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Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
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"Mozart" redirects here. For other uses, see Mozart (disambiguation).
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Mozart c. 1780, detail from portrait byJohann Nepomuk della Croce
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Mozart's signature
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (German: [ˈvɔlfɡaŋ amaˈdeus ˈmoːtsaʁt], English see fn.), baptismal name Johannes Chrysostomus Wolfgangus Theophilus Mozart (27 January 1756 – 5 December 1791), was a prolific and influential composer of the Classical era.

Mozart showed prodigious ability from his earliest childhood. Already competent on keyboardand violin, he composed from the age of five and performed before European royalty. At 17, he was engaged as a court musician in Salzburg, but grew restless and travelled in search of a better position, always composing abundantly. While visiting Vienna in 1781, he was dismissed from his Salzburg position. He chose to stay in the capital, where he achieved fame but little financial security. During his final years in Vienna, he composed many of his best-known symphonies, concertos, and operas, and portions of the Requiem, which was largely unfinished at the time of his death. The circumstances of his early death have been much mythologized. He was survived by his wife Constanze and two sons.

Mozart learned voraciously from others, and developed a brilliance and maturity of style that encompassed the light and graceful along with the dark and passionate. He composed over 600 works, many acknowledged as pinnacles of symphonic, concertante, chamber, operatic, and choral music. He is among the most enduringly popular of classical composers, and his influence on subsequent Western art music is profound; Beethoven composed his own early works in the shadow of Mozart, and Joseph Haydn wrote that "posterity will not see such a talent again in 100 years."

Early life

Family and childhood

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Anonymous portrait of the child Mozart, possibly by Pietro Antonio Lorenzoni; painted in 1763 on commission from Leopold Mozart
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart was born on 27 January 1756 to Leopold Mozart (1719–1787) and Anna Maria, née Pertl (1720–1778), at 9 Getreidegasse in Salzburg. This was the capital of the Archbishopric of Salzburg, a former ecclesiastical principality in what is now Austria, then part of the Holy Roman Empire. He was the youngest of seven children, five of whom died in infancy. His elder sister was Maria Anna (1751–1829), nicknamed "Nannerl". Mozart was baptized the day after his birth at St. Rupert's Cathedral. The baptismal record gives his name in Latinized form as Joannes Chrysostomus Wolfgangus Theophilus Mozart. He generally called himself "Wolfgang Amadè Mozart" as an adult, but Mozart's name had many variants.

Leopold Mozart, a native of Augsburg, was a minor composer and an experienced teacher. In 1743, he was appointed as fourth violinist in the musical establishment of Count Leopold Anton von Firmian, the ruling Prince-Archbishop of Salzburg. Four years later, he married Anna Maria in Salzburg. Leopold became the orchestra's deputy Kapellmeister in 1763. During the year of his son's birth, Leopold published a violin textbook, Versuch einer gründlichen Violinschule, which achieved success.

When Nannerl was seven, she began keyboard lessons with her father while her three-year-old brother looked on. Years later, after her brother's death, she reminisced:

He often spent much time at the clavier, picking out thirds, which he was ever striking, and his pleasure showed that it sounded good. [...] In the fourth year of his age his father, for a game as it were, began to teach him a few minuets and pieces at the clavier. [...] He could play it faultlessly and with the greatest delicacy, and keeping exactly in time. [...] At the age of five, he was already composing little pieces, which he played to his father who wrote them down.

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Mozart's birthplace at Getreidegasse 9, Salzburg, Austria
These early pieces, K. 1–5, were recorded in the Nannerl Notenbuch.

Biographer Maynard Solomon notes that, while Leopold was a devoted teacher to his children, there is evidence that Mozart was keen to progress beyond what he was taught. His first ink-spattered composition and his precocious efforts with the violin were of his own initiative and came as a surprise to his father. Leopold eventually gave up composing when his son's musical talents became evident.[12] In his early years, Mozart's father was his only teacher. Along with music, he taught his children languages and academic subjects.

1762–73: Travel

Main articles: Mozart family grand tour and Mozart in Italy
During Mozart's youth, his family made several European journeys in which he and Nannerl performed as child prodigies. These began with an exhibition, in 1762, at the court of the Prince-elector Maximilian III of Bavaria in Munich, and at the Imperial Court in Vienna and Prague. A long concert tour spanning three and a half years followed, taking the family to the courts of Munich, Mannheim, Paris, London, The Hague, again to Paris, and back home via Zurich, Donaueschingen, and Munich.

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The Mozart family on tour: Leopold, Wolfgang, and Nannerl. Watercolor by Carmontelle, ca. 1763
During this trip, Mozart met a number of musicians and acquainted himself with the works of other composers. A particularly important influence was Johann Christian Bach, whom Mozart visited in London in 1764 and 1765. The family again went to Vienna in late 1767 and remained there until December 1768. In 1767, during this period, Mozart composed the Latin drama Apollo et Hyacinthus first performed in Salzburg University.

These trips were often difficult and travel conditions were primitive.[14] The family had to wait for invitations and reimbursement from the nobility and they endured long, near-fatal illnesses far from home: first Leopold (London, summer 1764) then both children (The Hague, autumn 1765).

After one year in Salzburg, Leopold and Mozart set off for Italy, leaving Mozart's mother and sister at home. This travel lasted from December 1769 to March 1771. As with earlier journeys, Leopold wanted to display his son's abilities as a performer and a rapidly maturing composer. Mozart met G. B. Martini, in Bologna, and was accepted as a member of the famous Accademia Filarmonica. In Rome, he heard Gregorio Allegri's Miserere twice in performance in the Sistine Chapel and wrote it out from memory, thus producing the first unauthorized copy of this closely guarded property of theVatican.

