Free Essay

Sociology and Advertising

In: Other Topics

Submitted By jackhall123
Words 1986
Pages 8
Lecture 2

History of Advertising
 Advertising – to gather together, to persuade people about something
 Advertising has existed before the industrial revolution
According to Singer advertising is…
 A key element in economic history as well as our social, technological, artistic and cultural histories… and perhaps one of the keys to the understanding of the evolution of our complex urban society For exams you don’t need to know date but you need centuries/periods etc.
Preliterate period (3000-400 BC)
 Pre writing and reading period – advertising will be very different than is does now
 Literacy levels were low, people couldn’t read and write – so communicated with symbols
 1200 BC: painted on carved messages on rocks and stones leading down paths to harbor (ship was coming in, stuff available to obtain)  Fijians o Came up with the alphabet as a consistent form o Centered around biblical ideologies o When societies became literate – usually taught religious stuff  only select people were taught literacy (high up people, nobility) (school comes from the word leisure, only rich people had leisure time – thought it was a foolish endeavor to teach poor because they were not smart enough) th  6 century BC: town criers  most common form of advertising throughout history is oral advertising or the town crier (bellmen) o What they do is go around and be very loud voices, men always, ringing bell, delivering some kind of message, dressed in a certain way so attention was drawn to them – established their position in society, sometimes carry sign board with a message people could understand
 Advantages of town crier
 He can go where the people were – get the message across to a lot of people
 Persuasive voice with dynamic personality
 Disadvantages of town crier
 Expensive – you have to hire this guy
 He might be grouchy
 He might be a transient character (not reliable) – if it’s rainy, he wont be able to advertise o This is the fist state sanctioned form of advertising – as a legitimate form of advertising
Classical period 400BC-100 AD
 Oral media continues to dominate – some people becoming literate
 Different forms of street advertising (we still have this: signs, billboards) o We don’t have products to sell o Most of the advertising is for important events or services
 If I were a boot maker – tell people you made boots (have an iconic indicator on the sign – have a picture of a boot on sign) – not advertising the product! But the service \ o Advertising on public walls o Religious festivals, public baths
 Personal ‘classified’ advertising

o You could have some sort of advertisement stating that your wife had run away – husband owned wife so she was not allowed to do that, if your slave ran away, if you had a room to let, if you had wine for sale
Middle ages (100 AD-1400 AD)
 Still have the town crier
 Most significant part: British government created trademarks
 British had trademarks to protect buyers (general public) o Identified faulty products and stuff – rules and legislation how products are produced – they are safe and are what they say they are
Late middle ages (1400-1600)
 Advertising became a part of the North American experience before settlers arrived
 Brochures, pamphlets and fliers o Don’t have printing yet, cant produce a whole lot o Prepare brochures to attract settlers to come oversees (to America) – had to convince
Europeans to come  sort of advertising campaign (England 17th century – 1600’s) o Quickly the brochures became known, full of lies, over truths, overstatements
 Alongside some facts brochures contained info that was not true about North America
 Mass false advertising experience came part of the North American experience before they even got to North American
 Ex) but I tell you they looked like mountain in the travel brochure! (Really pyramids)
 The town crier was still popular
 Streets advertising still popular
 More commercial announcements now
 The most significant: key to civilization  printing press invented (1450 Gutenberg – goldsmith by profession but developed printing system – was invented 400 years earlier by Chinese man but did not pick up) o We could not have civilization without printing – why? Because prior to this we only had oral tradition – info gets distorted or lost – now that we have printing, we can put something down and add to it (increase knowledge) o For the first time we could distribute information widely o At first it was not efficient and tedious o Rapid movable type in large quantities – this if profitable for advertising
 Production if posters and increase in literacy o First poster in 1480 was used as a rule book for priest, following that many more posters were produced o Many of the first advertisements were for books (after gatherings and services)
Early mass media period (1600-1900)
 1850 – industrial revolution in England
 Carry around posters more often – can go to where the people are
 Periodicals – the new advertising medium o A publication that is produced at regular intervals (daily newspaper, monthly magazine, yearly high school yearbook) – made possible through advances in printing o Periodicals were a new place to advertise
 1st known newspaper ad – book about plants in Germany
 Universities now existed – few people able to go though  ads for universities
 Ads for zoos, religious groups








