer demands in a right time, time-to market is also critical factor. 3.3.3. SWOT ANALYSIS – 4G Considering 4G characteristics, expected scenarios and market trends, we can find out strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats of 4G with better understandings. The lists and findings follow. Strengths in 4G: 4G visions take into account installed base and past investments Strong position of telecommunications vendors expected in the marketplace. Faster data transmission and higher bit rate and bandwidth, allow more business applications and commercialization Has advantage for personalized multimedia communication tools

Weakness in 4G: -

No large user community for advanced mobile data applications yet Growing divergence between telecommunications vendors and operators Not possible to offer full internet experience due to limited speed and bandwidth Comparatively higher cost to use and deploy infrastructure compared fast mobile generation

Page 14 of 16

PTC’07 Proceedings

Opportunities in 4G: Evolutionary approach may yield opportunities for the 4G Emphasis on heterogeneous networks capitalizes on past investments Strategic alliance and coalition opportunities with traditional nontelecommunication industries Sophisticated and mature commercialization of 4G technology would encourage more applications of e-commerce and m-commerce Worldwide economy recover stimulates consumption and consumer confidence, therefore bring in opportunities for telecommunication sections It is expected and predicted that consumers will continue to replace handsets with newer technology at a fast rate. Desirable higher data capacity rates, the growth opportunity for 4G is very bright and hopeful.

Threats in 4G: 4. Faster rate of growth and developments in other region Since 3G mobile is still in the market, it squeezes the market competition in the mobile industry. CONCLUSION

As we come up with the SWOT analysis out of this 4G technology, it is inevitable that 4G would completely replace 3G in a long run. Nevertheless, 4G and 3G tend to keep a co-competitive relationship in a short run. In order for 4G to grow in the future market, it is unavoidable to compete with 3G and acquire 3G’s customers. As it was also analyzed and investigated through the scenarios, the comparison was made here that among three candidates for the 4G presented. Every service providers and manufacturers strategize towards high mobility and high data rates whether it is 3GPP, WiMAX or even WiBro oriented. However, the mainstream of service providers concern about regulation, uncertainty of market, and economic burden. There is also new spectrum allocation issue which should be resolved and determined, much as the technology feasibility. Any how, there are still plenty of opportunities for 4G. Under these circumstances, to be flourished in the future telecommunication market, each technology should be finalized its standards soon and developed systems to meet needs of consumer demands in a right time. Furthermore, the technical development, change and innovation should be reflected in a future regulation policy.

Page 15 of 16

PTC’07 Proceedings



[1] Pioneer Consulting Report, “The WiMAX Report Emergence of Fixed & Mobile Solutions”, March, 2006. [2] Keiji Tachikawa, “A Perspective on the evolution of mobile communications”, IEEE Communications Magazine, October 2003 [3] Lu, Willie W, Open Wireless Architecture and Enhanced Performance, Guest Editorial, IEEE Communication Magazine, June 2003 [4] ETRI Paper, “Broadband Mobile Communications towards a Converged World”, ITU/MIC Workshop on Shaping the Future Mobile Information Society, March 4-5, 2004 [5] Andrew Dursch, David C. Yen, Shi-Ming Huang, “Fourth generation wireless communications: an analysis of future potential and implementation”, Computer Standards & Interfaces 28, 2005, 13-25. [6] 3G Americas, “Mobile Broadband: The Global Evolution of UMTS/HSPA”, July, 2006 [7] WiMAX Forum, “Mobile WiMAX: The Best Personal Broadband Experience”, June, 2006 [8] Qualcomm Report, “IEEE 802.20: Mobile Broadband Wireless Access – A Technical Overview”, June 2006. [9] WiMAX Forum, “Mobile WiMAX: Part2: A Comparative Analysis”, May 2006 [10] Sunil Vadgama, Stephen Truelove, “Evaluation of Software Defined Radio Technology”, February, 2006 [11] Wireless World Research Forum, The Book of Vision 2001 Version 1, December 2001 [12] Brian Low, Wesley J. Johnston, “Relationship equity and switching behavior in the adoption of new telecommunication services”, Industrial Marketing Management 35, 2006, 676-689. [13] ITU Report, “Broadband Mobile Communications Towards a Converged World”, ITU/MIC Workshop on shaping the future mobile information society, March 2004. *This research was supported by the MIC, Korea, under the Information Technology Research Center (ITRC) support program supervised by the IITA and partly supported by International IT Policy Scholarship program (ITPP) in Seoul National University. **National Computer Center (Philippines)