In Milan, Mozart wrote the opera Mitridate, re di Ponto (1770), which was performed with success. This led to further opera commissions. He returned with his father later twice to Milan (August–December 1771; October 1772 – March 1773) for the composition and premieres of Ascanio in Alba(1771) and Lucio Silla (1772). Leopold hoped these visits would result in a professional appointment for his son in Italy, but these hopes were never realized.

Toward the end of the final Italian journey, Mozart wrote the first of his works to be still widely performed today, the solo motetExsultate, jubilate, K. 165.

Early employment

1773–77: Salzburg court

After finally returning with his father from Italy on 13 March 1773, Mozart was employed as a court musician by the ruler of Salzburg, Prince-Archbishop Hieronymus Colloredo. The composer had a great number of friends and admirers in Salzburg and had the opportunity to work in many genres, including symphonies, sonatas, string quartets, masses, serenades, and a few minor operas. Between April and December 1775, Mozart developed an enthusiasm for violin concertos, producing a series of five (the only ones he ever wrote), which steadily increased in their musical sophistication. The last three—K. 216, K. 218, K. 219—are now staples of the repertoire. In 1776 he turned his efforts to piano concertos, culminating in the E-flat concerto K. 271 of early 1777, considered by critics to be a breakthrough work.

Despite these artistic successes, Mozart grew increasingly discontented with Salzburg and redoubled his efforts to find a position elsewhere. One reason was his low salary, 150 florins a year; Mozart longed to compose operas, and Salzburg provided only rare occasions for these. The situation worsened in 1775 when the court theater was closed, especially since the other theater in Salzburg was largely reserved for visiting troupes.

Two long expeditions in search of work interrupted this long Salzburg stay: Mozart and his father visited Vienna from 14 July to 26 September 1773, and Munich from 6 December 1774 to March 1775. Neither visit was successful, though the Munich journey resulted in a popular success with the premiere of Mozart's opera La finta giardiniera.

1777–78: Paris journey

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Portrait of Mozart wearing the Order of the Golden Spur, received in 1770 from Pope Clement XIV in Rome, c. 1777
In August 1777, Mozart resigned his Salzburg position and, on 23 September, ventured out once more in search of employment, with visits to Augsburg, Mannheim, Paris, and Munich.

Mozart became acquainted with members of the famous orchestra in Mannheim, the best in Europe at the time. He also fell in love with Aloysia Weber, one of four daughters in a musical family. There were prospects of employment in Mannheim, but they came to nothing, and Mozart left for Paris on 14 March 1778 to continue his search. One of his letters from Paris hints at a possible post as an organist at Versailles, but Mozart was not interested in such an appointment. He fell into debt and took to pawning valuables. The nadir of the visit occurred when Mozart's mother was taken ill and died on 3 July 1778. There had been delays in calling a doctor—probably, according to Halliwell, because of a lack of funds.

While Mozart was in Paris, his father was pursuing opportunities for his son back in Salzburg. With the support of local nobility, Mozart was offered a post as court organist and concertmaster. The yearly salary was 450 florins, but he was reluctant to accept. After leaving Paris on in September 1778, he tarried in Mannheim and Munich, still hoping to obtain an appointment outside Salzburg. In Munich, he again encountered Aloysia, now a very successful singer, but she was no longer interested in him. Mozart finally reached home on 15 January 1779 and took up the new position, but his discontent with Salzburg was undiminished.

Among the better known works that Mozart wrote on the Paris journey are the A minor piano sonata K. 310/300d and the "Paris" Symphony (no. 31); these were performed in Paris on 12 and 18 June 1778.

Vienna

1781: Departure

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The Mozart family c. 1780. The portrait on the wall is of Mozart's mother.
In January 1781, Mozart's opera Idomeneo premiered with "considerable success" in Munich. The following March, Mozart was summoned to Vienna, where his employer, Archbishop Colloredo, was attending the celebrations for the accession of Joseph II to the Austrian throne. Fresh from the adulation he had earned in Munich, Mozart was offended when Colloredo treated him as a mere servant and particularly when the archbishop forbade him to perform before the Emperor at Countess Thun's for a fee equal to half of his yearly Salzburg salary. The resulting quarrel came to a head in May: Mozart attempted to resign and was refused. The following month, permission was granted but in a grossly insulting way: the composer was dismissed literally "with a kick in the arse", administered by the archbishop's steward, Count Arco. Mozart decided to settle in Vienna as a freelance performer and composer.

The quarrel with the archbishop went harder for Mozart because his father sided against him. Hoping fervently that he would obediently follow Colloredo back to Salzburg, Mozart's father exchanged intense letters with his son, urging him to be reconciled with their employer. Mozart passionately defended his intention to pursue an independent career in Vienna. The debate ended when Mozart was dismissed by the archbishop, freeing himself both of his employer and his father's demands to return. Solomon characterizes Mozart's resignation as a "revolutionary step", and it greatly altered the course of his life.

Early years

See also: Haydn and Mozart and Mozart and Freemasonry
Mozart's new career in Vienna began well. He performed often as a pianist, notably in a competition before the Emperor with Muzio Clementi on 24 December 1781, and he soon "had established himself as the finest keyboard player in Vienna". He also prospered as a composer, and in 1782 completed the opera Die Entführung aus dem Serail ("The Abduction from the Seraglio"), which premiered on 16 July 1782 and achieved a huge success. The work was soon being performed "throughout German-speaking Europe", and fully established Mozart's reputation as a composer.