Ads for products that people haven’t seen before (coming from the Orient)
Abundance of health ads – second half of 17th century (cures and remedies) o Government got involved because outrageous claims were being made about different meds o Legislation made so that advertisers has to substantiate their claims o The health jolting chair – made all these great claims, but all it was is a chair with a bunch of springs and levers that did nothing o People started having a voice – buyer beware
Classified and personal ads o Help wanted, lost or stolen items, job ads
Literacy starting to flourish
In Canada in 1753 o 1st newspaper ad in the Halifax Gazette o Ads for a grocer, a job printer and a tutor o Start to see urbanization o During this period – huge growth in the scale and pervasiveness of advertising media

20th century mass media (1900-1920)
 By 1911 there were 43 cities in Canada that had more than one newspapers – Toronto had 6 o In a very short period of time newspapers started to flourish and so did advertising
 The great transition o Better, faster printing – printing becoming industrialized – could not print thousands of pages every hour, also better quality o Color and photographs, lifelike images, advertising more attractive
 Professionalization – advertising becomes and industry o Attempts to establish codes of ethics, regulation boards o In the early 1900’s federal government tried to outlaw outrageous claims, broadband advertising, they tried to professionalize advertising o 1st Canadian journal – first academic journal  see advertising becoming an industry
 Age of social insecurities o Advertisements for things we never were concerned with (body odor, bad breath etc.) o Advertising playing a role in our human consciousness (people become insecure if we don’t do what advertisers tell us to do)
 Advertising and the war o Selling bonds (savings plan that you put money in and it could support the war effort) o Recruiting men into the armed forces o Targeting women in advertisements because men are gone at war
 To go and work in factories
Beginning of electronic advertising (1920’s-1980’s)
 Start to see the ways that advertising amplified, guides part of our general social environment like it does today
 Advertisers get involved – advertising is our most prominent story teller
 Television (1940’s, 50’s) colored television in the 1960’s o Real people using the product, talking to you, famous people o Couldn’t target advertising like we can now, but you have the masses watching television o Start to see differences in social class o Television massively transformed society – becoming more consumer-istic, want more stuff, not satisfied









More products available, must convince people to buy them
Advertising
o Created the ‘consumer’ – shopping becomes a leisure activity
Scientific advertising o John B Watson – using psychological tactics to make ads more effective
 Convince people to buy things
 Behavioral scientist
 Try and understand how to tap into what people are thinking – focus groups
 Can use MRI’s – see brain light up in certain areas depending on how your feeling and your responses to advertisements
 Look at children (5 year olds respond to one shape, but that shape in your ads) o By 1920 – businesses using market research firms to better target their target market
Improved media technology o Created realism – using celebrities in advertising (diminishing in effectiveness today)
 Someone talking to you
 Televising could match the social impact of the printing press in its popularity
 Became an advertisers dream because you can reach millions of people at the same time – captive audience
Considered the ‘Television age’ o By 1980  99% of households have a TV

Information age (society) (1980 and on…)
 Successor to our industrial society
 Creation, diffusion, use, integration and manipulation of information if what out society is about o Economic, political, cultural activity
 Information technology (IT) o Use IT in the most creative, productive way you can
 Knowledge has become the principle force of production over the last few decade – Lyotard
 Digital/computer age – instant access to knowledge that would have been difficult to obtain in the past o Variety of different ways of getting our message across o New technology can target people individually
Three eras in advertising
1. Production oriented era
a. Demand exceeded supply (1800’s getting into the 1900’s)
b. Ford was producing their first cars – demand succeeded the supply – so no need to advertise
(products sold as soon as they’re made) – cars only came in black
c. Production expanded – bigger factories, other producers came along (now we need to promote our product)
d. About production, not promotion
2. Sales oriented era
a. Supply exceeded demand
b. Colors of cars, different shapes and sizes
c. Promote your product, buy yours not competitors product
d. Buyer beware – not a lot of protection – manufacturers produced & convinced you to buy
i. Decline in American automotive industry – foreign companies coming in

