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Social and Dultural Effects of Resettlement

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Chapter I
The Problem and its Background

Before, the first group of people who walked in the grounds of earth have no permanent place to live in, nor a permanent location to settle for good. Hence, they are called nomadic, who have no permanent abode and travel from one place to another to find food and other basic needs. In modern terminologies, if you live like a nomadic person does, you are called itinerant,that now refers to the indigenous groups in a country who live in rural areas. But our brothers and sisters in urban areas tend to be moved from one place to another, yet they are not indigenous. They have the tendency to vacate their place, but not due to the loss of food and basic necessities, but because of the fact that they have to resettled and relocated to a new location. Resettlement is a voluntary or involuntary movement of large number of people from one place (which is usually the original settlement) to another (which is a new settlement), and this movement is not without consequence (Akpanudoedehe, 2010). It is a planned or impulsive transfer of people from their original places to a new settlement site wherein they have to adapt to the new environment. Here in the Philippines, resettlement is a common picture in our environment, and the most dominant kind of resettlement that we can see is involuntary. Involuntary resettlement is largely a consequence of planned change generated by major development projects such as dams for irrigation and hydropower, urban renewal, and highway construction (ADB 2000). Illegal settlers who live in these expropriated lands are relocated to places that may be far from their original home and is much different to the surroundings that they are used to. Over the years, the National Housing Authority is consistent in providing and maintaining adequate housing for the greatest possible number of people, especially those living in the slum areas in the cities, and are classified as illegal settlers, this involves acquisition and development of large tracts of raw land to generate housing units for families displaced from sites designated for government infrastructure projects and those occupying danger areas such as waterways, esteros, and, as what is in the Reclamation Area, Pasay city, the sea side. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects and implications of resettlement to the people living in Paliparan III,Dasmarinas, Cavite. These people are originally from a vacant land in Pasay city called Reclamation Area, wherein the SM Mall Of Asia is now erected. Specifically, this study will focus on the cultural and social effects of resettlement to them and how did they adapted to the new society where they now belong.

Background of the Study

Approximately 30 kilometers south of Manila, Barangay Paliparan III, Dasmariñas City, Cavite, is a resettlement area for over 45 000 informal dwellers in Pasay City in Metro Manila. In 1975, informal dwellers were relocated to Dasmariñas Resettlement Area, also locally known as Dasmariñas Bagong Bayan (DBB), the largest resettlement area in the country. But in May 1993, Paliparan III, a 51-hectare area, served as a relocation area for more than 7,000 households. The National Housing Authority and the Cavite government, in coordination with the People’s Organizations (POs), organized and facilitated the transfer from the reclamation area in Pasay City.

At first, the informal dwellers in Pasay pointed out that persistent debate and suspicion was one of the initial problems. To help the people from transferring, each family was given (five thousand pesos) 5 000 pesos as compensation.

People from the reclamation area are now living with safe and reliable roads, water supply and electricity. To help in the integration of new settlers with original inhabitants as well as to stop discrimination, POs started conducting livelihood programs to promote education and discipline in the community. Unfortunately, these programs they started did not achieve positive outcomes.

In 2002, POs together with NGOs band together to become more effective. After several suspicions from the community, Paliparan III Integrated Community Development Program (ICD) was shaped to run different programs such as livelihood, land settlement, environment, youth welfare, and recently, health and population management.

At present, Pangarap Foundation, Inc. with the theme “Creating a Positive Future for Streetchildren and their Families”, is one of the organizations who helps in providing services for the community. Pangarap Foundation, Inc. consists of qualified social workers, house parents, teachers, community organizer, physician, psychologists, child psychiatrist, dentist, skills trainer and Religious Brothers who form the Case Management Team. Aside from the Integrated Community Development Program, Pangarap Foundation, Inc. also offers programs such as Pangarap Shelters for Children, and Community Outreach and After Care.