Page 16 of 16

Similar Documents

Free Essay

Microsoft Smart Watch

...Microsoft: Launching the Smart Watch Microsoft was founded in 1975 by Bill Gates and Paul Allen, which initially sold operating system software for personal computers and, over time, expanded into office application software, web browser software, entertainment devices, and other technologies. By 2003, Microsoft generates over $32 billion in annual revenues and more than 54,000 employees globally, a worldwide leader in software, services, and Internet technologies for consumers and businesses. With the believe that a new software platform could be built for non-computer devices, Mitchell made a presentation to Microsoft management in which he reviewed the progression of computing platforms over time – from mainframes to PCs to personal digital assistants (PDAs) to cellular phones – and asked what could be the next platform in late 1999. Later, Mitchell formed a team and identified watch as the first SPOT-enabled device after a series research within the wearable market. At that time, there are already several watch manufacturers launched their smart watch, for instance, Seiko introduced its MessageWatch in 1990, Timex launched its DataLink Watch in 1994 and Motorola introduced a wristwatch word pager in 1997. Mitchell commented: “ The idea was quite visionary, but the technology just wasn’t there yet.” Therefore, Mitchell built the SPOT watch based on different aspects, content, the FM radio network, the software and microchips and the watch itself in order to......

Words: 777 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Watch Industry - Luxury vs Smart

...Economics Project by YSR Raghav(14070) Introduction History and Evolution of Time Keeping Machines Watch is a small time keeping machine, historically worn on the wrist or attached on a chain carried in the pocket or around the neck for convenience. Timekeeping has a history dating back to ancient times. The first watch in the 15th century made was spring powered and was strictly mechanical, but with the technological advances this mechanism was replaced by quartz vibrations or electromagnetic pulses. Figure 1 shows the evolutionary era of the various time keeping machines/watches since 1300 BC from the sundial, water clock, to the mechanical wrist watches. Wrist watches became popular in 1920s, after soldiers came back from the World War I wearing military-issue ‘trench watches’, which were later discontinued as their told only the time. However, in mid 1970s, a novel calculator wrist watch came in the market and was widely used. In subsequent decades, pager watches and phone watches, appeared in the market but did not last for long. Then in 2004, Microsoft produced the SPOT watch, a 300 USD device that conveyed instant messages, stock up dates, weather forecasts and broadcasted FM radio signals. After a few years, this watch died due to marketing strategies. So today, the only surviving wrist watch from this cheerless era is in fact the original calculator watch, which currently retails for about 25 USD. In general, wrist watches have been categorized with......

Words: 2468 - Pages: 10

Premium Essay

Case Study Smart Watch

...Case Study: Microsoft Smart Watch 1. Is the Smart Watch a good idea? - first there is to state that the idea was very innovative even though parts of the technology were already available on the market Positive: - using the existing platform Msn in order to maintain the flow of information - not too expensive - further developed than the ones of their competitor such as Message Watch or the Internet Messenger Watch - just providing the technology and not launching the produduct on its own Negative: - too many system like the Internet or Cell phones were doing the same job better - the target customer were mostly in possession of either one of the mentioned items - monthly or annual pay - using a brand like fossil who just targets a market with lower income - the time when the product was launched was too late - the watch just was not as fashionable as they predicted - Smart Watch was nothing which was created out of the customers demand - A watch which needs to be recharged on a 3 to 5 day basis? The outcome definitely was that Smart Watch was a bad idea! 2. How have the SPOT developers come to believe in their product? Have they been objective? - the idea of the Smart Watch was developed during the research of inexpensive operating systems for “smart personal objects” - it has not been developed out of consumers demand! - Therefore customers have not been involved in......

Words: 886 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Apple's Future

...9 -7 1 6 -4 0 1 JUNE 25, 2015 DAVID B. YOFFIE ERIC BALDWIN Apple’s Future: Apple Watch, Apple TV, and/or Apple Car? Since the release of the iPod in 2001, Apple had been probably the most successful technology company in the world. It revolutionized three businesses in the next 10 years: music, smartphones, and tablets. When Steve Jobs died in 2011, it was up to his successor, Tim Cook, to revolutionize the next set of industries. In 2015, Cook appeared to have three potential targets: watches (wearables), television, and cars. All three were bets on highly uncertain futures. Watches were off to a promising start in their first quarter of shipments, but it was far too early to declare victory. Television seemed ripe for disruption, but many firms had tried and failed to change the TV landscape. And cars, of course, represented the biggest opportunity as well as the biggest leap for Apple. Financially, Tim Cook and his team were unconstrained: Apple was the most profitable company on the planet in the fourth quarter of 2014, generating $18 billion in net income (Exhibit 1). However, Steve Jobs had famously said that Apple’s success came “from saying no to 1,000 things to make sure we don’t get on the wrong track or try to do too much. We’re always thinking about new markets we could enter, but it’s only by saying no that you can concentrate on the things that are really important.”1 The big questions for Tim Cook and his team included: Were watches, TVs,...

