Free Essay

Social Business

In: Business and Management

Submitted By sanroseca
Words 2392
Pages 10

The aim of this paper is to study the phenomenon of social business and gain an understanding of their nature, operations, objectives and implications by using the book “Building Social Business” by Professor Dr Yunus.The paper also investigates the criticisms of social business and difference between social business and CSR.Finally the paper discusses the sustainability and future of social business.


Social business is a cause-driven business. In a social business, the investors/owners can gradually recoup the money invested, but cannot take any dividend beyond that point. Purpose of the investment is purely to achieve one or more social objectives through the operation of the company, no personal gain is desired by the investors. The company must cover all costs and make profit, at the same time achieve the social objective, such as, healthcare for the poor, housing for the poor, financial services for the poor, nutrition for malnourished children, providing safe drinking water, introducing renewable energy, etc. in a business way.
The impact of the business on people or environment, rather the amount of profit made in a given period measures the success of social business. Sustainability of the company indicates that it is running as a business. The objective of the company is to achieve social goal/s.
Social business is about making complete sacrifice of financial reward from business. It is about total delinking from the old framework of business. It is not about accommodation of new objectives within the existing framework. Unless this total delinking from personal financial gain can be established you'll never discover the power of real social business. Some times you can set up a technically correct social business with the purpose of making profit through your other companies by selling products or services to this social business company. This will be a clear sabotage of the concept. There may be many other subtle ways by which one can weaken the concept and practice of social business. A genuine social business investors must make all efforts so that he does not walk into this trap unwittingly.

Seven Principles of Social Business

• Business objective will be to overcome poverty, or one or more problems (such as education, health, technology access, and environment) which threaten people and society; not profit maximization

• Financial and economic sustainability

• Investors get back their investment amount only. No dividend is given beyond investment money

• When investment amount is paid back, company profit stays with the company for expansion and improvement

• Environmentally conscious

• Workforce gets market wage with better working conditions

• it with joy

UNDERSTANDING THE CONCEPT OF ‘SOCIAL BUSINESS ENTERPRISE’ Modern day enterprises are faced with problems of ‘conceptualization failure’, the failure to capture the true essence of the human being. Prasso (2007) elucidates the thought further: ‘to put it simply, Yunus believes not that Adam Smith’s concept of profit-motivated, free-market capitalism is flawed, but that it is too limited. The conventional thinking that capitalism breeds wealth creators and competitors who subsequently spread that wealth by creating jobs and opportunities for the good of societies has not worked out very well for the majority of the world’. Yunus and Weber (2007) illustrate the imbalances in the global distribution of income by quoting figures: 94 percent of world income goes to 40 percent of the people, while the other 60percent must live on only six percent of the world income. A landmark report released by The World Bank (2008) estimated the global poor now exceeding an estimated 1.4 billion, up from around 1 billion as per previous estimates (Faiola 2008). This amounts to over a fifth of the total world population. According to The World Bank (2005) there has not been a measurable acceleration in the eradication of poverty in the developing world in the past decade, as almost one-third of the countries have shown no increase in GDP per capita since 1980 and overall, some 50 percent of developing countries showed an increase in the number of people below the poverty line of US$1 per day during the 1990s. Delivering the Nobel Peace Prize Lecture, Yunus (2006) further argued that by re-defining the entrepreneur in a broader way ‘we can change the character of capitalism radically, and solve many of the unresolved social and economic problems within the scope of the free market. Let us imagine an entrepreneur who, instead of having a single source of motivation (such as maximizing profit), now has two sources of motivation, which are mutually exclusive, but equally compelling: a) maximization of profit, and b) doing good to people and the world. Each type of motivation will lead to a separate kind of business. Let us call the first type of business a profit-maximizing business, and the second type of business as a social business’. The result will be a new world of business where enterprises will be of two kinds: (1) The well-known and well established profit maximizing kinds, which are devoted to making private gains alone (these can be called Profit Maximizing Enterprises or( PMEs), and (2) The social benefit-maximizing kinds, which are created to do good to people, rather than operating with the sole intent of making private gains (Social Business Enterprises or SBEs). The first category is the one about which we all know, the traditional capitalist operating with in the realm of the free-market economy with the sole objective of earning as much profit as possible. The other is what Yunus (2006) refers to as the ‘social entrepreneur’, and describes as ‘anyone who is offering his time, energy and commitment to address any social or economic problem of a group or community. The problem addressed may be a small local problem or a big global issue. The action required may or may not require money, and it may even be a personal campaign for or against something’. The Department for Business, Enterprise and Regulatory Reform (2007), on the other hand, describes an SBE quite comprehensively as ‘a business with primarily social objectives whose surpluses are principally reinvested for that purpose in the business or in the community, rather than being driven by the need to maximized profit for shareholders and owners’. The problem with Yunus’s two-part division of organizations is that it is over-simplified, since most organizations of today transgress such distinctive boundaries and perform beyond the realm of the objectives for which they were initially established.