Moreover, Paliparan site is now known for its commercial and business establishments. Apartments, condominiums, townhouses and real estate properties are for sale in the site. Through this, Dasmariñas City is considered as one of the fastest growing local government units in the province of Cavite.
Statement of the Problem

The researchers’ main objective is to investigate the social and cultural impacts of resettlement in 1993 on the families living in Paliparan III who originally live in Reclamation Area in Pasay City. Will there be a change in their socio-cultural way of living? Also, the researchers intend to answer the following questions: * What is the demographic profile of the respondents, the people living in Paliparan III, in terms of their gender? * Had the resettlement improved the lifestyle status of the families in Paliparan III? * Had the resettlement perked up the sociability of the people living in Paliparan III with other people? * Had the resettlement changed the culture of the families in Paliparan III? * What are the 3 major social effects of resettlement with the people living in Paliparan III? * What are the 3 major cultural effects of resettlement with the families in Paliparan III? Data Collection and Gathering Techniques

The researchers aim to conduct a study on the cultural and social effects of resettlement on the families from Pasay to Paliparan III in Cavite.

The researchers decided to do a survey through questionnaires and actual interviews on the chosen number of population to get the facts and the respondents’ judgments needed as data for the study.

The researchers also used secondary sources from literature and studies related with the present study .

Researchers used a coding system for every category of the study, for the information about the data from secondary sources for the history and related literatures, the details about the respondents and for the evaluation of their answers to avoid confusion of the data gathered.

After coding all articles and test results, it will be tallied and based from this, conclusion will be formulated.

Statistical Treatment of Data

The data obtained from the respondents were tabulated systematically in order to obtain accurate information related to each element of the target population.

The statistical treatment of data used to determine the percentage of how the people was affected socially and culturally was the percentage which the formulas shown below:

P = x 100 Where: P = percentage F = frequency N = number of respondents.
The researchers assumed that: 1. The families that underwent resettlement in Paliparan III had improved their lifestyle status. 2. The people living in Paliparan III have adapted very easily with urbanization. 3. The families living in Paliparan III found the resettlement as an opportunity when it comes to their means of earning money. 4. The people living in Paliparan III grew more sociable with other people when they were resettled. 5. The social and cultural aspects of the lives of the families in Paliparan III had changed.
Scope and Limitation The emphasis of this study are the effects of resettlement to the people of Paliparan III. Particularly, the social and cultural impacts to the people and how they dealt with them will be the center of this study. A population of over 45,000 people will be the target of this research from December 2011 to February 2012. Thus, it will be limited only to the information of selected respondents, living within the Paliparan III area, through survey and actual interviews, as well as a the information from articles and other studies that will be cited and reviewed.

Significance of the Study

The researcher intended to study and analyze the social and cultural effects of the resettlement of former informal dwellers from Pasay to Paliparan community in Cavite trough the initiative of Pangarap Foundation this study intended to provide benefits to the following:

First, to the Paliparan Community- This study will enable them to identify whether the resettlement program had resulted good effects on the part of the families involved, and to their new neighboring community.

Second, to the Local government of Paliparan District 3 in Cavite- This study can be their source of information for the development of new programs and improvements for the existing ones like livelihood programs, for parents and for youth, educational assistance to former street children who have returned to their families, as well as parenting skills, livelihood assistance, and counseling services, to their parents and health awareness.

Third,to non-government organizations- The study can be their motivating factor in facilitating more community related programs like resettlement of informal dwellers to increase the number of productive families living in a good and fine community.

Finally, to future researchers-The proposed study will benefit and help the future researchers who are planning to study on the same or related topic. This can be their guide and reference in the future.