Words: 11550 - Pages: 47

Free Essay

The Birth of the Swatch

...22, 2004 YOUNGME MOON The Birth of the Swatch Ten years ago, the people on the original Swatch team asked a crazy question: Why can’t we design a striking, low-cost, high-quality watch and build it in Switzerland? The bankers were skeptical. A few suppliers refused to sell us parts. They said we would ruin the industry with this crazy product. But the team overcame the resistance and got the job done. — Nicolas Hayek1 In 1993, Swatch was the best-selling watch in the history of the watch industry. In 1992 alone, it sold 27 million units, while cumulative sales surpassed 100 million units (see Exhibit 1). In addition, it was widely acknowledged that the entire Swiss watch industry had been on the brink of disaster when the Swatch had been introduced 10 years ago; the phenomenal success of the Swatch was considered by many to have been a key factor in its resurgence. At the management level, much of the credit for the turnaround had been directed toward Nicolas Hayek, CEO of the Societe Suisse de Microelectronique et d’Horlogerie (SMH), which controlled nine global Swiss brands including Swatch. Over the past 10 years, Hayek had led the way for the success of the Swatch by committing SMH to a business strategy that in many ways defied industry wisdom about how global watch companies should be run. This strategy was based on a strict commitment to vertical integration (the company assembled all of the watches it sold and built most of the components for......

Words: 7176 - Pages: 29

Free Essay

New Technology

...New Technology (Smart Watches) GS1145: Strategies for the Technical Professional By the end of this you would have learned about one of the newest technologies that will be available in 2014. I will give a description in detail about the new smart watches, their capabilities and the different manufacturers. The Smart watch was originally created by a San Francisco based company named Pebble which created the first prototype and released it in 2012. The original prototype was not very popular because of the glitches it had and the fact that it was not very durable at the time. Also because of the fact that most banks would not buy into the watch, the company had to raise money just to make the prototype. Small no name companies stepped in and started to give money until Pebbles was able to raise its first $100,000 and since then have now raised 5 million dollars to market the first 300,000 watches that are now in circulation. Companies like Martian, Fitbit and now Casio, Nike and Samsung have got involved in trying to perfect the watch. The Smart Watch currently needs to have a smartphone close by so that it can connect to Bluetooth and operate properly. Once connected to your cellphone, it will allow you to read text messages, alarms and alerts, connect to the weather and also be able to connect to GPS, so that you do not have to look at our cellphone while driving. The watches cost very from $14.99 and can reach as much as $400.00 depending on the maker, size, style......

Words: 444 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Samsung Segmentation and Target Market Paper

...Segmentation and Target Market Paper Positioning Statement The world has started to take on a healthier lifestyle. Watching what we eat and making sure to incorporate physical activity daily. In order to maintain these numbers many people have started to use technology to record the calories burned as well as monitor their heart rate while working out. Most people have a heart rate monitor and then have to record their information manually to another program in order to keep track of how well they are doing. Samsung has met with this issue by including a Smart watch called the Gear and the Gear Fit in which connects to its Samsung Galaxy 5 and automatically records information from your work out. The company has also included many other features that go along with the use of both its smart phone the Galaxy 5 and its Smart Watch the Gear and Gear Fit. Samsung has cornered the market with this innovative smart watch introducing a new way to stay fit and get healthy and making it easier to maintain records of all of your fitness endeavors. “Introducing Samsung’s first network-connected wearable.** So now you can make and answer calls when your phone isn’t nearby. You can also check texts, emails, updates— even stream and listen to music, right from your wrist.” (Samsung, 2014) Background “At Samsung, we follow a simple business philosophy: to devote our talent and technology to creating superior products and services that contribute to a better global society.......