1. Foreign companies wanted to know what the consumers wanted, they didn’t just make and sell
3. Marketing oriented era
a. Find out what the consumers want
b. We are in the era today
c. Supply completely exceeded demand
d. Need to find out what people want before making the product
e. Still have to promote product, but not in a way that you had to promote when consumer wants keen on the product
f. Cars more about what people wanted then they promote
3 approached in advertising
1. Hard-sell approach (1940’s – 1950’s)
a. Best way to get people to buy stuff is to come up with one characteristic about a product
b. Unique selling proposition
c. Bullying, hustling consumers – playing on their fears
d. Repetitive about one feature that will get peoples attention best
e. Rosser Reeves – didn’t think we could handle more than one fact
2. Position approach (1960s)
a. Compare one product to another (coke vs. pepsi market share competition)
b. Convince people to buy your product vs. a competitors that is quite equal
c. Strategy still used today – try to make your brand occupy a distinct position amongst other brands d. Parity product – not much difference between the products themselves
i. Ex) soda, beer ii. How to get people to buy these parity products – must say something about this brand that will make people buy the product
e. This approach appears to be more innocent and simple
3. Soft sell approach
a. Don’t talk about the product at all
b. Depends less on the function of the product – but how it makes you feel
c. Very persuasive, indirect and sophisticated
d. This type of advertising you see more often than not
e. Ex) extra commercial with origami, Budweiser drinking buddy with dog – don’t drink and drive f. Tugs at heart strings – manipulated to buy product based on emotions you feel

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Advertising Photoshopped Women

...(Long, 2012) Manipulation of images used in advertising through the use of Photoshop or some other digital tool can contribute to unrealistic body image expectations, eating disorders, and other emotional problems. (Diller, n.d.)...

Words: 1019 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Marketing and Sociology Hand in Hand

...Sociology and Marketing Hand in Hand Written By Yomna, Aiman, Anaa To excel in business, you need more than a solid grasp of math and economics. Business requires an understanding of people -- large populations in particular. Sociology provides the educational background needed for managers to understand their employees and customers. Business leaders that understand sociology are able to anticipate customer needs and respond to employee problems in ways others cannot. What is Sociology?  Sociology is the study of human social relationships and institution. Sociology is a subject that differentiate the alternating matter of society like from race to crime, family to social class, beliefs of similar culture and it talks about the social stability to radical change in the whole societies. The study of sociology helps the individual to understand how human act and realization both shape and shaped by the surrounding culture and social structure. Sociology is an exciting and helpful field to study that evaluates and explains the important matter in our personal live, our communities and the world. For our personal lives sociology studies the social cause and consequences of things like racial and gender identity, family conflict, aging and religious. As for the society level, sociology examines and explains matters like for example prejudice and discrimination, poverty and wealth, crime and law, school and education and social movements....

Words: 1930 - Pages: 8

Premium Essay

Counselor

...Why Study Sociology? What is sociology? Sociology is the scientific study of human social relationships and structures. Like biologists and other natural scientists, sociologists work by sets of rules through which they evaluate the arguments and evidence generated by empirical research. This doesn't mean sociological work is either narrow or lacking in practical significance. Our techniques range from computer simulation through survey research to participant observation of urban street corner life. Styles among sociologists vary from the scientific to the humanistic, from the applied to the theoretical. Sociology involves the observation and explanation of human behavior in a wide variety of areas. In addition to the specialties of social psychology, political sociology, and mathematical sociology, which have obvious ties to other social sciences, sociologists study such things as race relations, social stratification, the family, the community, ethnic minorities, sex roles, drugs, crime, population, leisure, sport, aging, mass media, developing nations, organizational structure, communication in small groups and in dyads. Is sociology for you? If you are actively concerned about the world you live in and want to do something constructive and useful in it - whether in law, business, education, medicine, urban or rural planning, etc. sociology provides our best means for understanding how "the system" works....