Definition of Terms:

Culture - the behaviors and beliefs characteristic of a particular social, ethnic, or age group. Demographics - the most recent statistical characteristics of a population. Demolition - tearing-down of buildings and other structures.
Involuntary Resettlement - done contrary to or without a choice. Nomads - are communities of people who move from one place to another, rather than settling permanently in one location. Resettlement - can refer to voluntary or involuntary physical movement by humans from one area to another. Resettlement Area - the place where people from other venues transferred in. Slum Dwellers - people who live in urban areas characterized by substandard housing and squalor.
Society - group of people related to each other through persistent relations, or a large social grouping sharing the same geographical or virtual territory, subject to the same political authority and dominant cultural expectations.
Urbanization - the physical growth of urban areas as a result of global change.. Voluntary Resettlement - done because of one's own accord or by free choice.

Chapter II.
Review of Related Literature

Local Literature and Studies In an article published in fs/Manila .pdf,
Metro Manila has a land area of 636 km2 accounting for approximately 0.2 per cent of the country’s total land area. The metropolis is divided into 4 districts with 12 cities and 5 municipalities. The second district is the largest accounting for about 40 per cent of the total land area. The first district is the smallest at 6 per cent comprising only the City of Manila. Among the cities, the largest is Quezon City with an area of 166.2 km2 while the smallest is Pasig with only 13 km2.

As of December 1996, about 75.8 per cent of Metro Manila’s land area was certified as alienable and disposable and 24.2 per cent was considered to be forested land. This ‘forested land’ includes fishponds, established timberlands, national parks, and unclassified land. In Metro Manila, 65 per cent of the total 6.7 million population over 15 years old are in the labour force. Most employed persons are engaged in production and related types of work in transport equipment operations (31 percent), services (23.5 percent), and sales (20 percent). Only about 1 per cent are engaged in agriculture and related work.

Slums can be found in 526 communities, located in all the cities and municipalities of Metro Manila. They account for some 2.54 million men, women and children living in the most depressed areas of the country’s prime metropolis. These slum communities are located on vacant lands that are both private and government owned. Usually they are located along rivers and creeks, in garbage dumps, along railroad tracks, under bridges, and beside factories and other industrial establishments. Slums located next to mansions in affluent residential areas are not uncommon. Although there are relatively large slum communities, the settlement pattern of the Metro Manila urban poor is generally dispersed, with houses located wherever there is space and opportunity. Metro Manila’s slums cannot be geographically defined the way ghettos can be clearly segregated in some countries. In terms of building materials used, slum housing can be broadly categorised as a) temporary shelters made of salvaged materials b) semipermanent shelters and c) permanent shelters. Data available on slums are currently measured in terms of the number of informal settlers , as derived from surveys conducted by the Housing and Urban Development Co-ordination Council (HUDDC) in 1996.

The Housing and Urban Development Co-ordinating Council (HUDCC) defines slum as buildings or areas that are deteriorated, hazardous, unsanitary or lacking in standard conveniences. They were also defined as the squalid, crowded or unsanitary conditions under which people live, irrespective of the physical state of the building or area. Under such a set of definitions, slum dwellers are identified as the urban poor, individuals or families residing in urban and urbanisable areas whose income or combined household income fall below the poverty threshold. While it is clear that the government accepts the existence of slums, data gathering and programmes have focused more on the provision of shelter or dwelling units and relocation projects than on slum upgrading. More than the slums, the government has regarded illegal occupants as a major problem in urban management. These illegal occupants, defined by HUDCC as those who settle on someone else’s land without title or rights whether in urban or rural areas, are better referred to in the urban setting as squatters, both as a legal definition and as an informal term. Presidential Decree 772, promulgated in 1975 criminalised squatting and gave birth to an official definition for another breed of illegal occupants – professional squatters.

