Premium Essay

Social Psychology Difinition

In: Philosophy and Psychology

Submitted By ldewolf78
Words 787
Pages 4
Social Psychology Definition
Lynett DeWolf
PSY/400 Social Psychology
Leslie Binnix
April 17, 2013

There are many different fields of psychology. This paper will review the definition of social psychology and that the main focus is an individual within a group or other social setting. This paper will also review the differences between social psychology, clinical psychology, general psychology and sociology psychology as well as the importance of research within the social psychology field.
Social Psychology
Social psychology is the study of human behavior in a social setting. Thought, feeling and behaviors are studied and how a person in either influenced or how they influence social settings. Social psychology studies how the thoughts, feelings and behaviors are influenced by the actual presence of others, imagined presence of others and or the implied presence of others (Allport, 1935). There are three parts to social psychology, one part being how people think about themselves, other people, personal beliefs, judgments and attitudes. The second part is the culture where a person lives, political and professional groups a person belongs to, religious group, family and friends is what creates the social influence for a person (Myers, 2010). The third part is how people relate to each other when it comes to intimacy, attraction, aggression and social prejudice (Myers, 2010). How social psychology differs from other disciplines
The difference between social psychology and general psychology is that social psychology studies how a person behaves in different social settings. General psychology involves a little of all theories such as social psychology, cognitive, clinical and evolutionary.

Clinical psychology focuses on treating just that individual and the way their own mind works. Clinical psychologists help people to learn and understand how...

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Ruka Hua Faisla

...Group Dynamics in Ek Ruka Hua Faisla A switch from 11-1 to 0-12 is very rare in real life juries, but Ek Ruka Hua Faisla very convincingly depicts the switch. It achieves this by staying true to the realities of group dynamics.  Once the objective of the group is established, they start with a vote based on individual decisions. Tough, the vote is 11-1 in favor of Guilty, not everyone votes immediately. Some of the members look around before raising their hands – and, as it turns out, these are the first to switch their votes. Those on the fence probably vote believing that the truth is with the majority, the old man is the last to raise his hand – probably to avoid being an odd one out – and is first to switch his opinion, that for a very weak reason i.e. to support the Devil's Advocate and no real persuasion is needed. It is interesting to note that the first change in stated position happens during a secret vote. Anonymous ballet is one of the best ways to break conformity, as the pressure to agree with the majority group is reduced. As is seen, the group starts attacking the person they wrongly consider 'deserter' – a display of invulnerability. This is also shown when the adman says that “lets convince him that he is wrong and we are right”. The first “talk” by the architect tries to break the illusion of morality that comes with dominating majority, and a belief that the truth is on their side. The majority group talks with a belief that there is no doubt......

Words: 762 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Cognitive Dissonance

...Cognitive Dissonance Cognitive Dissonance Consistency, the absence of contradictions, has sometimes been called the hallmark of ethics. Ethics is supposed to provide an individual with a guide for moral living, and to do so it must be rational, and to be rational it must be free of contradictions. When consistency and ethics are compromised, this is known as cognitive dissonance. Leon Festinger shared his brilliance with the world when he created the Cognitive Dissonance theory. Cognitive dissonance refers to a situation involving conflicting attitudes, beliefs, or behaviors (McLeod, 2008). Cognitive dissonance produces an uncomfortable tension of discomfort leading to an alteration in one of the attitudes, beliefs, or behaviors to reduce the discomfort and restore balance. Situation In the United States, over two-thirds of the workers who call in sick are not physically ill (Perman, 2011). So why do employees jeopardize his or her job? A survey performed in 2007 found that absences were divided between personal issues, family issues, mental entitlement, and stress (Wolter Kluwer Law & Business, 2007). Employees are asked to give 110% to his or her employment and yet most supervisors and coworkers cannot empathize with personal and family issues. An employee may need an hour or two for a doctor appointment or to take a parent to an appointment. Perhaps there is a school function that a single parent would like......

