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Smoking And Alveoli Research Paper

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Smoking and alveoli repair cigarette smoking is one of the major cause for many of the lung diseases. Smoking is a practice of burning a dried plant and inhaling the smoke. It is one of most common form of recreational drug usage.
People who smoke get addicted to smoking which leads to gradual damage to the body. The substances that are inhaled causes reactions at the nerve endings in the central nervous system. These reactions are similar to that caused by the naturally occurring hormones, dopamine and endorphins, which are the main contributors of the sensation of pleasure known as 'high'. The level of being high can vary from different mild stimulus (generally caused by nicotine) to intense euphoria (caused by heroin, cocaine).
On combustion
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They are formed of epithelial cells and extracellular matrix. Some of them consist of Pores of Kohn which help in alveoli spacing. They are also composed of collagen and elastic fibers which help the alveoli cells to stretch in order to get filled up with air during inhalation and relax back to its original state during exhalation.
Generally there are three type of alveolar cells : type I, type II and macrophages. Type I cells are generally composed of squamous cells and form the wall of the alveoli. Type II cells , also known as great alveolar cells, produce pulmonary surfactant that reduces the surface tension of the membrane and increases the capacity of gaseous exchange. Macrophages helps in attacking the foreign harmful materials.
Type II cells plays a major role in the lung tissue. They are known as the progenitors of Type I cells as they repair the endothelium of the alveoli when it gets damaged by moving to the denuded area and proliferating into new cell Type II cells which can differentiate into Type I cells, thereby restoring the
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These cells send signals which initiate development and maintenance of lung branching. Also alveolar mesenchymal cells store and release retinoic acid which are responsible for the formation of secondary septation. These cells are the major contributors of the extracellular matrix macromolecules. In-vitro bioassay models have been made to understand the repair mechanism of mesenchymal cells. Fibroblasts, type of mesenchymal cell, produces the extracellular macromolecule fibronectin which mediates the interaction between cells and extracellular

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