Professional squatters are understood to be individuals or groups who occupy lands without the expressed consent of the landowner and who have sufficient income for access to legitimate housing. The term also applies to people who have been previously awarded lots or housing units by the government but who sold, leased or transferred them and settled illegally in the same place or in another urban area as nonbona fide occupants and intruders on land set aside for social housing. The term does not apply to individuals or groups who simply rent land and housing from professional squatting syndicates. Professional squatting syndicates are the informal and illegal organisations covertly co-ordinating the activities of professional squatters. The 22-year old Presidential Decree 772 enacted by former President Ferdinand E. Marcos branded squatters as criminals and effectively condemned an estimated 10 million urban poor Filipinos who cannot afford legal housing. The decree has been used in some cases as a basis for the criminal conviction of squatters. With the continued implementation of the decree about 100,000 families were evicted yearly from 1986 to 1991 alone (UN Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights). In 1997, PD 772 was repealed under the administration of then President Fidel V. Ramos. The article includes unofficial definitions of slums: iskwater (Tagalog version of squatter referring to a physically disorganized collection of shelters made of light and often visually unappealing materials where poor people reside) estero (narrower than sewers and associated with bad smell); eskinita (refers to alleys that hold only one person at a time);looban (meaning inner areas where houses are built so close to each other and often in a manner not visible to the general view of the city); ordagat-dagatan (for areas that are frequently flooded).

While there is an acceptance that squatting is illegal, slum dwellers perceive themselves as legal citizens awaiting government action for housing provision. This is due to the fact that election bandwagons have consistently made promises of addressing these needs. It cannot be denied that the length of period of stay in the area and the improvements made by these residents raise a question of land stakeholdership. Land Ownership Claims that In some slums, occupants claim that they were invited by or have secured permission from local officials to put up their shelter structures. These arrangements are entered into in the absence of legal documents in the belief that the land is owned by the government, and is therefore public property. Considering that only a small number of slum dwellers have achieved a high level of education and campaigns towards legal education have not fully reached this population, the concept of legal property is not as the legal environment defines it. In household surveys conducted by the
Metro Manila Urban Services for the Poor Investment (MMUSP) Project, some households claim they were asked by family or friends to move in. In return, they also asked some of their friends and families to settle. Some of these households have, aside from the nuclear household with a head, sharers and renters. The sharers are usually extended family members, and the renters range from family and friends to total strangers who came looking for a space to live. This social behaviour demonstrates a trend towards population and density increases in slums, and is among the factors to be considered in shelter planning. In a positive light, this typically sociable character of the Filipinos has also made it easier for them to organise. In simple community projects, such as beautification of surroundings or construction of basic infrastructure, residents are easily mobilized. (Ragrario)

The NHA-Administered Resettlement Program involves acquisition and development of large tracts of raw land to generate service lots or core housing units for families displaced from sites earmarked for government infrastructure projects and those occupying danger areas such as waterways, esteros and railroad tracks.

NHA assists in the development of resettlement sites by LGUs under its Resettlement Assistance Program for LGUs. This is implemented as joint undertaking between the LGU and NHA. The LGU's primary contribution is land while the NHA provides funds to cover cost of land development. LGUs recover project cost from beneficiaries and utilize proceeds exclusively for project maintenance or to acquire and/or develop new resettlement sites.

The Kaantabay sa Kauswagan (or Partners in Development) Program is a social amelioration program primarily designed to empower squatters and slum dwellers which comprise some 25 percent of the city population residing in 21 urban barangays of Naga City. So far, it has resettled 2,017 families to relocation sites with a combined area of 33 hectares; secured homelots for 789 squatter families; and upgraded 27 urban poor communities which host around 2,700 families. Anchored on the belief that the urban poor is a vital sector in Naga's quest for total development, the program addresses the sector's two main problems --(1) the absence of security of land tenure, and (2) the lack of basic infrastructure and facilities in their communities-- primarily by adopting a "partner-beneficiary" perspective in dealing with clients. This approach sees the urban poor both as a program partner and beneficiary, and as such is compelled to actively participate in every step of problem resolution.