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1782 portrait of Constanze Mozart by her brother-in-law Joseph Lange
Near the height of his quarrels with Colloredo, Mozart moved in with the Weber family, who had moved to Vienna from Mannheim. The father, Fridolin, had died, and the Webers were now taking in lodgers to make ends meet. Aloysia, who had earlier rejected Mozart's suit, was now married to the actor and artist Joseph Lange. Mozart's interest shifted to the third Weber daughter, Constanze. The courtship did not go entirely smoothly; surviving correspondence indicates that Mozart and Constanze briefly separated in April 1782. Mozart faced a very difficult task in getting his father's permission for the marriage. The couple were finally married on 4 August 1782 in St. Stephen's Cathedral, the day before his father's consent arrived in the mail.

The couple had six children, of whom only two survived infancy:

• Raimund Leopold (17 June – 19 August 1783) • Karl Thomas Mozart (21 September 1784 – 31 October 1858) • Johann Thomas Leopold (18 October – 15 November 1786) • Theresia Constanzia Adelheid Friedericke Maria Anna (27 December 1787 – 29 June 1788) • Anna Maria (died soon after birth, 25 December 1789) • Franz Xaver Wolfgang Mozart (26 July 1791 – 29 July 1844)
In the course of 1782 and 1783, Mozart became intimately acquainted with the work of Johann Sebastian Bach and George Frideric Handel as a result of the influence of Gottfried van Swieten, who owned many manuscripts of the Baroque masters. Mozart's study of these scores inspired compositions in Baroque style, and later influenced his personal musical language, for example in fugal passages in Die Zauberflöte ("The Magic Flute") and the finale of Symphony No. 41.

In 1783, Mozart and his wife visited his family in Salzburg. His father and sister were cordially polite to Constanze, but the visit prompted the composition of one of Mozart's great liturgical pieces, the Mass in C minor. Though not completed, it was premiered in Salzburg, with Constanze singing a solo part.

Mozart met Joseph Haydn in Vienna around 1784, and the two composers became friends. When Haydn visited Vienna, they sometimes played together in an impromptu string quartet. Mozart's six quartets dedicated to Haydn (K. 387, K. 421, K. 428, K. 458, K. 464, and K. 465) date from the period 1782 to 1785, and are judged to be a response to Haydn's Opus 33 set from 1781. Haydn in 1785 told Mozart's father: "I tell you before God, and as an honest man, your son is the greatest composer known to me by person and repute, he has taste and what is more the greatest skill in composition."

From 1782 to 1785 Mozart mounted concerts with himself as soloist, presenting three or four new piano concertos in each season. Since space in the theaters was scarce, he booked unconventional venues: a large room in the Trattnerhof (an apartment building), and the ballroom of the Mehlgrube (a restaurant). The concerts were very popular, and the concertos he premiered at them are still firm fixtures in the repertoire. Solomon writes that during this period Mozart created "a harmonious connection between an eager composer-performer and a delighted audience, which was given the opportunity of witnessing the transformation and perfection of a major musical genre".

With substantial returns from his concerts and elsewhere, Mozart and his wife adopted a rather plush lifestyle. They moved to an expensive apartment, with a yearly rent of 460 florins. Mozart bought a fine fortepiano from Anton Walter for about 900 florins, and abilliard table for about 300. The Mozarts sent their son Karl Thomas to an expensive boarding school, and kept servants. Saving was therefore impossible, and the short period of financial success did nothing to soften the hardship the Mozarts were later to experience.

On 14 December 1784, Mozart became a Freemason, admitted to the lodge Zur Wohltätigkeit ("Beneficence"). Freemasonry played an important role in the remainder of Mozart's life: he attended meetings, a number of his friends were Masons, and on various occasions he composed Masonic music, e. g. the Maurerische Trauermusik.

1786–87: Return to opera

See also: Mozart and dance
Despite the great success of Die Entführung aus dem Serail, Mozart did little operatic writing for the next four years, producing only two unfinished works and the one-act Der Schauspieldirektor. He focused instead on his career as a piano soloist and writer of concertos. Around the end of 1785, Mozart moved away from keyboard writing. and began his famous operatic collaboration with thelibrettist Lorenzo Da Ponte. 1786 saw the successful premiere of The Marriage of Figaro in Vienna. Its reception in Prague later in the year was even warmer, and this led to a second collaboration with Da Ponte: the opera Don Giovanni, which premiered in October 1787 to acclaim in Prague, and also met with success in Vienna in 1788. The two are among Mozart's most important works and are mainstays of the operatic repertoire today, though at their premieres their musical complexity caused difficulty for both listeners and performers. These developments were not witnessed by Mozart's father, who had died on 28 May 1787.

In December 1787, Mozart finally obtained a steady post under aristocratic patronage. Emperor Joseph II appointed him as his "chamber composer", a post that had fallen vacant the previous month on the death of Gluck. It was a part-time appointment, paying just 800 florins per year, and required Mozart only to compose dances for the annual balls in the Redoutensaal. This modest income became important to Mozart when hard times arrived. Court records show that Joseph's aim was to keep the esteemed composer from leaving Vienna in pursuit of better prospects.

In 1787 the young Ludwig van Beethoven spent several weeks in Vienna, hoping to study with Mozart. No reliable records survive to indicate whether the two composers ever met.