Words: 1491 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Teams and Individuals

...Managing the Work of Teams and Individuals Thomas Wingham 8th December 2011 Contents * Introduction * Groupthink * Causes * Remedies * General Group Problem Solving (GGPS) Model * Risky Shift Phenomenon * Causes * Remedies * Conclusion * Recommendations * Reference List * Appendices Introduction In this report there will be an evaluation of Groupthink. Janis eight causes of Groupthink and what the remedies are. Aldag and Fuller’s model of groupthink and how it is different from Janis’s model. There will also be an evaluation of Risky Shift Phenomenon, this will include the causes and the remedies of Risky Shift Phenomenon. Groupthink Irving Janis says Groupthink occurs when “a group makes faulty decisions because group pressures lead to a deterioration of “mental efficiency, reality testing, and moral judgment”” (Janis, pg 9.) Groupthink - Causes According to Janis there are eight causes of Groupthink. Illusion of invulnerability; creates too much confidence that encourages extreme risks. Collective rationalization; members warned about something but do not take any notice. Belief in inherent morality; members believe in their goal and ignore all moral consequences. Stereotyped views of out-groups; negative views of enemy make effective responses to conflict seem unnecessary. Direct pressure on dissenters; members cannot argue with group views without being under pressure. Self-censorship;......

Words: 1761 - Pages: 8

Premium Essay

Altruism and Prosocial Behavior

...because I know money will be offered and the money was my motive for mowing the lawn. An egoistic person motives involve an ultimate goal of self benefit. Anything one does as an egoistic person is geared toward self benefit, even though the act may be thought of as a caring act. The bystander effect is an overall tendency to watch while someone needs help. There are five steps to helping (Feenstra, 2011). First step is to know an emergency is happening. Secondly, one must notice and interpret that an emergency as occurred. Step 2 is interpreting an event as an emergency. Step 3 is to take responsibility for helping. Step 4 is deciding how you can help. Step 5 is deciding to help. References Feenstra, J. (2011). Introduction to Social Psychology....

Words: 327 - Pages: 2

Free Essay


...ATTITUDE Introduction Attitude refers to a learned tendency to evaluate things in a special ways which may include evaluation of people, issues, object, or event. The evaluation can be positive or negative and can be uncertain at times. Researcher who took a more behavioural stance define attitude as predisposition to respond consistently in a positive or negative way to some person, object, or situation. Psychologist are in a better position to meet the goals of psychology (describe, explain, predict and influence) when they know the attitude of people. COMPONENT OF ATTITUDE Attitude have been seen as having three dimensions which include A. Cognitive: this represents belief, thought and expectation held about the object of ones attitude. B. Affective or emotional: this reflects feelings or emotional reactions. And can also said to be part of an attitude encompassing how one feels about the object of one attitude. C. Behavioural: this is the predisposition towards actions based on a particular attitude or to act in a way that is relevant to ones attitude. Let see how these three components works together. For example an attitude towards eating caterpillars is said to be unhealthy or likely to do you harm or at any rate the sort of things of things which will make you appear abnormal to others. The effective component will be feelings of disgust or nausea at the thought of eating the things and the behavioural component would be how likely you would be actually...

Words: 1244 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Group Interaction Articles

...GROUP INTERACTION JOURNAL ARTICLES Compiled by Lawrence R. Frey University of Colorado at Boulder Aamodt, M. G., & Kimbrough, W. W. (1982). Effects of group heterogeneity on quality of task solutions. Psychological Review, 50, 171-174. Abbey, D. S. (1982). Conflict in unstructured groups: An explanation from control-theory. Psychological Reports, 51, 177-178. Abele, A. E. (2003). The dynamics of masculine-agentic and feminine-communal traits: Findings from a prospective study. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 85, 768-776. Abele, A., Gendolla, G. H. E., & Petzold, P. (1998). Positive mood and in-group—out-group differentiation in a minimal group setting. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 24, 1343-1357. Aberson, C. L., Healy, M., & Romero, V. (2000). Ingroup bias and self-esteem: A meta-analysis. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 4, 157-173. Abougendia, M., Joyce, A. S., Piper, W. E., & Ogrodniczuk, J. S. (2004). Alliance as a mediator of expectancy effects in short-term group psychotherapy. Group Dynamics: Theory, Research, and Practice, 8, 3-12. Abraham, A. (1973a). Group tensions as measured by configurations of different self and transself aspects. Group Process, 5, 71-89. Abraham, A. (1973b). A model for exploring intra and interindividual processes in groups. International Journal of Group Psychotherapy, 23, 3-22. Abraham, A. (1974-1975). Processes in groups. Bulletin de Psychogie, 28, 746-758. Abraham, A., Geffroy, Y., &......