Words: 614 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Key Roles of Sociologist

...Using sociology you try to uncover the things that stay unseen in the everyday life. Sociology searches the factors of high crime rate and others. 7. Sometimes his duty is voluntarily but most often He is paid by Organization. 8. To do research and they get hired and paid by a research company. 9. A sociologist is someone who's like a psychologist, but rather than studying the nature of one person, they study the nature of a group of people in society. 10. Sociologists study patterns of human behavior. 11. To study social trends, some even work in the advertising industry. 12. You could be a teacher, or work at an institution that conducts research, or you could be a writer of your own books, or you could work for a think tank, or you could work for an advertising firm who wants help getting into the minds of TV viewers. 13. Sociologists study social relations, cultures, social stratification, economic activity, social networking, etc. It becomes difficult to pin point a job that would encompass these elements, but with research one can find ideal jobs for sociology. 14. To...

Words: 405 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Time Table

...Management (R-16) Strategic Management (R-16) Final Year Project-II (R-18) International Business (R-16) Sociology (R-9) Mkt. Management (R-18) BC-I(R-7) HRM (R-16) Stage-1 Mon Stage-3 Stage-5 Stage-7 Project Management (R-7) Stage-8 Day/Time 8:30 AM- 10:00AM BC-I (R-18) 10:00 AM-11:30 AM English-I (R-9) 11:30 AM- 1:00 PM1:00 PM- 2:30 PM 2:30 PM -4:00 PM Fundamental of Acc. (R-9) Mkt. Management (R-18) Mang. Accounting (R-18) FSA (R-16)/Advertising (R-7) Tue Stage-1 Stage-3 Stage-5 HRM (R-16) Stage-7 Economy of Pakistan (R-7) Stage-8 Day/Time HR & Leadership (R-16) FSA (R-16)/Advertising (R-7) istory of Pakistan (R-9) H / Final Year Project-1(R9) FSA (R-16)/Advertising (R-7) 8:30 AM- 10:00AM Islamic Studies (R-9) 10:00 AM-11:30 AM 11:30 AM- 1:00 PM1:00 PM- 2:30 PM 2:30 PM -4:00 PM Sociology (R-9) Wed Stage-1 Stage-3 Stage-5 Oper. Management (R-16) IMC (R-16)/ HR & Leadership (R-18) SeminaR Consumer Behavior (R-16) Stage-7 Stage-8 History of Pakistan (R-7) IMC (R-16)/ HR & Leadership (R-18) Oper....

Words: 581 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

The Beef Stew

...Should Luis look to hire an external advertising agency or perform most of the task in-house? Why? As the new brand manager faced with this kind of task , the objectives he outlined are as follows; to project a strong image of Dinty Moore beef stew products, knowing more on role price in purchasing decisions as well as consumers, getting more information about consumer promotions which would be more effective with external advertising agencies than in-house the reason is not farfetched, as a matter of fact the external agencies specializes more on consulting and giving advice suggestions on how to project a strong image and theme, the external agency also assist in selecting company logos and a strategic slogan, that would complement Dinty Moore brands better. External advertising agencies would also help plan and purchase media time and space for the products to be advertised and review advertisements better before putting it in the media thereby creating better opportunities to access top talent, which is what Luis needs, the company already satisfies the average need of their customers so an external agency is a better choice than the in-house. Luis also would have access to un biased opinions using an external agency 2. If an external agency is chosen, what relevant experience would be most helpful to Luis and the Dinty Moore brand?...

Words: 1204 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Physical Education

...The International Committee for Sociology of Sport is acknowledged within the International Sociological Association, and both groups co-sponsor the International Review for the Sociology of Sport. Another scholarly publication for sports sociology research is the Journal for Sport and Social Issues, thus confirming support for and the growth of this sub discipline of exercise science. Gender A large area of study within the sociology of sports is gender, including gender inequality and the role that gender has...

