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Social Engineering Attacks and Counterintelligence

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Table of Contents Ethical and Social Issues In Information System 1 Chapter one 3 Introduction to the Study 3 Context of the Problem 4 Statement of the Problem 5 Research Questions 6 Introduction 6 Research Question 6 Research Question 7 Research Question 7 Significance of the Study 8 Research Design and Methodology 9 Organization of the study 9 Literature Review 10 Introduction 10 References 14

Chapter one Introduction to the Study
Ethical and social issues in information system is a combination of the benefits and disadvantages of using computer and computer related devices, social networks versus our ethics, morals and beliefs. The importance and reliability of computer in our day to day running of human life cannot be over emphasized. Social networking platforms may allow organizations to improve communication and productivity by disseminating information among different groups of employees in a more efficient manner, resulting in increased productivity. While it is not meant to be all-inclusive, there are a lot of problems faced by its usage in younger generations, businesses use, and the even medical field. The social media comes with risks as it opens up the possibility for hackers to commit fraud, launch spam and virus attacks, and also increases the risk of people falling prey to online scams that seem genuine, resulting in data or identity theft by which result in opening the doors for liability and privacy concerns, and if those lines are crossed, doctors could face litigation or even jail time (Magaw, 2010).
Adults and young teens do not only want to share their experience with friends or relatives, they want the world to have a feeling of what they know, what they are thinking and how they are feeling by using social networks such as Facebook, Twitter, MySpace, etc. (Riley, 2011). The technology industry has always faced a host of ethical issues and this is because social problems are responsible for the substantial part of all ethical issues that may arise, but the rise of social media has raised the bar. Society has developed a lot with unbelievable speed, from telegraphy, telephone, the radio of 19th century to the modern 21th century, this has shown the rapid developing and growing of knowledge and information. For example, the internet has been used widely everywhere in the world. We call it “global, Web-based platform. This platform enables people to connect, compute, communicate, compete, and collaborate anywhere, anytime to access limitless amounts of information, services, and entertainment” (Rainer & Cegielski, 2011 ). It is so obvious information technologies benefit us a lot; in the meantime, IT also can raise new ethical problems. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) software was used in analyzing the data collected. Findings from this study confirm that the majority of the respondents agreed that social networking sites have a positive impact on their academic performance (International confrence on internent studies, 2011). As good as this may sound, social networking is also wrapped with a lot of disadvantages. Employees may not be aware of how their actions online may compromise company security. Educate employees as to how a simple click on a received link or a downloaded application can result in a virus infecting their computer and the network. Advise them not to click on suspicious links and to pay careful attention when providing personal information online. Remember that just because employees may have an online profile, it doesn’t necessarily mean they have a high level of security awareness. Context of the Problem In the battle for competitive advantage and customer satisfaction, the emphasis is on achieving goals at the possible minimal time. Information technology plays a key role in our everyday life yet not all its benefits are applaud able as it leaves loop holes in the area of securing people’s information and sometimes can be easily compromised and also, the sub – optimal performance of Information Technology (IT) is a major disadvantage of the system. Therefore, this proposal will combat security issues in information systems and explain its benefits while trying to establish a link between the systems and peoples’ ethics. In so many cases, IT performs below customers’ expectation because to whom much is given, much is also expected. A good example is the IPhone 5. A lot of money and time is wasted on research which makes researchers conclude that the cost of the developing any software or computer exceeds any benefits the system may offer for its users. Even though this might be regarded as a failure of the system, many people still believe nothing could be done without IT contribution. (1999 (Robey, November 2010) opined that “from the growing incidences of failed projects, we conclude that the advances in development technologies are not sufficient to improve the rate of successful information systems’. Statement of the Problem Manual operation involves human beings that use brainpower and manual desk entry with tools like calculator and adding machines. This has a lot of limitations; one of such is time wastage, especially when a large volume of work is involved. Any attempt by one of the big company to adopt this might lead to catastrophe even though it will be an effective way to boost employment in the society as more labor would be required. However, what is the significant effect caused by information technology as it relates to our everyday lives? This research will attempt to answer those questions. The purpose of this research is to evaluate the impact of contemporary information systems and the Internet on the protection of individual privacy and intellectual property. A good example of this is the do not call Implementation Act of 2003.
