Free Essay

Social Bahavior

In: Social Issues

Submitted By timothymayabi
Words 561
Pages 3
Bandura conducted a study that investigated social behaviors if they can be acquired through observation and imitation.
The experiment method that was used was precise controlled of variables. The variables were controlled are such as gender, time that the children observed this model and the behavior of the model among others.
Strength of this model is that experiments can be replicated of the experiments. Instructions and standardized procedures were used which allows replicability. (Bandura, 1963 has replicated with changes using videos and results were found similar)
Experiments are only means where cause and effect can be established. This gives room to demonstrate if the model had effect on a child to his/her subsequent behaviors since all the variables apart from the independent variables are controlled.

Weaknesses Low ecological validity. Many psychologists have criticized laboratory studies on imitation. Because the model involves the child and the adult model and this is a very limited in social situations. The child has no interaction with the model and this makes it impossible to influence the model. And also the child and the model are strangers.
Another criticism of this study is that demonstrations are measured immediately. Long-term effects cannot be discovered with such single exposure.

The experiment also sounds unethical we don’t know whether the children suffered long-term consequences or not as a result of this study

2. Children behavior were used to demonstrate this model by doing experiment (bobo doll experiment) which was to establish relationship between their behavior and environment and there consequences. Children observe all people around them and try to adopt the behavior in various ways.
Bandura, Ross and Ross (1961), they tested 36 girls and 36 boys aged between 3-6 years old. The pre-test was done for how aggressive the children were in nursery then later aggressive behavior in different points. Matched pairs design was used to do the experiment. This ratings indicated high reliability correlation that is (r=0.89) suggesting agreement. The individuals who are observed are called models.
Children give attention to some people (model) then they encode their behavior. Then at later time they imitate. From the experiment children learn behaviors in society such as aggression in the process of observation through watching behavior from other people.
3. Reinforcement/Operant condition theory
Part of this theory also describes how the environment can influence his/her behavior. Operation conditioning can be applied to explain variety behavior such as process of learning, addiction and language acquisition.
Skinner is the father of this theory which is based on Thorndike’s law of effect. Skinner introduces this behavior which is reinforced tend to repeat.
Among her experiments she gives an example when people are young they try to smoking in school and this in most case they happened with the crowd probably you hang out with. Positive reinforcement when occurred you were likely to repeat the behavior. But if consequence was that you were caught, with punishment you could be consequently less likely to have smoked.
Bundura, A. (1977). Social Learning Theory. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.
Bundura, A. Ross, D., & Ross, S.A. (1961). Transmission of aggression through the imitation o aggressive models. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 63, 575-582
Skinner, B. F. (1938). The behavior of organisms: an experimental analysis. New York.

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Social Legislational

...adopt policies ensuring that they compete favorably for available oppurtunities. b.) Former inmates should have the same rights as those upon termination of his sentence, without prejudice to accessory penalties imposed by his principal sentence. c.) To facilitate integration of former inmates into the mainstrream society, the State shall advocate for and encourage respect for former inmates at the same time recognizing the role of private sectors in encouraging partnership in programs addressing their needs and concerns. The State shall exert all efforts to remove all social, economic and attitudinal barriers that are prejudicial to former inmates. Sec. 3. Coverage. - This Act shall cover all former inmates that have already been discharged from penitentiaries upon termination of his sentence, without prejudice to those whose sentence were already terminated due to reduction of sentence based on good bahavior, regardless of the gravity of penalty without prejudice to accessory penalties. Sec. 4. Definition of terms. - For purposes of thes Act, these terms are defined as follows: (a)Former Inmates - those who have been charged and convicted for the commission of a crime and was released from jail. (b) Penitentiary - This shall refer to penal establishments. (c) Rehabilitation - This shall refer to processes of reintegration of a former inmate to the mainstream of society. TITLE II RIGHTS OF FORMER INMATES CHAPTER I POST-SENTENCE REHABILITATION Sec. 5.......