Later years and death

1788–90

See also: Mozart's Berlin journey
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Drawing of Mozart in silverpoint, made by Dora Stock during Mozart's visit to Dresden, April 1789
Toward the end of the decade, Mozart's circumstances worsened. Around 1786 he had ceased to appear frequently in public concerts, and his income shrank. This was a difficult time for musicians in Vienna because of the Austro-Turkish War, and both the general level of prosperity and the ability of the aristocracy to support music had declined.

By mid-1788, Mozart and his family had moved from central Vienna to the suburb of Alsergrund. Although it has been thought that Mozart reduced his rental expenses, research shows that by moving to the suburb, Mozart had not reduced his expenses (as claimed in his letter to Puchberg), but merely increased the housing space at his disposal. Mozart began to borrow money, most often from his friend and fellow Mason Michael Puchberg; "a pitiful sequence of letters pleading for loans" survives. Maynard Solomon and others have suggested that Mozart was suffering from depression, and it seems that his output slowed. Major works of the period include the last three symphonies (Nos. 39, 40, and 41, all from 1788), and the last of the three Da Ponte operas, Così fan tutte, premiered in 1790.

Around this time, Mozart made long journeys hoping to improve his fortunes: to Leipzig, Dresden, and Berlin in the spring of 1789, and to Frankfurt, Mannheim, and other German cities in 1790. The trips produced only isolated success and did not relieve the family's financial distress.

1791

Mozart's last year was, until his final illness struck, a time of great productivity—and by some accounts, one of personal recovery. He composed a great deal, including some of his most admired works: the opera The Magic Flute; the final piano concerto (K. 595 in B-flat); the Clarinet Concerto K. 622; the last in his great series of string quintets (K. 614 in E-flat); the motet Ave verum corpus K. 618; and the unfinished Requiem K. 626.

Mozart's financial situation, a source of extreme anxiety in 1790, finally began to improve. Although the evidence is inconclusive, it appears that wealthy patrons in Hungary and Amsterdam pledged annuities to Mozart in return for the occasional composition. He probably benefited from the sale of dance music written in his role as Imperial chamber composer. Mozart no longer borrowed large sums from Puchberg, and made a start on paying off his debts.

He experienced great satisfaction in the public success of some of his works, notably The Magic Flute (which was performed several times in the short period between its premiere and Mozart's death) and the Little Masonic Cantata K. 623, premiered on 15 November 1791.

Final illness and death

Main article: Death of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
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Posthumous painting by Barbara Krafft in 1819
Mozart fell ill while in Prague for the 6 September 1791 premiere of his opera La clemenza di Tito, written in that same year on commission for the Emperor's coronation festivities. He continued his professional functions for some time, and conducted the premiere of The Magic Flute on 30 September. His health deteriorated on 20 November, at which point he became bedridden, suffering from swelling, pain, and vomiting.

Mozart was nursed in his final illness by his wife and her youngest sister, and was attended by the family doctor, Thomas Franz Closset. He was mentally occupied with the task of finishing his Requiem, but the evidence that he actually dictated passages to his student Franz Xaver Süssmayris minimal.

Mozart died in his home on December 5, 1791 (aged 35) at 1:00 am. The New Grove describes his funeral:

Mozart was interred in a common grave, in accordance with contemporary Viennese custom, at the St. Marx Cemetery outside the city on 7 December. If, as later reports say, no mourners attended, that too is consistent with Viennese burial customs at the time; later Jahn (1856) wrote that Salieri, Süssmayr, van Swieten and two other musicians were present. The tale of a storm and snow is false; the day was calm and mild.

The expression "common grave" refers to neither a communal grave nor a pauper's grave, but to an individual grave for a member of the common people (i.e. not the aristocracy). Common graves were subject to excavation after ten years; the graves of aristocrats were not.

The cause of Mozart's death cannot be known with certainty. The official record has it as "hitziges Frieselfieber" ("severe miliary fever", referring to a rash that looks like millet seeds), a description that does not suffice to identify the cause as it would be diagnosed in modern medicine. Researchers have posited at least 118 causes of death, including trichinosis, influenza, mercury poisoning, and a rare kidney ailment. One of the most widely accepted hypotheses is that Mozart died of acute rheumatic fever.

Mozart's modest funeral did not reflect his standing with the public as a composer: memorial services and concerts in Vienna and Prague were well attended. Indeed, in the period immediately after his death, his reputation rose substantially: Solomon describes an "unprecedented wave of enthusiasm" for his work; biographies were written (first by Schlichtegroll, Niemetschek, and Nissen); and publishers vied to produce complete editions of his works.

Appearance and character

See also: Mozart and Roman Catholicism and Mozart and scatology
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Unfinished portrait of Mozart by his brother-in-law Joseph Lange
Mozart's physical appearance was described by tenor Michael Kelly, in his Reminiscences: "a remarkably small man, very thin and pale, with a profusion of fine, fair hair of which he was rather vain". As his early biographer Niemetschek wrote, "there was nothing special about [his] physique. [...] He was small and his countenance, except for his large intense eyes, gave no signs of his genius." His facial complexion was pitted, a reminder of his childhood case of smallpox. There is a photofit of Mozart, created from four contemporary portraits. He loved elegant clothing. Kelly remembered him at a rehearsal: "[He] was on the stage with his crimson pelisse and gold-laced cocked hat, giving the time of the music to the orchestra." Of his voice his wife later wrote that it "was a tenor, rather soft in speaking and delicate in singing, but when anything excited him, or it became necessary to exert it, it was both powerful and energetic".