Foreign Literature and Studies
Every year, about 10 million people globally are resettled by dams, highways, ports and many other urban development projects (Cernea 2000a). In India Alone, involuntary resettlement is estimated to have affected 50 million people in the last five decades. (Roy: 1999) Experience shows that most people who are forced to relocate often end up worse off than before. (de Wet: 2005) Over five decades, 75% of those people displaced still face an uncertain future. (Cernea: 2000a)

Resettlement occurs frequently in real life and there is no doubt that it causes major economic losses and cultural disruption. There are convincing statistics that shows that involuntary resettlement is not a minor or secondary problem. Thus, as results of development efforts that are intended to improve living conditions of people, millions have become worse off, a situation in a direct opposition to what development stands for. (Mathur, 2006)

Whether voluntary or forced, resettlement is in many ways disruptive and painful. In the last several decades, studies undertaken in many regions of the world have examined how populations are affected when forced from their homes and required to adjust to new physical and social environments, often with lessened capital and other resources. (McDowell, 1996). Such experiences to those affected cause significant population displacement, untold human miseries. (Cernea, 1990, Jackson & Sleigh, 2000). It tears apart the social fabric of existing communities and creates risks of impoverishment. It destroys original production systems and way of existences (Cernea, 1991a; Tan & Yao, 2006).

Scale and extent of displacement differs depending on the population density and ecological conditions (Cernea, 1990). The socio-political and psychological cost of involuntary resettlement has been unavoidably high and in some cases irreversible (Olawepo, 2008). For instance, internationally, the construction of Jebba Lake to boost waterpower to drive the turbine in upstream Jebba led to the relocation of over 6,000 people in 42 villages in Niger State, Nigeria (Olawepo, 2008). The socio-cultural economic implications of resettlement in developed and developing countries has also been reported by Olawepo (2000, 2006).
During the resettlement procedure focusing on the affected people strictly, four types of outcomes are potential. The most favorable is where a majority of resettlers raise their living standards as a result of project planning and implementation. The second outcome notes cases where project initiatives enable a majority to at least restore their living standards. The third and fourth outcomes noted cases where project impacts worsen the living standards of the majority. The difference between the last two outcomes is that in third a majority was still able to restore or improve their livelihoods by taking advantage of non-project related opportunities while in the fourth lower living standards have continued (Cernea, 1990). An example of the fourth outcome was the case that occured locally in Dasmarinas Bagong Bayan, one of the largest resettlement projects in the Philippines. Located 28 kilometers south of Metro Manila, the resettlement covered 652 hectares and accommodated about 14,361 families or 93,050 people shortly after it was established in 1973. The Philippine government provided infrastructure but could not provide work for the settlers. Unemployment, and eventually lack of food, became serious problems (Normita Ignacio, 1994).

According to Cernea (2000) sociological studies have increasingly revealed the psychological and socio-cultural stress, and morbidity associated with resettlement. As a result of resettlement in most part of the world, farming system were destroyed, arable lands and social support networks are dismantled leaving many small and medium families impoverished. Environmental degradation including loss of grazing lands and sources of drinking water is also associated with resettlements.

Instead of improvement, poorly-handled resettlements more often than not result to severe impoverishment and social disintegration that affect large numbers of people, and heavy costs extend well beyond the immediately affected populations. Such was the case according to her evaluation of the resettlement of communities displaced to make way for the Pantabangan Dam in Central Luzon. Sue Tamondong-Helin was able to identify the social and cultural impoverishment of relocatees arising. In this resettlement attempt, the social geometry of the displaced was overlooked. The consequences were sadly familiar and rather expected to have happened: designated farm lots were insufficient in size and number and sited on unsuitable land which quickly eroded. Formerly farmers, those relocated were unable to purse their traditional modes of livelihood, and the wag economy of the new town site became heavily dependent on temporary employment with the National Irrigation Authority, the main implementing agency for the dam, and the limited skill training offered were of little practical use (McDowell, 1996).

Learning from past experiences and knowledge about risks can influence reality. Risk recognition and analyses are crucial for the argument that impoverishment through displacement can be avoided. Knowing this, Michael Cernea (2000) identified eight potential risks or factors that are most often overlooked or taken-for-granted thus, resulting to more crises, tragic outcome for those affected and increase in poor population.