Social business VS CSR (Corporate social responsibility)

There are many interrelated terms often used which may be thought of as synonyms to Social Business. Such as:

• Social Entrepreneurship • Non-Profit Organizations • Foundations • NGO • Cooperative • Social Marketing • Corporate Social Responsibility

Many people get confused between CSR and Social business but the two are totally different things.
Social Business- its goal is to solve a social problem by using business methods, including sale of products and services. There are two kinds of social businesses, Type I and Type II.

Type I Social Business
This kind of social business is a non-loss, non-dividend devoted to solving social problem and owned by investors who reinvest all profits in expanding and improving the business. The investors can take back their original investment over a period of time, but cannot take any profit.

Type II Social Business
This kind of Social Business is a profit making company, owned by poor people, either directly or through a trust that is dedicated to a predefined social cause. Since the profits are directed towards poor people, this profit is automatically serving a social cause. The Grameen Bank, which has the poor people as its depositors and customers, is an example of this kind of social business.

Corporate Social Responsibility: CSR practices are those done by profit maximizing firms in order to fulfill their ‘responsibilities' towards the society. Hence, out of their whole profit, they may dedicate about 5% to CSR activities, whilst the remaining 95% will be for themselves. Although there is nothing wrong with the concept, it does not have anything to do with social business. A social business is designed to solve a social problem rather than contributing part of it for the society.

Future of social business

Although the concept is relatively new, it has received a lot of international attention. The pioneer of such a business is Grameen Danone Foods Limited where the French dairy giant Danone joined hands with Grameen to launch fortified yoghurt for the malnourished children of Bangladesh. This endeavour later rolled on to numerous other initiatives with multinationals like Veolia, Adidas who are happy to invest part of their profits for overall social well-being. At the same time, the concept also attracted a lot of academic institutions as a new business model and prominent institutions like HEC Paris, Glasgow Caledonian Univeristy, European School of Business, California State University, Kyoto University, National University of Singapore, Asian Institute of Technology and North South University in Bangladesh have started initiatives ranging from certificates to research in this area. The Grameen Danone venture was also written as a case for students both from HEC Paris and the Harvard Business School.

Of course the concept is not foolproof and it would be foolish to think so. However, it is still at a very premature stage and requires careful attention. Nevertheless, with time, experience and exposure it can prove to be a very strong weapon to combat if not all-some of the social issues the world is facing. At the time, it is also understood that all companies will not be interested to pursue this model but in its short span, it has already shown that significant number of companies see the promise this concept holds.

We feel that any small step taken towards the betterment of the society should be wholeheartedly welcomed by all. Unfortunately for Professor Yunus, such is not the case and it is felt that he is constantly under politically orchestrated attacks. In order to protect him from such defamation, eminent people from across the world have formed ‘Friends of Grameen,' a voluntary association that aims to promote micro-credit and social business. It can be hoped that under such a protective umbrella, social business can spread its wings and reach newer heights to solve social problems.

In the rapidly changing business world, many concepts emerge, evolve and decline at a pace faster than their own evolution. This has led to the development of innumerable business jargons whose rate of awareness and acceptance varies from country to country. One such buzzword happens to be 'Social Business', a concept developed by Professor Mohammed Yunus, the Founder of the Grameen Bank and the pioneer in formalizing the practice of micro credit. For his contribution in the field of micro credit and poverty alleviation, Prof Yunus won the Nobel Peace Price in 2006. The concept and its models have been used all over the world with much success, it still garners significant criticism stating that in reality, it is actually charging the poor a much higher rate of interest than normal. Given the strength of criticism micro credit received, despite it being a globally accepted practice and making its founder win the Nobel Prize, it is not wrong to assume that the second revolutionary concept developed by Prof Yunus called Social Business, may also attract similar kind of criticism.