Words: 1251 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Mr Jack Coulbeck

...This article was downloaded by: [Aberystwyth University] On: 12 October 2013, At: 02:24 Publisher: Routledge Informa Ltd Registered in England and Wales Registered Number: 1072954 Registered office: Mortimer House, 37-41 Mortimer Street, London W1T 3JH, UK Journal of Marketing Management Publication details, including instructions for authors and subscription information: http://www.tandfonline.com/loi/rjmm20 The Sociology of Consumption: The Hidden Facet of Marketing Hélène Cherrier & Jeff B. Murray Published online: 01 Feb 2010. To cite this article: Hélène Cherrier & Jeff B. Murray (2004) The Sociology of Consumption: The Hidden Facet of Marketing, Journal of Marketing Management, 20:5-6, 509-525, DOI: 10.1362/0267257041323954 To link to this article: http://dx.doi.org/10.1362/0267257041323954 PLEASE SCROLL DOWN FOR ARTICLE Taylor & Francis makes every effort to ensure the accuracy of all the information (the “Content”) contained in the publications on our platform. However, Taylor & Francis, our agents, and our licensors make no representations or warranties whatsoever as to the accuracy, completeness, or suitability for any purpose of the Content. Any opinions and views expressed in this publication are the opinions and views of the authors, and are not the views of or endorsed by Taylor & Francis. The accuracy of the Content should not be relied upon and should be independently verified with primary sources of information....

Words: 7423 - Pages: 30

Premium Essay

The Nature

...Active and Cooperative Learning Active learning is the process of involving students in the learning process through reading, writing, acting, moving, problem solving, discussing, etc. Involving students in the process gives them a deeper understanding of the material and leads to higher order thinking about class materials. After having incorporated active learning in my classes, I have become a strong advocate for active learningActive learning requires that students be active in the classroom. This can include doing problems, working with groups, participating in discussions, answering questions that require more than just facts, writing essays, or any other activity that is not just listening to a lecture. The basis for active learning is that students learn more and better when they are participants in thelearning process. It has also been found that student attention span starts to dramatically decrease about 12-15 minutes after the start of a lecture. By breaking up the lecture, students are able to keep their attention up, and therefore learn more.Cooperative learning puts student together to solve problems or discuss concepts that leads to greater understanding. Group activities also give students better social skills. Group work can be out of class projects, but this site concentrates on activities that can be done in the classroom. Groups can be informal (those students who happen to be sitting together) or formal (assigned by the instructor). Groups can be......

Words: 1516 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Mas Communication, the Impact of Advertising on Media Bias

...Topic: The impact of advertising on media bias The Impact of Advertising on Media Bias. (2012). Journal of Marketing Research: February, Esther Gal-Or, Tansev Geylani, Tuba Pinar Yildirim (2012). Journal of Marketing Research: February 2012, Vol. 49, No. 1, pp. 92-99. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.1509/jmr.10.0196 The authors in this study investigate the effecting of advertising in the media bias, the marketers evaluate the size and composition of the difference outlets of the readership when they making advertising choices. They also demonstrate their right target market with the advertising supplements subscription fees and it may serve as a polarizing or contingent on the extent of distinctiveness among advertisers to readers who have difference preference in politics. Each advertiser will have to choose a single outlet for placing their ad when manifoldness is large and the greater of polarize rises compare to when media outlet relies on subscription fees only for revenue. If the distinctive is small, advertiser chooses multiple outlets and the polarization results are reduced. Media bias and advertising: Evidence from a German car magazine (2014). Dewenter, Ralf; Heimeshoff, Ulrich (2014). DICE Discussion Paper, No. 132, ISSN 2190‐9938 ( online)....