The eight potential risks are as follows:
Landlessness – Seizure of land removes the main foundation upon which people's productive systems, commercial activities and livelihoods are constructed. This is the principal form of de-capitalization and pauperization of displaced people through loss of both physical and man-made capital. Joblessness - Creating new jobs is difficult on a new land which results to prolongation of unemployment or underemployment. Homelessness- Loss of housing and shelter is temporary for most displaces, but for some, it remains an unrelieved condition. Marginalization - occurs when families lose economic power and slide downwards. E.g., middle-income farm households do not become landless, but become small land holders. Increased Morbidity - Serious decrease in health levels result from outbreak of relocation-related parasitic and vector-born diseases (ex. malaria) and from increased stress and psychological traumas. Vulnerability to illness increase and unsafe water supply and waste systems tend to amplify infectious diseases, diarrhea, dysentery, etc. Food Insecurity and Dependence - Forced resettlement increase the risk that people will fall into chronic food insecurity, defined as calorie-protein intake levels below the minimum necessary for normal growth and work. Sudden drops in food crops availability and/or incomes are certain during physical relocation, and hunger or undernourishment tend to be lingering long-term effects. Loss of Access to Common Property - For poor people, particularly for the landless and otherwise assetless, loss of access to non-individual, common property assets belonging to communities that are relocated (forested lands, water bodies, grazing lands, etc.) represents a cause of income and livelihood opportunity loss that is systematically overlooked and typically uncompensated in government plans (with few exceptions, particularly China).Social Disarticulation - The dismantling of communities' social organization structures, the dispersal of informal and formal networks, associations, local societies, etc. is an expensive yet unquantified loss of social capital. These eight processes must be seen as a set of potential risks - high probability risks - the will undoubtedly become real if not given proper and careful attention, or can be avoided if anticipated and purposively counteracted. But most importantly, this concept suggests precisely what needs to be restored, and whenever possible improve, the livelihoods and incomes of those resettled.

Chapter III
Methods of Research

Research Design

To be able to come up with the results needed for the study, the researchers had laid a questionnaire that will be conducted in a scheduled time given and planned. Residents of Paliparan III will answer the said questionnaire. Only 350 of 7000 will be chosen to answer this as they represent the whole Paliparan III. The breadwinners of each family will be chosen as the representative of a family. The questions will be of how their resettlement had affected them socially and culturally.

Population, Sample size, and Sampling Techniques The general population for this study is the illegal settlers in Pasay who were relocated to Paliparan III, Dasmarinas City, Cavite. For the researchers to be able to find a number of subjects that would be adequate to provide a high probability of result in this study they will be determining the sample size of the population by means of the equation: n = a / N n = sample size a = number of samples
N = Population of the Paliparan site

n = (substitute the value of a ) / ( substitute the value of N ) n = _______
The researchers will be using the probability sampling technique wherein it is random method of selection in a targeted population but still the researchers will make sure that everyone in the population is given an equal chance to be chosen .

Description of Respondents

The respondents will be the people of Paliparan III, Dasmariñas City, Cavite. They are originally from reclamation area located in Pasay City and were relocated to their current place in 1993. After years of coping, the people now live peacefully. With the help of Pangarap Foundation, the people were able to build an organized and developing community. Only 7 families from each five phases in the barangay will be surveyed. Each family will be represented by their breadwinner. This study will refer information from a total of 35 respondents.

Chapter IV
Presentation, Interpretation and Analysis of Data
Presentation, interpretation and analysis of data gathered are shown in this chapter. These data will illustrate the demographic profile, social and cultural profiles as well as the relationship of these variables with each other.
PROBLEM NO.1 What is the demographic profile of the respondents in terms of their gender?
Figure 1 gives details about the respondent’s gender.