Social Business is a new kind of business model proposed by Prof Yunus, where the business would be running to earn profit in order to solve a social problem. The reason it is more likely to attract negative publicity is because there is a lot of confusion regarding its true meaning. At the same time, the connection of micro credit and its various loopholes make some people easily assume that this is another 'fashionable' concept designed to cheat the poor.

Social business has the ability and tools needed to address the current crises of the environmental and human conditions. Because the current economic worldview is capitalistic and business-driven, the improvements should first be made within that system and not with attempts to completely reverse or debunk it. "When a large number of people are vying to do the best possible job of developing and refining an idea- and when the flow of money toward them and their company depends on the outcome of the competition- the overall level of everyone's performance rises dramatically (Yunus 27).” This is an undeniable benefit of capitalism- as compared to socialist ideology where it has been generally accepted that motivation is not created

Is social business sustainable?

A social business requires the society’s participation and such model offers possibility that after a period of incentives and encouragement, government or donor support, it would be possible to be sustainable by itself. It is sustainable because people find it convenient and valuable, profitable because it no longer depends on the funding and just, because it powerfully changes people’s lives. I believe creating a sustainable social business lies on two things 1) the right people and 2) having a good business sense. The right people know what they are doing, know about the community and the culture, and know what the community needs. Having a good business sense means not just measuring the profits but counting how many people are helping.

I therefore conclude that social business is sustainable if we have the right people and a good business plan (which of course includes a perpetually pure goal of helping the community). What drives the people to participate is the idea that the business is doing it to help more and more people improve their lives.

References • Yunus, M. (2003). Halving Poverty by 2015 - We Can Actually Make it Happen. Commonwealth Lecture, 2003.London: The Commonwealth Institute. • Yunus, M. (2006). We Can Put Poverty into Museums. Nobel Lecture presented at the Nobel Peace Prize Ceremony’. Oslo, Norway. Retrieved from print?from=/nobel_prizes/peace/laureates/2006/yunus-lecture-en.html on May 02, 2008. • Yunus, M. (2006a). Social Business Entrepreneurs are the Solution. Skoll World Forum on Social Entrepreneurs.Oxford: Said School of Business, University of Oxford. • Yunus, M. and Weber, K. (2007). Creating a World without Poverty, Social Business and the Future of Capitalism.New York: Public Affairs (Perseus). • Yunus centre

Similar Documents

Free Essay

Social Business

...Building Social Business: An Alternative Mode of Ensuring ESC Rights. Chapter one: 1.1 .Introduction 1.2 Background of study 1.3 Concept of social Business 1.4 Concept of ESC Rights 1.5 Rational and significance of the study 1.6 Objective of this research 1.7 Hypothesis 1.8 Reasons for selecting topic 1.9 Research Methodology Chapter two: historical background: 2.1 Introduction 2.2History social Business 2.3 Origin of social Business and its kinds 2.4. Economical situation after liberation war . 2.5Our society and business and commonplace business Chapter four: 4.1 Definition of social business. 4.1 Why social Business? 4.2 Which is not social Business? 4.4 Types of social Business. 4.5 Social Business a business model 4.6 Social business model framework/ Legal framework for social Business 4.7 Features of social Business to be considered 4.8 Seven principle of social Business 4.9 Four rules of social Business 4.10 Advantages and disadvantages of social Business \Chapter five 5.1 profit and social Business 5.2 How Bangladesh can profit from social Business 5.3 Social Business in Bangladesh compared with abroad 5.3 What Social Business offers? 5.1How to build social Business/ How social Business Can be started?...

Words: 685 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Social Business

...Their current business goals and objectives are to grow specific areas of the business. In retail they are looking to increase their volume of bike fittings, which run a healthy $300 per fitting. For sales they are working to...