Words: 146784 - Pages: 588

Premium Essay


...1) Discuss the social identity issues present in the case Social Identity theory basically is a theory that explains self-concept (what a person thinks about themself and how they analyze themselves) to be a combination of personal identity – their unique characteristics and social identity – their membership in different social groups. There are numerous Social Identity issues in the case. Firstly, Catherine’s father is an accountant which is one of the factors that she chooses to be an accountant as well. Another identity is that she is studying and graduating from Flagship University while getting good grades and being involved in “highly regarded” student clubs. Individuals tend to identify with groups that have high status since it enables them to have higher self-enhancement (the view of being successful, competent and valued). LJI is another big social identity for Catherine. The prestigious reputation coupled with elegant offices allows her to leverage the Company as an identity for herself. Catherine’s social identity is also shaped by the professional appearance of other employees in the office. Her involvement in baseball, soccer and picnics with the Company further solidifies this identity. She also joins AICPA and other professional organizations in order to be associated with individuals similar to her. Her social identity is further enhanced when people in these professional organizations are impressed by the fact that she works for LJI. This......

Words: 1027 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Appendix B

...University of Phoenix Material Appendix B Part I Define the following terms: |Term |Definition | |Stereotypes |unreliable, exaggerated generalizations | | |about all members of a group that do | | |not take individual differences into | | |account | |Prejudice |a negative attitude toward an entire | | |category of people, such as a racial or | | |ethnic minority | |Labeling theory |through negative stereotypes has strong implications for | | |the self-fulfilling prophecy. | Part II Select three of the identity categories below and name or......

Words: 542 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay


...that appears on the screen or printed page of such transmission. JSTOR is an independent not-for-profit organization dedicated to and preserving a digital archive of scholarly journals. For more information regarding JSTOR, please contact Mon Jun 4 10:59:06 2007 Academy of Management Revlew 1993 Vol 18 No 2 293 321 TOWARD A THEORY OF ORGANIZATIONAL CREATIVITY RICHARD W. WOODMAN T e x a s A&M University JOHN E. SAWYER University of Delaware RICKY W. GRIFFIN T e x a s A&M University In this article w e develop a theoretical framework for understanding creativity in complex social settings. We define organizational creativity a s the creation of a valuable. useful new product. service. idea. procedure. or process by individuals working together in a complex social system. The...

Words: 13430 - Pages: 54

Premium Essay

Bystander Effect

...Psy 110 - Asynchronous The Bystander Effect If you saw someone being attacked on the street, would you help? Many of us would quickly say yes we would help because to state the opposite would say that we are evil human beings. Much research has been done on why people choose to help and why others choose not to. The bystander effect states that the more bystanders present, the less likely it is for someone to help. Sometimes a bystander will assume that because no one else seems concerned, they shouldn't be (Senghas, 2007). Much of the research that has been done supports this definition of the bystander effect. There have also been recent situations where this effect has proven to be true. Early research of the bystander effect was done by researchers by the name of Latane’ and Darley. They studied a group of college students. The college students watched strangers on video tapes observing how they respond to someone who is choking. To my surprise they found that when the strangers thought they were the only one around 85% of them helped. When the strangers thought that there was one other person 65% of them helped. Only 31% of the strangers helped when they thought that four other people were around (Senghas, 2007). As astonishing as this research is we witness this type of disregard for other citizens everyday. A famous true story that showcases how people will ignore someone in need is the story of Kitty......

Words: 1300 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Social Thinking and Influence

...discusses social thinking and social influence. A summary of the main points in the chapter how group membership affects an individual, how being social influences how we think about ourselves and others, what attitudes are and how they are acquired, persuasion and cognitive dissonance, social influence and power, mere presence, conformity, compliance, obedience, brainwashing and self assertion. Social thinking and social influence is something that we are all affected by whether we realize it or not and many of the concepts that shed light on this subject are quite interesting. We are all born into an organized society and thus we all belong to some sort of social group. Within that group we all have certain social roles we play. Some of these roles we take on voluntarily and some involuntarily. Role conflicts sometimes take place when our roles conflict with one another, such as a police officer having to arrest an acquaintance. Structure and cohesion are two important dimensions to any group. Every group whether formal or informal has a sort of structure, the group cohesiveness determines the attraction to stay in the group. People mainly identify with their in groups, and cohesiveness is especially strong in these in groups. There are many factors that determine our in groups, such as age, race, religion, income etc… Then there are our out groups, which are groups we do not identify with. The position a person has within these social......