Figure 1 shows that majority (66%) of the respondents are females, while the other (34%) are males. This shows that during data gathering, most of the respondents who participated in the activity are females. It also inferred that most of the breadwinners in the families that had been resettled are females.

PROBLEM N0.2 What percentage says that this resettlement had improved their lifestyle status? Figure 2 gives the percentage of respondents’ improvement in terms of their lifestyle.

The table above shows that majority (63%) of the respondents said that the resettlement project of NHA has improved their lifestyle. Compared to their previous place, Paliparan III had given them better life opportunities. Aside from the fact that they already own their own house and lot, many say that their water source now is better and even easier. Also, they also said that the atmosphere here in Paliparan III is way better than their previous place. Fresh air and a good people surrounding them are the reasons why they inferred that this place is better. The community is intact and has better rules and policies that make their community in better position with peacefulness and unity. The minority (37%) of the respondents say that because of work, their lifestyle didn’t improve.

PROBLEM NO.3 What percentage says that this resettlement had improved their sociability with others? Figure 3 gives the percentage of respondents who had improved their sociability with others.

The table illustrates that the majority (74%) of the respondents have been more sociable here in Paliparan III. Because of the good people who surround them, their social life has improved - improved in a way that they have been better in communicating with their co-settlers. Through communication, they easily adjusted to their new settling place.
PROBLEM NO.4 What percentage says that this resettlement had changed their culture? Figure 4 gives the percentage of respondents who had changed their culture because of this resettlement.

The table exemplifies that the majority (57%) of the respondents said that their culture had changed because of the resettlement while the minority (43%) said that their culture is just the same in their previous place and therefore didn’t change. This resettlement had changed the people's 'way of life', meaning the way they do things.

PROBLEM NO.5 What are the 3 major social effects of resettlement with the respondents? Figure 5 gives the details of the social effects brought by the resettlement to the respondents.

The table above shows the social effects done by the resettlement to the respondents. It shows that more than a half (52%) of the respondents say that because of this resettlement, they became more open with communicating with the people around them. The second major social effect that had happened on them is by being active in community involvement (31%). Since their barangay hall is merely near to their vicinity, it is easy for them to cooperate with to community activities that concern them. In addition to this, barangay hall officers always make sure to extend help to the people living in Paliparan III. The last that has the least percentage social effect (17%) is the family member separation. Because of the many breadwinners that have been struggling with work, some have chose to just stay in manila where they are working. Inspite of the negative social effect, it is inferred here that the resettlement has done a positive social effect on the resettlers.

PROBLEM NO.6 What are the 3 major cultural effects of resettlement with the respondents? Figure 6 gives the details of the cultural effects brought by the resettlement to the respondents.

Figure 6 inferred that more than half (54%) of the respondents confessed that because of the resettlement, their working culture has changed. Before, their working place is just near their house but now that they are living in Paliparan III, their working place became far and that makes them struggle financially and physically. The second cultural effect is striving hard for the family (34%). Striving hard for the family comes after the struggling for work of the respondents. Since they are struggling financially because of their work, livelihood of their family has also been a struggle to them. The least percentage of the cultural effect is their Sunday routine of attending Sunday mass (12%). Since a church was built in their community in Paliparan III, it actually made them closer to God. They’ve confessed that because of this resettlement, they’ve actually attended Sunday mass.

Chapter V
Summary, Major Findings, Conclusion and Recommendation
This chapter gives the summary of all the data that the researcher gathered and studied, the conclusions the researcher was able to formulate, and the recommendation that can be helpful in understanding the socio-cultural effects of resettlement to the respondents. The study focused on the Cultural and Social Effects of Resettlement on the Families living in Paliparan III, Cavite. Specifically, this study seeks to answer the following questions: 1. What is the demographic profile of the respondents, the people living in Paliparan III, in terms of their gender? 2. Had the resettlement improved the lifestyle status of the families in Paliparan III? 3. Had the resettlement perked up the sociability of the people living in Paliparan III with other people? 4. Had the resettlement changed the culture of the families in Paliparan III? 5. What are the 3 major social effects of resettlement with the people living in Paliparan III? 6. What are the 3 major cultural effects of resettlement with the families in Paliparan III? The hypotheses of the study are as follows: a. The families that underwent resettlement in Paliparan III had improved their lifestyle status. b. The people living in Paliparan III have adapted very easily with urbanization. c. The families living in Paliparan III found the resettlement as an opportunity when it comes to their means of earning money. d. The people living in Paliparan III grew more sociable with other people when they were resettled. e. The social and cultural aspects of the lives of the families in Paliparan III had changed