Through data base and information systems many firms had the opportunity to collect and redistribute information about individuals, groups, and institutions through computer networks. A good example is Telemarketing experience through receiving commercial calls for selling or for the purpose of survey, thereby interrupting peoples’ precious time for their selfish interest. Research Questions Introduction Without any doubt in our minds, technology has driven the success of the global economy for the past one and half decade now. This research study will examine the risk and benefits associated with the introduction of information system technology to the global economy and it moral dimension. Here in the United States, the biggest question remains; is information system introduction destroying US Economy? Majority of the population believes that this is the main cause of outsourcing. Recent survey has shown that our economy has lost almost a million jobs since the recovery of November 2001. And this is as a result of the fact that developed countries like the US and Canada cannot compete with countries like China, Mexico and Brazil where the cost of labor is relatively low compare to the US which is why companies like Apple and Microsoft would rather have most of their product produce in foreign countries with cheaper labor and shipped to the US.
Research Question
What is the impact of information system technology on productivity and quality of life? Think of what life would be without cell phones, computers, cars and a good vacation spot. One of the good testimonies of information system is the Disney land of Hong Kong. Built in November 2005 with about 120 acres in size, the resort was originally designed to be completed in 5 years but information system (IS) makes it possible in 3 years (Chun Cheung Cheng, 2010). This qualitative case study provides more insight on the benefit derived from IS and how it has helped to shape individual life. As earlier stated, IS has raised a lot of new and often-perplexing ethical problems despite its huge advantages hence, the need to ask questions.
Research Question
What are the ethical dimensions of information system?
‘The ethical dimension of information system encompasses all facets of information technology: research, practice and development’’ (Salehnia, 2002). Ethics are the principles of right and wrong that individuals, acting as free moral agents, use to make choices to guide their behaviors and this human behavior changes with time and environment. Both the human behavior and its environment are influenced by information system hence, the need for qualitative approach of this research study to tackle major ethical and social issues raised by information system.
Research Question What is the impact of information system on the employment rate in the United States? The use of Strayer library resources (EBSCOhost), Journals, Books and e-books will be used to identify the impact of information system on the employment rate in the US. Information system has been one of the major changes in employment rate over the past decade; it has made it possible for one employee to do the task of three workers through the use of computer. A good example is the introduction of assemble line machine in many production industry, elimination unskilled workers and creating unemployment. Significance of the Study
Considering the important role of information system in the global economy, it is pertinent to discuss the risk and benefits associated with the introduction of information system technology to the global economy and it moral dimension. Several organizations continue to increase spending on information system technology (IST) which has lead increased in budget spending since 2008, even in the face of potential economic downturns (Kanaracus, 2008). However, fears about economic conditions and increasing competition create pressures to cut costs, which require organizations to measure and examine the benefits and costs of technology. Naturally, organizations are interested in knowing the return on these investments.
In 2002, Salehnia reinstated that the dimension of Information system technology (IST) encompasses all facets of information technology: research, practice and development. The impacts of IST are often indirect and influenced by human, organizational, and environmental factors; therefore, measurement of information systems (IS) success is both complex and illusive. The study of information system is important as its uses different tools like information technology to make individual task seems easier to perform in less time while reducing cost of labor and avoiding risk due to human error and fatigue. Given the relatively short life-span of the IS field, it is quite remarkable the number and variety of applications and systems that have been deployed. The significance of IS that range from hedonic, which is majorly developed for pleasure and enjoyment, to utilitarian, developed to improve individual and organizational performance (van der Heijden, 2004).
The result of this study will contribute to the success of individuals, groups, organizations, industries, and nations through improved decision-making, improved productivity, and increased sales, cost reductions, improved profits, market efficiency, consumer welfare, jobs creation while eradicating unemployment and promoting economic development. Also, this study will help showcase how the changes in technology often affect society both profitably and the adverse effect. Typical problems include loss of privacy, depersonalization, and changing incentives or motivations. Advantages include lower prices and better products and services. Research Design and Methodology
This research study was conducted using qualitative approach method and the data were collected from University of strayer library and other sources. The data collected from previous research studies was used to analyze the improvement brought about by the introduction of information system into global economy while comparing the advantages and disadvantages. Thus it was argue that the better the quality of work produced if the full range of research tools and quality assurance available are considered and despite the different perspectives, there is always a general agreement that an understanding of the background will encourage and contribute to the ethical and Social Issues In Information System better research practice (Jane Ritchie, 2003). This qualitative research study seek to provide answers to the research questions on how information system has affected the employment rate of people living in the United States and also reviewing the ethical dimensions of information system. Organization of the study