Words: 777 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Examining a Business Failure

...those who suspected the former CEO and CFO of fraud. According to Tyco, the individuals who received loan forgiveness were not aware that they were participating in anything illegal; they were told the program had the board’s approval. Tyco and the SEC say it did not. Kozlowski, Schwartz, and Belnick are also being indicted on charges of selling their company stock without telling investors, despite their obligation to do so under SEC rules. In sum, the three are accused of stealing $600 million dollars from Tyco International.” Organizational Bahavior Organizational behavior is related to the study of what people do in an organization and how their behavior affects the organization’s performance (Robbins & Judge, 2007). Organizational behavior is built on psychology, social psychology, sociology and anthropology. Psychology search for explaining changes on human behavior like; emotions, leadership, decision making. Social psychology explore how people influences on each other, attitudes, communications patterns, building trust, group behavior, power and conflict. Sociology studies the behavior of groups within an organization. Anthropology is the study of human beings and their activities, it help us understand the difference in values, attitudes and behaviors among individuals in different organizations. Success or failure of an organization can be attributed to the behavior of the top management of the organization (Robbins & Judge, 2007). Many......

Words: 919 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Cultural Identity (Azerbaijan)

...whose cultural backgrounds differ. (West & Turner 2006) As the populations of countries become more diverse, communicators today need to have knowledge of others' cultural values and practices to inform their communication. Although the culture is usually considered as a higher-level system, it functions on social and the individual level as well. Each of us is a conductor of a particular culture. Each of us unconsciously brings his or her psychological culture in every situation, context and interaction. We conduct this culture in school, at work. We use our culture while communicating with our friends and family. Our culture is a basic part of our "I". Culture, as defined by the Webster’s dictionary, is “the integrated pattern of human knowledge, belief and behavior that depends upon man’s capacity for learning and transmitting knowledge to succeeding generations.” (2007) It is also the customary beliefs, social forms and material traits of a racial, religious or social group. One of the basic human needs in life is a variety of relationships with the outside world, which is implemented by individual self-identification with any ideas, values, believes, social groups and cultures. Cultural identity is the identity of the individual based on the relation to culture or cultural group, that forms a valuable attitude of man to himself or herself, other people, society and the world in general. I, personally, identify myself with Azerbaijani culture. Azerbaijan is the......

Words: 1901 - Pages: 8

Premium Essay


... which of the following is the least predictive set of criteria used to eveluate employees traits  if a manager uses critical incidents as a method of performance evaluation, then ____ the focus of the evaluation will center on key bahaviors.  ____involves evaluations ones performance against the performace of one or more others Foreced comparison  The concept of____can be applied to apprasials to increase the perception that employees are treated fairly. Due process  Which of the following is true with reguard to leadership? It focuses on downward influence of followers.  ____is the only tactic effective across organizational levels. Rational persuation  to avoid poiticking during peroformance evaluations, and orginazation should_____ use objective criteria  reactive and protective behavions to avoid action, blame, orcahge are termed____ Defensive bahaviors  Mintzberg's managerial four roles entrepreneur role, disturbance handlers, esource allocators, negotiator role  The ability to understand, communite with, motivate and support other people, both individually and ind groups, may be defined as____ human skills (human skills- the ability to work with, understand, and motivate other people, both individually and in groups)  conceptual skills The mental ability to analyze and diagnose complex situations.  According to fred luthans and his associates, managers involved in traditional management activities undertook......

Words: 4231 - Pages: 17

Premium Essay

Guidance and Counseling

...presentation to look at these guiding principles carefully as we go into making our choices of having who to have sex with, where, how and when? 2.0 A BRIEF HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF SEXUALITY Sexual relationship is a gift that God gave mankind to be enjoyed only in marriage. Sex is therefore God’s idea as He made us Male and Female, the reason why sex is not the trade mark of the World but a personal label made by God (Genesis 1:27, 2:24). God made man (Husband)and woman (wife) and said under this condition- Husband and wife should be fruitful, increase in number and fill the earth(1:28). After the creation, God said sexuality (man and woman created in His image) was good (1corinthians 1:31). 3.0 THE BIBLE GUIDELINES FOR SEXUAL BAHAVIORS 3.1 The Approved Guidelines (THE DOS’) (i) Sexuality should be enjoyed ONLY in marriage. Genesis 18:12, 26:8; Song of Solomon 1:2, 13, 15, 16; 2:6, 5:16; 7:11 – 12; 4:1 – 16, 7:1 & 3. The pleasure of sexual intercourse should be enjoyed by both married couples ‘who have committed themselves to each other in marriage’1. (ii) Fulfilment of marital duty. The Husband should fulfil his marital duty to his Wife and likewise the Wife to her Husband. Their bodies belong to each other (1 Corinthians 7:3 – 5). Both Husband and Wife have the right to make advances to sex as the need arises. (iii) Sex should be a constant practice and should only be stopped for a short while (1 Corinthians 7:5). (iv) Sexual desires......