Words: 429 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Media

...Prerequisites Before you can officially declare yourself a Media Studies major, you need to complete these four courses, drawn from four different academic departments: Media Studies 101: General Media Studies History 200: North American History Since 1860 Political Science 101: Introduction to Politics Sociology 101: Introduction to the Social Sciences It is possible to substitute another introductory social sciences class for Sociology 101, although you need to submit a formal request to your Media Studies adviser before class registration. In order to allow enough time to complete your upper-level courses, you need to complete all prerequisites by the end of your sophomore year. Core Courses The four core courses of the Media Studies curriculum focus on essential issues within the discipline’s broader field of study: Media Studies 102: Communicating Visually Media Studies 220: Mass Media in the Modern World Media Studies 301: Journalism and Culture Media Studies symposium chosen from the following list: Media Studies 400: History of Mass Media Media Studies 401: History of Popular Culture Media Studies 402: Ethics...

Words: 513 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Media

...Prerequisites Before you can officially declare yourself a Media Studies major, you need to complete these four courses, drawn from four different academic departments: Media Studies 101: General Media Studies History 200: North American History Since 1860 Political Science 101: Introduction to Politics Sociology 101: Introduction to the Social Sciences It is possible to substitute another introductory social sciences class for Sociology 101, although you need to submit a formal request to your Media Studies adviser before class registration. In order to allow enough time to complete your upper-level courses, you need to complete all prerequisites by the end of your sophomore year. Core Courses The four core courses of the Media Studies curriculum focus on essential issues within the discipline’s broader field of study: Media Studies 102: Communicating Visually Media Studies 220: Mass Media in the Modern World Media Studies 301: Journalism and Culture Media Studies symposium chosen from the following list: Media Studies 400: History of Mass Media Media Studies 401: History of Popular Culture Media Studies 402: Ethics...

Words: 513 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Market Entry

...Among these are concepts borrowed from established disciplines, such as psychology and sociology and suggesting that marketing is a social science. Please note that the bold text are from the original text from Dr. Hermans. The article begins now. Bartels, Robert (1976) “The History of Marketing Thought,” 2nd edition, Highlights selected by Dr. Hermans are from chapters 1,2,3,4,9,10,11,12,13,and 14. Accessed on Sep 18, 2009. Available at http://www.faculty.missouristate.edu/c/ChuckHermans/Bartels.htm Chapter 1: The Meaning of Marketing The establishment of a market economy wrought marked changes in the social and economic structure. A new attitude toward business revolutionized the economy of the country and that revolutionary element was identified by the term „marketing.‟ Historical accounts of trade lead one to conclude that marketing has always existed. Was the original use of the term marketing merely an application of a new name to an old practice? One theory is that language is an invention of man, an adornment. The other explanation of the origin of language is that it is inseparable from reason. Accordingly, man‟s language has developed as his thoughts have developed. By marketing was first meant “that combination of...

Words: 7603 - Pages: 31

Premium Essay

History of Marketing

...Bartels, Robert (1976) “The History of Marketing Thought,” 2 ed., pp.1-33, 123-243, Chapters 1,2,3,4,9,10,11,12,13,14. Chapter 1: The Meaning of Marketing The establishment of a market economy wrought marked changes in the social and economic structure. A new attitude toward business revolutionized the economy of the country and that revolutionary element was identified by the term ‘marketing.’ Historical accounts of trade lead one to conclude that marketing has always existed. Was the original use of the term marketing merely an application of a new name to an old practice? One theory is that language is an invention of man, an adornment. The other explanation of the origin of language is that it is inseparable from reason. Accordingly, man’s language has developed as his thoughts have developed. By marketing was first meant “that combination of factors which had to be taken into consideration prior to the undertaking of cer6tain selling or promotional activities.” The essence of marketing was the combination of factors. Blindness to and ignorance of that combination of factors is the reason for the absence of terms equivalent to marketing in other languages. Marketing must be regarded not merely as a business practice, but as a social institution. Marketing is essentially a means of meeting and satisfying certain needs of people. It is a highly developed and refined system of thought and practice characteristic of a period in the development......

Words: 7368 - Pages: 30

Premium Essay

Sociology of Food

...The branch of sociology that studies this behaviour is referred to as symbolic interaction. This paper examines the relationship between the human behavioral response to and understanding of stimuli to the environment in relation to diet habits and the related health implications in an individual among...

Words: 1416 - Pages: 6