Words: 2017 - Pages: 9

Premium Essay

Social Media in Business

...Essay In today’s society, Social media is everywhere. Almost everyone you know uses at least one social networking site. There is Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, YouTube, and so many more. Most people who use these social media sites, use them to communicate and interact with their friends and family. However, many people may not realize that these social media networking sites play a major role in the business world. Social media sites play a huge role in a business’ success because it is because it gives them the ability to create a network with new people, market their business, and reach a larger market. The first role that social media sites play in a business’ success is that it gives them the chance to network with new people. When using social media, business executives have the chance to meet and network with new people. They may be able to meet new people to network with through their friends and family on the website. They may also meet new people that are in the same industry through different groups on the networking sites. When business executives are able to network with new people, it helps to grow and expand the business which will lead to the business’ success. The second role that social media sites play in a business’ success is that it gives them free marketing. Most business spend a lot of money on marketing and advertising. With social media, they can advertise and market their business themselves....

Words: 470 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Social Responsibility of Business

...Social Responsibility of Business Introduction What is the social responsibility of a business? Is it to increase its profits as Milton Friedman affirms? Before starting any debate about this topic, first let’s see what its definition is. According to the Business Dictionary, social responsibility is an “obligation of an organization's management towards the welfare and interests of the society which provides it the environment and resources to survive and flourish, and which is affected by the organizations actions and policies. 1 ” Furthermore, according to the Dictionary of Finance and Investment Terms, social responsibility is the “principle that businesses should actively contribute to the welfare of society and not only maximize profits. 2 ”These two definitions are in total opposition to Friedman’s statement. Never the less, I do think that any corporation can be social responsible in terms of these opposing points of view at the same time. In this essay, I will first present a summary of the article of Milton Friedman; then I will express my personal reflection on the topic and tell why a corporation can comply with both positions simultaneously Milton Friedman in his article “The Social Responsibility of Business is to Increase its Profits” states that only people can have responsibilities, and that there is not such a thing like social responsibility of business....

Words: 1574 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Social Responsibility of Business

...Any responsibility we have, particularly towards members of the society with whom we interact or towards the society in general, are called your social responsibility. * Social Responsibility of Business :- As we know, every business operates within a society. It uses the resources of the society and depends on the society for its functioning. This creates an obligation on the part of business to look after the welfare of society. So all the activities of the business should be such that they...

Words: 2360 - Pages: 10

Premium Essay

Social Media and Business

...Running Header: SOCIAL MEDIA AND BUSINESS 1 Running Header: SOCIAL MEDIA AND BUSINESS 2 The internet era has brought with it numerous pros in all walks of life be it academic, business, or social. The internet has taken business to an all new level. This includes online shopping, online banking, and online flight booking just to mention a few. Each and every business needs an online presence in order to have an edge over its competitors. The onset of internet improved business a lot, but what has really revolutionized the internet business is the social media. The social media sites form hubs for online interactions of people from all walks of life and of all ages. People meet and build relationships via social media. Social media forms a powerful tool for marketing a business and help it achieve its own goals. The most powerful of all is the word of mouth from friends in the social media or recommendations and /or like. There are numerous social media sites nowadays including twitter, facebook, Google plus and LinkedIn. This essay will focus on facebook as a tool for marketing a business. Just like any other form of business strategy, use of social media has its own share of legal matters that need to be managed appropriately for the success of a business....

Words: 1526 - Pages: 7

Free Essay

Building Social Business

...Long Range Planning 43 (2010) 308e325 Building Social Business Models: Lessons from the Grameen Experience Muhammad Yunus, Bertrand Moingeon and Laurence Lehmann-Ortega Grameen bank, founded in 1976, has both pioneered the development of micro-finance, and created nearly 30 businesses designed to alleviate poverty. The article traces the gradual development of Grameen’s expertise in formulating social business models, which require new value propositions, value constellations and profit equations, and as such, resembles business model innovation. The article presents five lessons learned from this experience: three are similar to those of conventional business model innovation e challenging conventional thinking, finding complementary partners and undertaking continuous experimentation; two are specific to social business models: recruiting social-profit-oriented shareholders, and specifying social profit objectives clearly and early. We suggest these new business models e where stakeholders replace shareholders as the focus of value maximization e could empower capitalism to address overwhelming global concerns. Ó 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Introduction The Grameen Group is a network of nearly 30 sister organizations linked to the Bangladeshi Grameen Bank, the microcredit pioneer and (together with its founder, Muhammad Yunus, one of this article’s co-authors) 2006 Nobel Peace Prize winner....