Words: 2290 - Pages: 10

Free Essay

How Do the Theories of Emotion, Motivation and Development Explain the Events and Public Response to the James Bulger Case of 1993?

...How do the Theories of Emotion, Motivation and Development explain the events and public response to the James Bulger case of 1993? Theories allow people to see the world in a clear manner and allow them to perform actions based on what is rational. There are many theories that have evolved over the past century in Western cultures that attempt to explain how personalities develop, why people behave in certain ways, the type of environmental conditions that motivate them into acting in specific ways, and how these factors are interrelated. Some of the theories base their explanations on the social and emotional circumstances in the early years of an individual. This Essay aims to analyse the theories of emotion, motivation, and development and apply them to the events and public response to the James Bulger case of 1993. “ ‘I can never forgive Thompson and Venables for the horrendous, calculated, cold blooded murder of James.’ Said Denise Fergus the mother of the boy.” (Day. 2008). In an act that shocked the world, two ten year old boys, Jon Venables and Robert Thompson kidnapped and murdered James Bulger aged just two. The murder of James Patrick Bulger took place in Kirkby, Merseyside, England, on the 12 of February 1993. Bulger was a victim of abduction, torture and murder by two 10-year-old boys, named Robert Thompson (born 23rd August 1982) and the other one named Jon Venables (born 13th August 1982). It started with Bulger's disappearance on the 12 of February......

Words: 2960 - Pages: 12

Premium Essay

Introduction to Communication

...presentations, conferences, seminars, conversations j. Benefits- voice adds emphasis, immediate feedback, body language or tone of voice adds emphasis Communication methods are more powerful when they are combined. 1.3 ORGANIZATIONAL COMMUNICATION Organization communication is the communication happen in a organization and company. It is the way in which groups people both maintain structure and order through their symbolic interactions and allow individual actors the freedom to accomplish their goals. In other word organization is the arrangements between individuals and groups in human society that structure relationships and activities (Business, Political, Religious or social). More over its a group of people identified by shared interests or purpose, for example, a “Bank”. Organization is social collectives, or groups of people, in which activities are coordinated to achieve both individual and collective goals (Judy C.Pearson,2013). Organizational communication is what ties the various stakeholders of an organization together. Organizational communication largely focuses on building relationships, or repeated interpersonal interactions, with internal organizational members and interested external publics. Goldhaber (1990) identified a number of common characteristics in the variety of definitions of organizational communication -- Organizational communication 1) occurs within a complex open system which is influenced by, and influences its internal......

Words: 2954 - Pages: 12

Free Essay

Stress Theory

...and pressure increase. However, if cortisol levels stay increased for too long, negative affects such as muscle breakdown, a decreased inflammatory response, and suppression of the immune system will occur (Selye, 1976). Selye continued his laboratory and clinical study of somatic diseases regarding stress. “I have tried to arrive at a code of ethics based on the scientifically verifiable laws that govern the body’s reactions in maintaining homeostasis and living in satisfying equilibrium with its surroundings” (Selye, 1976, p.32). Selye attempted to show how personal reactions can be adjusted to make one enjoy the eustress of fultillment without suffering the distress generated by frustrating friction and purposeless aggressive bahavior against our surroundings (Selye, 1976). Furthermore, Selye argues that life is largely a process of adaptation to the circumstances in which we exist. “The secret of health and happiness lies in successful adjustment to the ever changing conditions on this globe and the penalties for failure in this great process of adaptation are disease and unhappiness" (Selye, 1976, p. xv). “Our failure to adjust ourselves correctly to life situations is at the very root of the disease-producing conflicts” (Selye, 1976, p. 406). Selye (1976) states that psychoanalysis cures because it helps individuals to adapt to changes happening in their lives. Most of Selye’s work on the strssor effect of anxiety, anticipation, fear, and arousal made it clear......