Mozart usually worked long and hard, finishing compositions at a tremendous pace as deadlines approached. He often made sketches and drafts; unlike Beethoven's these are mostly not preserved, as his wife sought to destroy them after his death. He was raised a Roman Catholic and remained a member of the Church throughout his life.

Mozart lived at the center of the Viennese musical world, and knew a great number and variety of people: fellow musicians, theatrical performers, fellow Salzburgers, and aristocrats, including some acquaintance with the Emperor Joseph II. Solomon considers his three closest friends to have been Gottfried von Jacquin, Count August Hatzfeld, and Sigmund Barisani; others included his older colleagueJoseph Haydn, singers Franz Xaver Gerl and Benedikt Schack, and the horn player Joseph Leutgeb. Leutgeb and Mozart carried on a curious kind of friendly mockery, often with Leutgeb as the butt of Mozart's practical jokes.

He enjoyed billiards and dancing, and kept pets: a canary, a starling, a dog, and a horse for recreational riding. He had a startling fondness for scatological humor, which is preserved in his surviving letters, notably those written to his cousin Maria Anna Thekla Mozart around 1777–1778, and in his correspondence with his sister and parents. Mozart also wrote scatological music, a series ofcanons that he sang with his friends.0

Works, musical style, and innovations

See also: List of compositions by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart and Mozart's compositional method

Style

Mozart's music, like Haydn's, stands as an archetype of the Classical style. At the time he began composing, European music was dominated by the style galant, a reaction against the highly evolved intricacy of the Baroque. Progressively, and in large part at the hands of Mozart himself, the contrapuntal complexities of the late Baroque emerged once more, moderated and disciplined by newforms, and adapted to a new aesthetic and social milieu. Mozart was a versatile composer, and wrote in every major genre, includingsymphony, opera, the solo concerto, chamber music including string quartet and string quintet, and the piano sonata. These forms were not new, but Mozart advanced their technical sophistication and emotional reach. He almost single-handedly developed and popularized the Classical piano concerto. He wrote a great deal of religious music, including large-scale masses, but also dances, divertimenti,serenades, and other forms of light entertainment.

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A facsimile sheet of music from the Dies Irae movement of the "Requiem Mass in D Minor" (K. 626) in Mozart's own handwriting. It is located at the Mozarthaus in Vienna.
The central traits of the Classical style are all present in Mozart's music. Clarity, balance, and transparency are the hallmarks of his work, but simplistic notions of its delicacy mask the exceptional power of his finest masterpieces, such as the Piano Concerto No. 24 in C minor, K. 491; the Symphony No. 40 in G minor, K. 550; and the opera Don Giovanni.Charles Rosen makes the point forcefully:

"It is only through recognizing the violence and sensuality at the center of Mozart's work that we can make a start towards a comprehension of his structures and an insight into his magnificence. In a paradoxical way, Schumann's superficial characterization of the G minor Symphony can help us to see Mozart's daemon more steadily. In all of Mozart's supreme expressions of suffering and terror, there is something shockingly voluptuous."

Especially during his last decade, Mozart exploited chromatic harmony to a degree rare at the time, with remarkable assurance and to great artistic effect.

Mozart always had a gift for absorbing and adapting valuable features of others' music. His travels helped in the forging of a unique compositional language. In London as a child, he met J. C. Bach and heard his music. In Paris, Mannheim, and Vienna he met with other compositional influences, as well as the avant-garde capabilities of the Mannheim orchestra. In Italy he encountered the Italian overture and opera buffa, both of which deeply affected the evolution of his own practice. In London and Italy, the galant style was in the ascendent: simple, light music with a mania for cadencing; an emphasis on tonic, dominant, and subdominant to the exclusion of other harmonies; symmetrical phrases; and clearly articulated partitions in the overall form of movements. Some of Mozart's early symphonies are Italian overtures, with three movements running into each other; many are homotonal (all three movements having the same key signature, with the slow middle movement being in the relative minor). Others mimic the works of J. C. Bach, and others show the simple rounded binary forms turned out by Viennese composers.

As Mozart matured, he progressively incorporated more features adapted from the Baroque. For example, the Symphony No. 29 in A major K. 201 has a contrapuntal main theme in its first movement, and experimentation with irregular phrase lengths. Some of his quartets from 1773 have fugal finales, probably influenced by Haydn, who had included three such finales in his recently published Opus 20 set. The influence of the Sturm und Drang ("Storm and Stress") period in music, with its brief foreshadowing of the Romantic era, is evident in the music of both composers at that time. Mozart's Symphony No. 25 in G minor K. 183 is another excellent example.

Mozart would sometimes switch his focus between operas and instrumental music. He produced operas in each of the prevailing styles:opera buffa, such as The Marriage of Figaro, Don Giovanni, and Così fan tutte; opera seria, such as Idomeneo; and Singspiel, of which Die Zauberflöte is the most famous example by any composer. In his later operas he employed subtle changes in instrumentation, orchestral texture, and tone color, for emotional depth and to mark dramatic shifts. Here his advances in opera and instrumental composing interacted: his increasingly sophisticated use of the orchestra in the symphonies and concertos influenced his operatic orchestration, and his developing subtlety in using the orchestra to psychological effect in his operas was in turn reflected in his later non-operatic compositions.

Influence

See also: Mozart and Beethoven
Mozart's most famous pupil, whom the Mozarts took into their Vienna home for two years as a child, was probably Johann Nepomuk Hummel, a transitional figure between Classical and Romantic eras. More important is the influence Mozart had on composers of later generations. Ever since the surge in his reputation after his death, studying his scores has been a standard part of the training of classical musicians.