Words: 1786 - Pages: 8

Premium Essay

Talking to the Enemy

...Psych 253 Book Review: Talking to the Enemy Richard Marion In his book Talking to the Enemy (2010), Scott Atran uses his experiences in the countries often perceived as the origin of most global terrorist actions against the United States combined with scientific proof from a wide variety of sources to argue for new methods of understanding and stopping terrorism as it exists today. Though many examples and analyses of terrorist acts are examined in the book along with many different explanations for the social and psychological mechanisms that may cause them, one of the central ideas is the power of social bonds to drive people to commit actions that they never would have considered alone. This paper will analyze Atran's argument as it is supported by social psychology, and in particular specific research that was used in the writing of the book itself. Atran states that “to kill and die with friends... almost invariably involves deep love of one's group” (p. 317) and goes on to say that having no empathy towards other groups allows this to happen. His own work in Radical Madrasas in Southeast Asia (Atran, Ginges, Magouirk, 2008) supports his claim by showing that when students viewed someone as being outside of their group and incapable of becoming a member of their group, they were much more likely to support violence against that person. This was shown by interviewing the students in regards to whether they believed that people were “born evil but learn to become......

Words: 1924 - Pages: 8

Premium Essay


...Work-place bullying Bill Langley Strayer University Work-place bullying is primarily conceptualized in the literature from an individual or interpersonal perspective with a focus on the victim. The impact of the broader organizational context on bullying has also been considered to a lesser extent. Only a small amount of research exists, however, regarding the group-level processes that impact on the incidence and maintenance of bullying behavior. We adopt a group level perspective to theoretically discuss and explain the processes involved in the occurrence and maintenance of work-place bullying behaviors. Using Social Identity Theory (Tajfel & Turner, 1986) and Social Rules Theory (Argyle, Henderson, & Furnham, 1985), two conceptual frameworks are presented that consider work-place bullying at the intra-group and inter-group levels. Several propositions are put forward regarding the likelihood of bullying in work groups. Suggested directions for empirical research are addressed and practical implications are also discussed. Compared with a more individual focus, effective formal work groups have the potential to offer a range of benefits to organizations, including positive impacts on attitudinal, Behavioral, operational, and financial outputs (Delarue, Van Hootegem, Proctor, & Burridge, 2008). Informal groups (i.e., alliances not represented in the formal structure) is also an important part of the organizational landscape (Hutchinson,...

Words: 1004 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Social Norms

...Violating Social Norms I. Social Norm Violated Society today is shaped by norms and customs that we as humans abide by. Many norms are followed without opinion or realization that it is being done. Norms are unwritten but traditionally followed. One norm that is an understood rule is how one should behave in an elevator. For instance, it is proper to face front, stand with a respectable distance away from the person next to you, to look forward, and not stare. Being polite is acceptable with a greeting or so but normally that is all. I violated this norm by standing very closely to people as they entered the elevator and uncomfortably staring at them, I also faced the back of the elevator and sang loudly. That one was easiest for me because I didn’t really have to look at the person the entire time but the consequence was I did not get to fully visualize their reaction. II. Reaction of Others When a social norm is broken people may respond with alarm, humor, fear, irritation, or an array of other emotions. When you think of a norm, you are probably thinking about being normal. But in psychology terms, norm means, a standard or representative value for a group. The norm that is more universal to people is social norm. Meaning expectations about what behavior, thoughts or feelings are appropriate within a given group within a given context. While I violated the social norm of elevator etiquette, I had a few different reactions. I first faced the back of the......

Words: 1335 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Week 2 Appendix B

...University of Phoenix Material Appendix B Part I Define the following terms: |Term |Definition | |Stereotypes |unreliable, exaggerated generalizations about all members of a group that do not take individual | | |differences into account | |Prejudice |a negative attitude toward an entire category of people, such as a racial or ethnic minority | |Labeling theory |a sociological approach introduced by Howard Becker that attempts to explain why certain people are | | |viewed as deviants and others engaging in the same behavior are not | Part II Select three of the identity categories below and name or describe at least 3 related stereotypes for each: • Race • Ethnicity • Religion • Gender • Sexual orientation • Age • Disability |Category |Stereotype 1 |Stereotype 2 |Stereotype 3 | |Ethnicity |Whites are uncaring |Blacks are superstitions |Hispanics are all illegal aliens| |Religion |Jews are Christ killers |Christians are......

Words: 337 - Pages: 2