Words: 3423 - Pages: 14

Free Essay

Stress Management

...challenges are absent and performance tends to be low. As stress increases, performance tends to increase, because stress helps a person call up recources to meet job requirements. Constructive stress is a healthy stimulus that encourages employees to respond to challenges. Eventually, stress reaches a plateau that corresponds approximately with a person’s top day-to-day performance capability. At this point additional stress tends to produce no more improvement. Finally, if stress becomes too great, it turns into a destructive force. Performance beging to decline at some point because excess stress interferes with performance. An employee loses the ability to cope; she or he becomes unable to make decisions and exhibits erratic bahavior. If stress increases to a breaking point, performance becomes zero; the employee has beakdown, becomes too ill to work, is fired, quits or refuses to come to work to face the stress. Stress Vulnerability o Stress Threshold Worker vulnerability to stress is a function of both internal and external stressors. One internal factor is an employee’s stress threshold. Some people have a low threshold and the stress of even relatively small changes or disruptions in their work routines causes a reduction in performance. Others have a high threshold staying cool, calm and productive longer under the same conditions. o Perceived Control The second internal factor affecting employee stress is the amount of......

Words: 8649 - Pages: 35

Premium Essay

An Empirical Study of Pricing Strategies in an Online Market with High-Frequency Price Information

...characteristics of our data set was heterogeneity in firm strategies. Any empirical model of pricing behavior would have to accommodate this heterogeneity. Modeling pricing on a firm-by-firm basis would, of course, allow for arbitrary firm-level heterogeneity, but that analysis would sacrifice power, perhaps unnecessarily, and, more importantly, would result in a non-random sample selection, eliminating almost all of the less active firms due to too few observations. To balance those two concerns, we decided to categorize firms into classes, or what we will call \strategic clusters," as a prelude to empirically modeling their pricing behavior. To do so, we use the technique of cluster analysis. Cluster analysis is a well-known tool in many other social sciences and sciences but is relatively unknown in empirical economics.10 Therefore, a concise description makes sense here. We should begin by saying that we think of cluster analysis more as a handy tool to organize data as opposed to a statistical technique which produces useful estimates of anything or is optimal in any sense. With that in mind, we would define cluster analysis as a set of techniques used to assign objects, which are differentiated on multiple dimensions, to clusters which contain other, similar objects. In our case, the objects are firms, and we seek to assign them to clusters based on their strategic actions, such as how often they change their price, where on the price-sorted lists they tend to be,......

Words: 12591 - Pages: 51

Premium Essay

The Effect of Branding on Consumer Purchase Intention

...can be classified as satisfying buyers’ emotional and rational needs. Successful brands are those that are have the correct balance in terms of their ability to satisfy these rational and emotional needs. For example, cigarette smokers have a variety of rational needs such as seeking the best value, or best taste, or best quality, or a certain aroma, or achieving relaxation, etc. The extend to which different brands satisfy particular rational needs will be assessed by the consumer trying different brands, examining the packaging; slogan, looking at the shape 11 of the cigarette, considering price, etc. Besides these rational needs they will also be seeking or satisfy emotional needs, such as prestige, or distinctiveness, or style, or social reassurance, etc. (De Chernatony, 2003, p26). According to Ted Levitt, the new competition is not between what companies produce in their factories but between what they add to their output in the form of advertising, packaging, delivery arrangements, services, financing, ware housing and others people value. He had summarized that brand is a product, then, but one that adds other dimensions to differentiate it in some way from other products designed to satisfy the same need. These differences can be rational or tangible as relating with product performance of the brand or more symbolic, emotional and intangible related with what brand represents (Keller, 2003). The extend to which different brands satisfy these emotional needs will......

Words: 46290 - Pages: 186

Premium Essay

Marketing Research

...Perceived behavioral control PEOU Perceived ease of usage PU Perceived usefulness TAM Technology Acceptance Model TRA Theory of Reasoned Action TPB Theory of Planned Behavior WE Web experience WOM Word of mouth x ONLINE CONSUMER BEHAVIOR – Web Experience Elements in Online Clothing Market CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION The introduction chapter provides clear summary about the evolution of Internet and the future of e-commerce. Here are explained the purpose and the specific objectives of the research. The research background, research problem, research outline, definitions of relevant academic words of the research will be presented as well. 1.1 Research Focus Today Internet is considered as an essencial parameter of economic and social life as well as one of the main constructs of the future commercial landscape. Internet mediated commerce, commonly described as E-commerce is increasingly regarded as a mainstream commercial activity (Drew, 2003) and as a valuable marketing. The term e-commere has been used to describe the process of “electronically mediated information exchanges between an organization and its external stakeholders” (Chaffey, 2007). From governments to multinational companies to one-person start-ups, e-commerce is increasingly viewed as a key business modality of the future. Ease of transaction, widening markets, and decreased overheads are factors that make e-commerce solutions more and more attractive, as evident with the growth of online......

Words: 30250 - Pages: 121