Ludwig van Beethoven, Mozart's junior by fifteen years, was deeply influenced by his work, with which he was acquainted as a teenager. He is thought to have performed Mozart's operas while playing in the court orchestra at Bonn, and he traveled to Vienna in 1787 hoping to study with the older composer. Some of Beethoven's works have direct models in comparable works by Mozart, and he wrote cadenzas (WoO 58) to Mozart's D minor piano concerto K. 466.

A number of composers have paid homage to Mozart by writing sets of variations on his themes. Beethoven wrote four such sets (Op. 66, WoO 28, WoO 40, WoO 46). Others include Frédéric Chopin's Variations on "Là ci darem la mano" from Don Giovanni (1827);Max Reger's Variations and Fugue on a Theme by Mozart (1914), based on the variation theme in the piano sonata K. 331, Fernando Sor's Introduction and Variations on a Theme by Mozart (1821); and Mikhail Glinka's Variations on a Theme from Mozart's Opera Die Zauberflöte (1822). Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky wrote his Orchestral Suite No. 4 in G, "Mozartiana" (1887), as a tribute to Mozart.

Köchel catalogue

For unambiguous identification of works by Mozart, a Köchel catalogue number is used. This is a unique number assigned, in regular chronological order, to every one of his known works. A work is referenced by the abbreviation "K." followed by this number. The first edition of the catalogue was completed in 1862 by Ludwig von Köchel. It has since been repeatedly updated, as scholarly research improves knowledge of the dates and authenticity of individual works.

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...Social networking sites are a part of everyday life and they have brought revolutionary changes in communication between people. These sites provide different resources such as email and instant messages in one place. Availability of these resources makes the communication easy and faster. When we look at the social impact of social networking sites, we find that these sites have both positive and negative effects. Because of this fact, it is necessary to analyze both advantage and drawbacks of social networking sites. Undoubtedly, social networking sites are advantageous to young generation. With the help of these sites, people can communicate and express themselves by exchanging messages and comments. Social networking sites help in establishing connection with people, friends and relatives. These sites can be accessed from any part of the globe. Therefore, a person can interact with any person from any place. For example a student can clear his doubts with the help of a teacher. People having different professions can make groups like doctors, lawyers, students, poets, writers, social workers etc. The most common disadvantage of social networking sites is addiction. Often users of these sites get addicted to it. They spend hours using these sites and it harms their performance in other fields. It causes mental health problems and sometimes it harms their body too. Sometimes users provide their personal information to others which is insecure. We can see......

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...Social Networking in our daily life Social network is a structured set of organisations between a set of dyadicties. The network provides a bundle of methods to manage the pattern of social enities. Some of the methods used in social entities are related to communication. Facebook, Viber, Skype and WhatsApp are the top communities used around the world. Social network works with the help of social networking service. Social networking service is a platform to build social relation among people who share their interests and activities. There are many types of social services as Facebook, Viber, WhatsApp, Tango, WeChat, Skype and Instagram. They allow you to share your photos, feelings and other activities with your friends, by clicking a few keys on your mobile phone or PC. There are many advantages and disadvantages of social netorking. If we take a look at these communities we see many benefits crawling towards us. The most appealing benefit is that they make the way to communicate with our family and friends much more easier. We can share photos, videos and talk to them. If we even take a closer look, we see many harmful effects coming towards us. The most harm done is that our eye sight gets weak. We waste a lot of time in talking which we have to consume in our schedule to study. The final decision which comes after this whole discussion is that social networking is useful in some ways. It should be used when needed and not to spend extra time on these...

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...Social networking • How does social networking increase a person’s power? • What social networking strategies could one initiate to potentially enhance career success? Agenda PART 1 How does Social Networking enhance your power?  Social Networking defined  What is Power?  Power and Influence  How does Social Networking Boost your Power? PART 2 How do Social Networking Strategies enhance your career success?  What is career success?  Research Analysis  Influencing Others  Case Study PART 3  Questions  Wrap Up What is social networking? Social Networking and Power?  Access to the right people with information, the faster one can access information the more powerful they become in an organisation  Increase your visibility both in and outside the organisation  Visibility leads to influence Types of Power What is Career Success?  Motivators to social network  Expectancy Theory  Defining Career success  Tailoring social networking strategies to career objectives How does social networking enhance your career success? How does social networking enhance your career success? Internal Networking  Internal networking results in promotion and salary growth  Higher visibility  Higher influence – leading to Power. External Networking  This provides job mobility outside the organisation  Acquiring Employment – Does Networking Provide an Edge?  A study conducted in 1974 reviewed how 282 men from......

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...ESL 263 No. 4 WA 3 Final Draft Better Life through Social Networking Social networking is beneficial for people because they will have more opportunities to develop their interests. It is very difficult to improve your interest within a small circle in your own community, unless you get more ideas from people outside of your community. To make it happen, people invented social media networks. People can go on websites and find like-minded people who have the same interests as their peers. People can share opinions and experiences with each other in the field of same interest; furthermore, social networking gives people an opportunity to engage with people from different countries, and they can inspire each other. In the article “Social Networking Benefits Validated,” Jennifer Park states that people’s interests can be successfully expanded by social media. For instance, people use “Pinterest” to pin their ideas about various topics on a pin board. Last time, I used this website to search about paper flowers. A lot of related images and videos came on the screen, of which I followed the steps and made a bunch of beautiful paper flowers. Additionally, I kept in touch with the people who I met on this website who also love to make paper crafts. I kept making paper crafts with them for many times, and they have taught me how to make paper animals and paper cards. We also mix some of the cultural elements into our creations when we make the crafts, like new colors and geometric......