Words: 10080 - Pages: 41

Premium Essay

Social Media and Business

...Social Media and Business Social media has always been a threat to not only security but also reputation of a business. Employees today have access to all kinds of social network sites to include Facebook, Myspace, Twitter, Instagram, online blogs, and many more. These sites are easily accessible to the user from their computer, tablets, and cellphones through various types of applications. Through my research I was able to find a trend in users using these media outputs to accidently leak information unintentionally and even intentionally. I found that any business can be susceptible to having data leaked and reputations tarnished from employees not handling social media correctly. I will cover this area of expertise, technology involved, future trends, security issues, some businesses involved, regulatory issues that arise, what business can do to handle social media, and global implications. When you consider what technology is being used most users will think of physical equipment. While this is the case that is the access medium that is used when thinking of social networking. Social media can be accessed in various ways to include your home computer, office computer if they allow you to view such sites, tablets, and your phone that could not be regulated depending on if it is a company phone. These access mediums must be regulated and users educated on the proper use of these devices....

Words: 3437 - Pages: 14

Premium Essay

The Social Responsibility of Business

...Critical Analysis: "The Social Responsibility of Busine Critical Analysis of "The Social Responsibility of Business" from Milton Friedman In this essay I evaluate Milton Friedman’s essay: “The Social Responsibility of Business Is to Increase Its Profits” in 1970, on the Social Responsibility of a business and his theory, which is called the “Efficiency Perspective”. In every article and book that I have read about social responsibility, Friedman’s “Efficiency Perspective is placed centrally. During my research I found that Friedman is often criticised for being too classical. Friedman believes that manager’s foremost objective or even moral obligation to the firm should be to maximise profits always. There is however one condition that makes his perspective more complicated, not only for me, but also for several well-known authors. According to Friedman, the managers obligations should be carried out: “…while conforming to the basic rules of the society, both those embodied in law and those embodied in ethical custom”. This leads to one of the main questions of my essay: To what extent does Friedman’s “Efficiency Perspective” give foundation for responsible and moral international management behaviour? And need we any concern if it fails to do so? To fully answer the questions, I first need to explain the two different parts of the first question: responsible international management behaviour and moral international management behaviour....

Words: 2896 - Pages: 12

Free Essay

Social Media and Business

...There has been a recent boom in social networking; this has led to an increase in the amount of social networks available today. Social networking can be described as “the use of Web sites or other online technologies to communicate with people and share information, resources, etc.” ( This has led to increased efficiency in the exchange of information. I.e. Information is exchanged more rapidly. Organisations are realising the benefits of utilizing social networking. “Social media helps enhance all the basic pillars of good business, such as engaging with the public, converting on-the-fence onlookers into revenue-generating clients, and addressing customer service issues.” (Stewart, 2013). Social Media sites are a great way of exposing your business and products or services and promotions. This is knows as social ‘network advertising’, “a term that is used to describe a form of Online advertising that focuses on social networking sites.” (Social Network Advertising, 2013). Most of the more popular social networking sites are free, so businesses can advertise for little or no cost. Because of the vast amount of people who are active on these social websites the business is able to reach a wide audience and attract new clientele which would lead to sales increases without having to pay for advertisement....

Words: 570 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Social Responsibility of Business

...Mr.C.R.Deware(M.Com,M.Phil,NET) ( Assistant Professor) Department of Commerce Arts ,Science & Commerce College ,Chopda Social Responsibilities of Management * INTRODUCTION Business enterprises are creatures of society and should respond to the demands of society. If the management does not react to changes in social demands, the society will either force them to do so through laws or will not permit the enterprise to survive. Therefore the long-term interests of business are best served when management assume social responsibilities. The image of business organization liked with the quality of its products and customer service and the extent to which it fulfills the expectations of owners, employees, consumers, government and the community at large. For long-term success it matters a great deal if the firm has a favorable image in the public mind. Every business enterprise is a organ of society and its activities have impact on the social scene....