Words: 3181 - Pages: 13

Premium Essay


... The Strategic Planning criterion examines how the company develops strategic objectives, * 4. The Information and Analysis criteria check whether the organisation has key metrics in place * 5. The Human Resources Focus checks the appraisal system, the work environment, and the * 6.         Process management examines the product design, production and delivery process, and lessmore LinkCitationEmailPrintFavoriteCollect this page                                                                                                                                 TITAN’S BRAND BUILDING AND BRAND REORGANISATION STRATEGY                                   BACKGROUND   Overview of the Indian Watch Market: The watch market in India recorded an approximate volume turnover of 23 million units...

Words: 6890 - Pages: 28

Free Essay

Market Research

...(INDIA) E-mail ID: ABSTRACT: With the advent of new technology, a revolutionary change is occurred in the watch market of India. Previously only a few brands were ruling the market. However with the passage of time and with the opening of free trade, there is no dearth of various national and international brands in the market. A few years ago, people used to buy watch, only to check time. However, now they buy not only to check time but also for fashion. In the present report an attempt has been made to analyze the two brands of the watch namely, Fastrack and Casio by using technique of SWOT analyses and covering aspects such as marketing environment, advertising and position. Keywords: Advertisement, current behaviour, SWOT Analysis ,market environment, fastrack, Casio. INTRODUCTION: 1. Fastrack Watches 1.1 HISTROY The journey begun on 1998 as a sub brand of Titan & went ahead as big as the parent brand. It came up when Timex split up with Titan. By 1998, Titan was one of the most trusted brands in watch segment. But, Titan had moved up the age spectrum. The youth associated the brand with their parents and stayed away from it. It was missing out on the 450 million potential segments for which it had no market offering. Titan recognized the need in the watch market – a reasonably priced watch for the youth between the age group of 15-25 years. Then it was spun off as an independent brand targeting the urban......

Words: 2828 - Pages: 12

Premium Essay


...INDUSTRY OVERVIEW 1.1. WRIST WATCH INDUSTRY Wrist Watches form an integral part of the personality of individuals in the present era. Earlier seen as a luxury item, they are now witnessing a fundamental change in perception, and are now gaining respect as an essential utility item. For the watch industry, time seems in its favour what with the liberalization of the Indian market coupled with the rising purchasing power of the young and consumerist Indians. Indian watches market was for long dominated by public sector organisations like Hindustan Machine Tools Ltd. (HMT) and Allwyn (also famous for its refrigerators once upon a time!), and has now left the pioneers far behind or nowhere in market by private sector enterprises like Titan, Sonata, Ajanta and Timex along with foreign entities jostling for display space in the smallest of shops selling these products. Before the establishment of HMT as the dominant player in the Indian markets initially, the country was solely dependent on imports to meet the internal demand. However, establishment of HMT as the leading player in the wrist watch segment in the 1960’s, changed the scenario. In post liberalization India, the market stood to witness intensive competition between foreign and Indian manufacturers like Timex, Titan, Movado, Longines, Rado, Rolex, Fréderique Constant, Mont Blanc, Swatch, and many others. Many watch makers have made significant inroads in the industry and others are in the process of establishing......

Words: 11815 - Pages: 48

Free Essay

Free Writing

...My weekends are not so busy, so I can really relax. On satuday, I usually cook my breakfast by myself. In the morning, I often clean my room. Then I watch TV, read, and listen to music in the afternoons. After that, I usually play sport with my friends till the dinner. . I like playing sports, but I don’t have much time for it in working-days, so I often play sports more on weekends. After dinner, I do my homework while I listen to music. Last Saturday was busy. I got up later than usual on Sunday morning. After breakfast I went over to my friend's house and spent times doing homework there. We work till lunch-time. then I went home, had lunch with my parents and took an afternoon nap. Taking an afternoon nap is a pleasure that I can indulge in only on weekends. On weekdays I do not have time for it. The rest of the afternoon I helped my father in the garden. there're a lot of flowers and plants in our garden. We continued until darkness fell. After that I take a bath and help my mother repare the dinner. In the diner, my parents usually say some interesting stories so I really enjoy it. After dinner I watched television until it was time for bed. I often go to bed at 10 p.m to get up early on Monday. I like my weekends. My weekends is often fully filled with relaxing actions. I like playing sports, but I don’t have much time for it in working-days, so I often play sports more on weekends. My favourite sports is badminton. I often get up at 7am on Satuday and......