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...Social networking The world today has shrunk and it is rightly referred to as a global village, with information, data and news flying across to different corners at the blink of an eye. All it requires is the click of a button and all the information you need is in front of you on your screen. The availability of information has also extended to our personal lives with the entrance of social networking platforms. Today, the availability of the social networking platforms like Facebook, Google+, Orkut, Twitter, LinkedIn, etc. information about individuals is freely available to all. One can easily be in touch with thousands of individuals across different phases of their life. One is regularly updated with personal information, photographs, thoughts, opinions, and lots of other aspects of an individual’s life. The nature of social relationships is also undergoing a change. Earlier friends would have picked up the phone to reach out to a friend, today they might choose to ‘poke’ the friend on facebook or write on the friend’s wall. Though the number of people the individual is in touch with in the virtual world increases drastically, it is seen that the individual’s personal interaction with individuals reduces. The virtual contact creates a false sense of being in touch with others, though the personal one on one interaction with individuals which are vital to any form of relationship is reduced. About twenty years ago, the British anthropologist, Robin Dunbar, observed...

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...Facebook”: The text is written by Elizabeth Cohen. The text is about how people use more time on Facebook than on social activities. Newton has a daughter on 12 years old. Newton cannot help her daughter with the homework, because she spends too much time on Facebook. Another example is Paula Pile, who is a therapist. Paula has three clients with different Facebook issues. That conclude that Facebook leads people from the real world into the network world, because people enjoy more time on Facebook than in real life. Newton checks her Facebook-site many times in a day, for social updates about her friends, she checks Facebook everywhere at work and home. Facebook can give people a wrong understanding of what identity means. Joanna Lipari is psychologist and expert in social network, sees Facebook a kind like the movie “The Truman Show”. Joanna thinks Facebook is like a world without boundaries. 2. An outline of the positive and negative sides of social networking presented in the three texts: In the first text “What is social networking?”, we hear about how social networks has an effect to make it easier to get new online friends over social networks, examples as Facebook, Skype and Twitter. Now a day, we can have difference friends among the world from Denmark to USA and easy learn each other’s traditions, religion, culture and language. Negatives sites of social networks are, that it is easy for hackers and bad people to get into your computer system and give you virus......

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...Social Networks THE NEXT GENERATION David A. Smith Chief Executive Global Futures and Foresight November 2010 Social Networks The next generation Contents Foreword Introduction 2 Chris van der Kuyl 3 David Smith Executive summary 1. 2.1. 2.2. 3.4. 3.5. History of social networks in the digital age in the UK. The present state of social networks. Innovative uses of social networks in today’s society o B2C - Business to Consumer o B2B - Business to Business o P2P - Person to Person (Peer to Peer) o G2C - Government to Citizen Key trends shaping the future of social networks 1. Broadband penetration 2. Rise of mobile technologies 3. Ambient technology - the 'internet of things' 4. 24/7 lifestyle 5. Data expansion 6. The future of the net: web v apps 7. Geo-spatial and augmented reality technologies 8. New era of mass communication 9. New business era 10. Trust 11. Education 12. Older social networkers 13. Gaming and virtual reality 14. Government intervention Tomorrow’s consumer o B2C - Business to Consumer o E-Government and the 'Big Society' o Educational networking o Social studies o Gaming and virtual worlds The evolution of social networks o Technological progress o Business models and revenue streams o From the web to the street o Privacy/security/ permissive marketing o Digital Asset Management o Longevity of digital assets o Impact on advertising Changing...

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...Social Networking Social networking is a great way to catch up with friends, interact for school or business, and even just to take a break from the real world, but society fears that networking is drawing too much attention and focus consuming people’s everyday lives. The survey attached is designed to measure and generalize information on the amount of time people spend on social networks. The survey addresses the problem by measuring how much time is actually spent on social networking sites, generalizing reason, and measuring satisfaction levels. Time estimates vary in a huge range depending on what your purpose is when using a social network. With the social networking revolution of our age the world has come to change how it communicates. This survey is designed for self-realization on your time management and need for social networking. It is too often that social networks seem to possess addictive abilities in advertisement, marketing, and communication needs. While social networking may be beneficial under certain circumstances society seems pressed and in a daze feeling the need to log-in or check updates. According to a recent study by Nielsen, Facebook showed to be the largest site with around half a billion users. The study proceeds to show that people spend about 85% of their online time on the social network Facebook. The survey questions seem to be appropriate for researching the listed problem because they address the issue of time consumption and social...

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...accurately and efficiently. Computers are a very big help to solve problems nowadays. Charlene Guevarra (2010) cited certain works in her study, here are some: Barnes (1954) stated that Social Network Theory views social relationships in terms of nodes and ties. Social Network is a social structure made up of individuals (or organizations) called “nodes”, which are tied (connected) by one or more specific types of interdependency, such as friendship, kinship, common interest, financial exchange, likes/dislikes, or relationships of beliefs, knowledge or prestige. Moreover Abhyankar (2011) indicated that from the very beginning; human beings always associated themselves to some form of social structure as they evolved across generations. All human beings crave social life, but not all can have time and resources to enjoy social circle where they can communicate, collaborate and freely express themselves with like-minded peers for satisfying their different needs like security, assets, skills, relationships, science and technology, events, politics, history, literature, art, etc. There is no end to the list of fundamental principles that can drive people to create platforms for communication and interaction, mutually beneficial for the whole community. According to Abhyankar (2011), “Social Network” is an online community where people across the globe (irrespective of demographic and geographical differences) can develop network with different organizations or individuals......