Chapter 1 of this qualitative study provides an introduction to this research and explains the research questions that needed to be answered. The chapters after are structured to provide background information for the technologies as well as provide relevant research to provide information for the research questions.
Chapter 2 includes a literature review on ethics and social issues in information system technology, technologies as well as deployment models offered by the industry. The literature review is made up of a compilation of research papers, journals, articles, white papers and textbooks that provide content related to people ethics, moral and adaption to this new computer age. The part of the study gives account of the various concepts of information systems as well as previous studies where applicable. Literature Review Introduction

In global society nowadays, the development of IT is indispensable to the quality of life. Introduction of IT has provided advantages for people, organizations, and global economy as a whole. Nevertheless, the widespread and rapid use of IT in society has exacerbated existing ethical issues or dilemmas, and also led to the emergence of new ethical issues such as unauthorized access, software piracy, internet pornography, privacy protection, information gaps, and many others (Maslin Masrom, 2010). Innovations in information technology (IT) have presented society with a wide range of ethical issues. Technologists, academicians, philosophers, politicians, and even the general public have paid significant attention to problems with information privacy, ownership and intellectual property, network access and security, fraud and other criminal activity, obscenity, access to sensitive technical information such as plans to make explosive devices, and various issues in professional ethics such as responsibility for flawed technical systems, resulting in data or identity theft by opening the doors for liability and privacy concerns, and if those lines are crossed, doctors could face litigation or even jail time (Magaw, 2010).
Information systems (IS) often present virtual spaces that are sufficient to enable important human interaction. Why enabling such interaction, systems designers are inherently creating certain ethical structures. When IS are created, ethics for a new world are also create interaction and a framework for interpersonal interaction, personal identity, and structural conditions for customs and rules. Riley 2011 reinstated the importance social networking and information system as a modernized way of expressing feelings and emotion and reaching out to family and friends. This platform enables people to connect, compute, communicate, compete, and collaborate anywhere, anytime to access limitless amounts of information, services, and entertainment”(Rainer & Cegielski, 2011). Computer has been accepted to become part of our everyday life. Consequently, both use and abuse of computers have increased dramatically. Although proper use has proven to be beneficial to businesses and professionals, and the abuse has negatively impacted peoples ethics and believes. Findings from this study confirm that majority of the respondents agreed that social networking sites have a positive impact on their academic performance (International confrence on internent studies, 2011). These aforementioned problems of computer and information system have led to some unanswered questions and for this reason, this qualitative study will provide some insight to the research generated during the course of this research. Among such questions are: 1. What is the impact of information system technology on productivity and quality of life?
The impact of information system technology (IST) is a research topic that has received increased attention from researchers during the past two decades. Most of the research has been focusing on the effects of IST adoption on individual, organizational and national performance, often measured in terms of productivity, efficiency, profitability, quality, variety and this has gone a long way in improving our quality of life. (Shu, 2002). The importance of IST on work life has been one of the most talked about issues over the recent years. Big firms invest millions of dollars on IST in an attempt to combat the various issue of assessing the impact of this technology on work. Managers in IST are increasingly required to justify technology investment in terms of its impact on the individual and his/her work. Measures of impact of IST have narrowly focused on productivity impacts. This study uses a broader concept that is based on the impact of technology on the nature of work literature Introduction of information system technology (IST) in organizations has been growing at alarming rate; the use of technology has evolved from the automation of structured processes to systems that are truly revolutionary in that they introduce change into fundamental business procedures. The Internet and other advancements in IST have changed the workplace (Dewan, 2000) . Indeed, it is believed that most companies will rely solely on IST, shaping strategy and infrastructure to fit new technologies. While the importance of the relationship between IST and organizational change is evidenced by the considerable literature on the subject, there is a lack of comprehensive analysis of these issues from the economic perspective. However, up till now we have only limited knowledge concerning how advancements in IT have affected the research patterns of scientists over time. One the major problems of previous research studies is that they typically compare research patterns before and after an IST-innovation became widespread, attributing differences to the new technology without knowing when the new technology actually was available to the individual scientist (Butler, 2008). Empirical studies in the information system technology (IST) have examined the impact of technology investments on various measures of performance and its relation to the improvement of people standard of living. However, the results of these studies, especially those examining the contribution of IST to productivity, have been a misconception. One reason for this misconception may be that these studies have not effectively accounted for the impact of technology investments that increase production efficiency and improve product quality on firm productivity. In particular, it is commonly assumed that such investments should lead to gains in both profits and productivity. However, this qualitative research study will help challenge this underlying assumption and demonstrate that investments in certain efficiency-enhancing technologies may be expected to decrease the productivity of profit-maximizing firms. More specifically, investments in IST increase profits and improve productivity while adding values to variable costs of designing, developing, and manufacturing a product in a way that encourages the firm to improve product quality and to charge a higher price thereby leading to security in the area of employment for people that work with such firm.
It cannot be said that information technology has a direct impact on productivity. It does help iproductivity in many cases and improve it, however, it does not have a direct influence on it.