The research is a descriptive study that utilized a questionnaire to gather information from the respondents. The researcher – made questionnaire comprises of the respondents’ choice of social and cultural effects on them brought by the resettlement. To be able to measure the profile distribution of the respondents, the researcher utilized percentage distribution. Through this, it will be easy to compare the differences and the similarities of the social and the cultural effects to the families that have been resettled in Paliparan III, Cavite.
MAJOR FINDINGS * The majority of the respondents of the study were were female with a percentage distribution of 66%. * The second part of the researcher made questionnaire determines the effects of resettlement on the social and cultural life of the respondents. The questionnaire yields to the following conclusions below.

Statement of the Problem | Conclusions | 1. What is the demographic profile of the respondents, the people living in Paliparan III, in terms of their gender? | Most of the breadwinners who have been the respondents of this study are female. This only proves that females from the families of Paliparan III usually work for their family. | 2. Had the resettlement improved the lifestyle status of the families in Paliparan III? | Because of the resettlement, 63% of the respondents confessed that they their lifestyle status has improved compared to the one in their previous dwelling place. This only proves that the housing project of NHA has brought improvement to these families. | 3. Had the resettlememnt perked up the sociability of the people living in Paliparan III with other people? | The social life of the people who resettled in Paliparan III perked up. They have felt unity inspite of their diversity. The good-spirited people also is the main reason why their sociability level increased. | 4. Had the resettlement changed the culture of the families in Paliparan III? | Just like the change in the sociability of the people, culture has also changed because of the resettlement. Because of the change in surrounding, the culture of the families also changed when they resettled in Palaiparan III. Change from urban to rural area determined the change of their culture. | 5. What are the three major social effects of resettlement with the people in Paliparan III? | The three major social effects of resettlement to the families of Paliparan III are the family member separation because of work, involvement on community activities and more sociability. Among the three social effects, only one (Family member separation) has been the negative effet of resettlement. | 6. What are the three major cultural effects of resettlement with families in Paliparan III? | The three major cultural effects of resettlement to the families of Paliparan III are being active on Sunday mass, striving hard for the family and struggling for work (arranged in increasing percentage). |

Based on the findings of the study, the recommendations are as follow:
For the Local Government of Paliparan District 3 in Cavite Their office should give more attention in knowing the needs of the people in their community by conducting researches and interviews in order for them to know what community programs and services will they facilitate to help the residence of Paliparan 3 to develop their skills and awareness leading to a more positive improvement of their lifestyle as individuals and members of the community. The local Government should also always supervise their existing programs already like the educational assistance they offer, livelihood programs, counseling services and health awareness activities to maintain its good effects and to be more aware for further improvements.
For the Non-Governmental Bodies in Paliparan District 3 in Cavite Non – Governmental Bodies in Paliparan 3 should always be willing and ready in lending help and assistance may it be money or services in the Local Government for the planned and already existing programs be possible and effective.

For the people of Paliparan Community The people of Paliparan Community must be active and participative in every activities the Government or other community Bodies facilitate for them to acquire their needs and to develop in all aspects, physical, emotional, spiritual and social. They should always be united and cooperative in order to see the improvements for themselves and in the community.
For further Research For the future researches that will be having the same topic or will be related to it, in order to come up with an effective study, the researchers must be very specific and clear especially with their research questions in order to come up with a clear conclusion.

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