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...How Social Networks Effect Our Daily Life Today, many people are highly active on social networking sites. According to the study, more than 150 million people use Facebook to keep in touch with friends, share photographs and vedios and post regular updates of their movement and thoughts. A further six millon people have signed up to Twitter, the micro-blogging service that lets users circulate text messages about themselves. Some people think that social networks are dangerous and they aren’t real. In my opinion, social networks are good because they make our life more convenient in three ways, such as many people use social networks to keep in touch with friends, promote their product as a seller or affiliater and play games. First, social networks let us keep in touch with friends. People can present their personal information and thoughts for anyone to see. Besides, we can find our old friend that we separate for a long time. Even though we don’t meet frequently, we can know our friend’s life and their status by social networks. Although the social networks change the ways to make friends, it is more convenient to keep in touch with our friends in busy life. We can share our information wherever we are. Therefore, the social network is a good way to contact with friends in modern times. Second, social networking sites are good for business. Some employers encourage their employees to use social networks to build relationships and closer link with colleagues and......

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...once seen as a medium that diminished social capital (Kraut et al, 1998). Now it is seen as a way that maintains social contact (Wellman et al, 2001). In the article Opening Closed Regimes, the writers wondered whether Mohammed Bouazizi believed he would play such a role in releasing a wave of protest for democracy in the Arab world. His story of stepping in front of a civic building in Tunisia and setting himself on fire in protest of the government was one of many that were retold on social networking sites in ways that stirred protesters to organise protests and criticise their governments. (Howard et al, 2011). Residents of the Arab nations used social media to help inform Western news teams about events on the ground. Social networking helped put a human face on political power and became a causation of the Arab Spring. Of the online tools, social networking sites have experienced the most prolific growth (Diffley et al, 2011). People spend hours connecting to others on social networks (McGrath, 2010). This evolution of social networking could not escape the corporations’ attentions, which are in constant search for new instruments meant to help them increase their market shares (Chis and Talpos, 2011). Studies by Forrester research show that spending on social networking will increase from $455 million in 2008 to $3.1billion in 2014, a 335% increase (Horovitz, 2009). Based on the above, my paper will focus on how social networking has become an indispensable tool for......

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...CHAPTER I THE PROBLEM AND ITS SETTINGS Introduction Over the years, social networking among college students has become more and more popular. It is a way to make connections, not only on the campus, but with friends outside of the campus. Social networking is a way that helps many people feel as though they belong to a community. But as we enjoy to use it, and become a part of our daily life, we don’t notice that it affects us in such a way. Students tend to visit their accounts in those social networking sites such as Facebook, Twitter, MySpace etc. and enjoy browsing while they should’ve doing their homeworks and reviewing their lessons and there is a great possibility that their grades will start to drop down. Due to this inconvinience, a study is conducted to prove if social networking really affects the studies of students who are into it. The researchers desire to have a clearer understanding of the matter being discussed and to discover something that other past researchers of this same topic never ascertain. Statement of the problem This study is designed to determine the effects of social networking sites to the academic performance/s of first year Architecture students of TIP-QC School Year 2011-2012 2nd semester. Specially, it sought to answer the following questions: 1.What is the profile of the college freshman students in terms of: 1. name; 2. gender; ...

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...ABSTRACT Social networking is a way of using your computer to talk to other people, (mobile phones, ipads, zune players, Macbook’s, laptops, etc, as long as you are connected to the internet, and have been signed up on the social networking site of your choice), exchange pictures, whatever you want to do. Social network creates an avenue to melt new people, re-establish connection with old friends etc. It provides a platform, whereby race, culture, religion, social class, etc, are not barriers or serve as a block to prevent people from becoming “friends” with one another. BRIEF OVERVIEW OF SOCIAL NETWORK. Social network is a social structure made of nodes (a processing location, e.g computer or some other devices) that are generally individuals or organizations. A social network represents relationships and flows between people, groups, organizations, animals, computers or other information/knowledge processing entities. The term “SOCIAL NETWORK”, coined in 1954 by J.A Barnes (webopedia.com). Social network also refers to a dedicated website or other application, which enables users to communicate with each other, by posting information, comments, messages, images, etc. It also refers to a network of social interacting and personal relationships. (google.com). One of the best new developments on the web, has been that of social network. A social network is a......

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...Social Networking on the Internet Soc/105 University of Phoenix February 9, 2010 Social Networking on the Internet Social networking on the Internet started with mostly a bunch of hobbyist in the 70s using the Bulletin Board System (BBS) for sharing files, games, and photos that were usually pirated. The BBS lasted throughout the 80s to the mid-90s. In 1995 Yahoo and Amazon set up shop and Classmates.com became the first popular social networking site, with 40 million registered users today. The Internet has sites in the likes of Facebook, Myspace, YouTube, and others that people can use for social, personal, political, and even religious reasons to connect around the world for Social networking purposes. Social networking has changed the way people live their lives. People just sit in front of their computers chatting, updating, or even watching videos like mindless zombies. In some ways its good and other ways its bad. “More than anything else, social sites provide better ways to keep in touch with our classmates, friends, and family” and on the other hand, “Identity theft and fraud are two bothersome concerns that have come out of social networking sites” (JJC13, n.d.). More people are using the Internet for social networking on more of a personal note. People who use social networking for personal reasons are most likely to use the Internet for entertainment, communication, and to share like-minded ideas. Sports fans use sites like Footballsfutre.com to......

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