Words: 666 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Social Responsibility of Business

...Social Responsibility of Businesses 22 September 2013 Social Responsibility of Businesses Social responsibility of businesses is the obligation of businesses to help improve the economy, the quality of life of its employees, and the surrounding communities. It is “an organization’s initiatives to assess and take responsibility for its effects on the environment as well as its impact on social welfare.” (Grantham, 2013) A company that continually gets involve with social events and support the communities often gains the trust of consumers. An organization’s reputation can be boosted by demonstrating good social responsibility and good will toward the community. This paper will discuss how being socially responsible can help businesses retain employees, attract customer, and cut business cost. Social responsible companies often increase employee loyalty and job performance. “Employees are the heart and soul of your organization. They produce the products and services that your organization offers. If you take good care of them, employee turnover will be lower, productivity will be higher, and fraud/theft will decline.” (Ventureneer, 2013) Companies that appreciate and value their employees by providing them competitive wages, benefits, and awards then they are a social responsible organization. When companies invest into their staff with quality training, and growth opportunities then employees are more likely to stay with the company....

Words: 679 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Social Media on Business

...One of the leading social networking site is the Facebook. There are 1.59 billion users are active all over the world and still counting. Facebook has affected the social life and activity of people in various ways. Facebook allows people using computers or mobile phones to continuously stay in touch with friends, relatives and other acquaintances wherever they are in the world, as long as there is access to the internet. Before, we can only see advertisement through television, posters, and newspapers, but now that Facebook has launched a new portal for marketers, it is easy for them to promote their products. BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY Facebook is a social networking service launched in February 4, 2004. It was founded by Mark Zuckerberg with his college roommates and fellow Harvard University student Eduardo Saverin. The website’s membership was initially limited by the founders to Harvard students, but was expanded to other colleges in Boston area, the Ivy League, and gradually most universities in Canada and the United States corporations, and by September 2006, to everyone of age 13 and older with a valid email address. Facebook has two names before it was called “Facebook”; Facemash and Facemash, was opened on October 28, 2003. Initially, the website was invented by Mark Zuckerberg, Andrew McCollum, Chris Hughes andDustin Moskovitz. Zuckerberg wrote the software for the Facemash website when he was in his second year of college....

Words: 5146 - Pages: 21

Premium Essay

The Social Responsibility of Business:

...The Social Responsibility of Business: A Review. Maz Demosthenous School of Commerce The Flinders University of South Australia GPO Box 2100 Adelaide South Australia 5001 Telephone: +61 8 82013896 Facsimile: +61 8 82012644 Email: SCHOOL OF COMMERCE RESEARCH PAPER SERIES: 00-8 ISSN: 1441-3906 For many, the view that the main goal or purpose of business is to make as much money as possible is accepted as a matter of fact and is beyond debate. To go further and say that the social responsibility of a business is also just to make a profit is open to debate. The aim of this paper is to discuss the various views of the responsibility of business, and to consider where accounting fits in. In addition, to explore the ethical responsibilities that a corporation may have beyond making profits for its stockholders. The Friedman view Milton Friedman’s view is that in a capitalist economy, there is one and only one responsibility of business- to use its resources and engage in activities designed to increase its profits so long as it stays within the rules of the game, which is to say, engages in open and free competition without deception or fraud (Friedman, 1983). When one is looking at the responsibilities of an individual or an organisation they must first examine their roles. The directors of companies have a fiduciary responsibility to act in the best interest of the shareholders....

Words: 2760 - Pages: 12

Premium Essay

Social Media for Business

...Social Media for Business-An Analysis of Statistic Data Introduction. The area under discussion in the following assignment is to quantify the possibility of a deviation from accuracy in the fifty samples formed from a selection of data, following their questionnaire rejoinders. Questioning in which there is a relationship between the kinds of social media is and the type of business. Moreover, does this relationship exist for the reason that day by day more people use social media? (NielsenWire, 2010).This assignment’s first directional hypothesis, testing the first question is: The longer a company use the social media, the more improver’s its customer’s relation. This assignment’s second directional hypothesis, testing the second question is: The longer a company use social media, the helpful to raise companies’ profile. This assignment third hypothesis is: The more skilled companies’ employees are in using social media, the more customers attracts to the firm. Firstly this assignment will review the questionnaire follow by my personal critique. Secondly, present its ‘findings in a variety of tables and graphs followed by analyse and discussion relate on the literature review. This assignment will end with a personal suggestion for future research. Questionnaire. According to Sekaran and Bougie 2009, our data collecting method was questionnaire....

Words: 2521 - Pages: 11