International confrence un internent stidies. (2011). THE INFLUENCE OF SOCIAL NETWORKING SITES ON STUDENTS'ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE IN MALAYSIA. Kualar lumpur:
Jane Ritchie, J. L. (2003). A Guide for Social Science Students and Researchers. Nottingham: University of Nottingham.
Kanaracus. (2008). global IT spending growth stable. European Journal of Information Systems, 263.
MAGAW, T. (2010). Physicians' use of social media rises, raises ethical questions. Crain's Cleveland Business,, 11.
Maslin Masrom, Z. I. (2010). EXPLORING COMPUTER ETHICS ISSUES IN MALAYSIA. kuala: University Technology Malaysia,.
Riley, s. (2011). Social Media Complicating Tech Field's Ethical Issues. Investors Business Daily, 1.
Robey, l. &. (November 2010). Information system and its failure. Information system and its failure, 20.
Salehnia, A. (2002). Ethical Issues of Information Systems. Ethical Issues of Information Systems, 301. van der Heijden, H. (2004). User acceptance of hedonic information systems. User acceptance of hedonic information systems, 704.

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...This page was intentionally left blank This page was intentionally left blank Hands-On Ethical Hacking and Network Defense Second Edition Michael T. Simpson, Kent Backman, and James E. Corley ———————————————————————— Australia • Brazil • Japan • Korea • Mexico • Singapore • Spain • United Kingdom • United States Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s). Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it. This is an electronic version of the print textbook. Due to electronic rights restrictions, some third party content may be suppressed. Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. The publisher reserves the right to remove content from this title at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it. For valuable information on pricing, previous editions, changes to current editions, and alternate formats, please visit to search by ISBN#, author, title, or keyword for materials in your areas of interest. Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or......

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