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COLLIGATIVE PROPERTIES OF SOLUTIONS

Section Review

Objectives • Identify the three colligative properties of solutions • Describe why the vapor pressure, freezing point, and boiling point of a solution differ from those properties of the pure solvent.

Vocabulary • colligative properties • freezing-point depression • boiling-point elevation

Part A Completion Use this completion exercise to check your understanding of the concepts and terms that are introduced in this section. Each blank can be completed with a term, short phrase, or number.

In a solution, the effects of a nonvolatile _______ on the properties of the solvent are called _______. They include _______ point and vapor pressure _______, and boiling point _______. In each case, the magnitude of the effect is _______ proportional to the number of solute molecules or ions present in the _______. Colligative properties are a function of the number of solute _______ in solution. For example, one mole of sodium chloride produces _______ as many particles in solution as one mole of sucrose and, thus, will depress the freezing point of water _______ as much. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.
10.

Part B True-False Classify each of these statements as always true, AT; sometimes true, ST; or never true, NT.

11. When added to 1000 g of water, 2 moles of a solute will increase the boiling point by 0.512°C.

12. One mole of solute A will depress the freezing point of 1000 g of water the same as one mole of solute B.

Chapter 16 Solutions 403
Name Date Class

13. Addition of a nonvolatile solute will lower the boiling point of a solvent.

14. Addition of a nonvolatile solute will lower the freezing point of a solvent.

Part C Matching
Match each description in Column B to the correct term in Column A.

Column A

15. colligative properties

16. freezing-point depression

17. boiling-point elevation

18. vapor pressure Column B

a. difference between the freezing point of a solution and the freezing point of the pure solvent

b. pressure exerted by a vapor that is in equilibrium with its liquid in a closed system

c. difference between the boiling point of a solution and the boiling point of the pure solvent

d. properties of solutions that depend only on the number of particles in solution

Part D Questions and Problems
Answer the following questions in the space provided.

19. How many moles of solute particles are produced by adding one mole of each of the following to water?

a. sodium nitrate

b. glucose

c. aluminum chloride

d. potassium iodide

20. An equal number of moles of NaCl and K2CO3 are dissolved in equal volumes of water. Which solution has the higher

a. boiling point?

b. vapor pressure?

c. freezing point?

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