Words: 355 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Probavility Memo

...According to the research 71 percent of people have seen the adds and 100 percent of the merchants have seen the adds with Krysten Neiman. Most of the people that took the survey think that the ads are affective. Some agree that it makes them proud to be wearing an Aquine watch. The other suggestion was that the quality of the watches was falling and that that had been affecting the sales of the watches. According to our data 60 percent of Aquice owners have the certified watches. The majority of the people surveyed though that the certification was proof of quality and they also agreed that they were willing to pay more for the quality. People surveyed were willing to pay between $1,001 and $1,500 for the chronometer (SOCC) certified watches. So my conclusion is that we should invest money in purchasing a Poising machine to poise the balance wheel that determines the accuracy of the movement in various positions. We also need to invest in purchasing movement holders that help in better assembling the watch that in turn improves the movement of the watch in different positions. Lastly I also recommend that we invest in purchasing a timing machine that is used to diagnose movement performance of a watch while it is being assembled. Our customers know our product and they are willing to buy it. This indicates that we don’t need to improve our advertisements or choose another spokes person to endorse our product. Our customers are interested in buying our products......

Words: 388 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Case -Swatch Analysis

...Submitted By Group 2: Arunava Maity, Firoj Kumar Meher, Parvez Izhar, Pooja Sharma 1940’s- The Swiss dominated the watch industry because of their centuries-long history of jewelry-making expertise. Prior to the 1950s, watchmaking was a craft that required the skills of a master jewelry maker combined with the expertise of a micromechanical engineer. 1945’s-By 1945, The Swiss accounted for 80% of the world’s total watch production and 99% of all U.S. imports. 1951-Emergence of Low Cost Competition. U.S. Time introduced a line of disposable watches bearing the Timex brand name. Timex was selling its watches through a variety of low-priced outlets such as drugstores and discount houses. By the end of the 1950s, one out of every three watches bought in the United States was a Timex, 1970 –By 1970’sTimex was selling more watches than any other manufacturer in the world. 1970’s- During the same time, several Japanese companies like Hattori-Seiko and Citizen—had taken over the Asian market and were trying to cover up Europe and North America. As a result, the Swiss share of the global market declined, from 80% in 1946 to just 42% in 1970. The Introduction of Quartz Technology * Made use of quartz and integrated circuits * Provided Accuracy, more sophisticated functionality, more features like day & time·, Digital display, Analog watches. * Cheaper in cost of manufacturing. * A wide Price range, starting from $8 to $20, today even below $5. * Introduction of ......

Words: 1898 - Pages: 8

Premium Essay

Television Violence

...1950’s. They say that even back then a lot of television was filled with destructive acts. From talking to my grandparents television was not as much of a necessity as we believe it to be today. Being the society that has to be entertained around the clock, we just do not think about what is going into our children’s heads. It seems to affect children more, because their behavior patterns are still developing, and are very vulnerable, and we don’t want them to develop into what they see on TV. Children who watch television a lot of the time become less aware to the pain and suffering of other people around them. If they are always in front of the tube, and just sit there, and soak in all of that bad stuff they are seeing, they become not as aware as they should be. When terrible acts of violence happen in the children’s life that do watch a lot of TV, they are not as aroused by the acts going on in front of them. It is not as disturbing as it would be for a child who does not watch a lot of violent television. A study was shown that a child who had watched a violent television show such as The Power Rangers, rather than a nonviolent show like My Little Pony, were slower getting involved when they saw a younger child getting beat up or playing...

Words: 740 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Computers in today that it is mandatory to have surveillance all around. Prisoners are being watched under the surveillance and control of power. Power has its principle not so much in a person as in a certain concerted distribution of bodies, surfaces, lights, gazes; in an arrangement who internal mechanisms produce the relation in which individuals are caught up. My father is incarcerated and his whole life is controlled by the surveillance of power. When I visit him on Saturdays I have to watch how I place my hands in my pocket; any kind of hand gesture I make I have to be very careful because they are watching me. They watch the way I hug my dad, they watch the way we talk; the hour that I have to spend with my father I am under security watch. At any point of time during that visit if they “see” something wrong as they are “watching” us they can pull me from my visit. While I complain about being under surveillance for an hour, I have to remember he goes through it every day. Someone is there to watch him use the restrooms, internet eat and go to church. Not to mention he has only two phone calls a day each fifteen minutes, which is recorded and monitored. If the wrong word is slipped upon in a conversation he will see the dungeon sooner than later. Angela Peterson, a cousin of mine attended Felician...

Words: 942 - Pages: 4