Definition of sociology
The term sociology is derived from latin word socius(companion) and the greek word logos (study of) and literary means the study of the process of companionship. Sociology therefore can be defined as the study of the basis of social membership. More technically sociology is the analysis of the structure of the social relationships constituted by social interaction.
Definition of a theory and sociological theory
A theory is a set of interrelated concepts used to describe, explain and predict how society and its parts are related to each other. Theories are also sets of interrelated concepts and ideas that have been scientifically tested and combined to magnify, enlarge, clarify and expand our understanding of peoples, behaviors, and there societies without theories, science will be a futile exercise in statistics. Sociological theory is defined as a set of interrelated ideas that allow for systematization of knowledge of the social world. This knowledge is then used to explain the social order and make predictions about the future of the social world.
Theories can be used to study society-millions of people in a state, country or even at the world level. When theories are used at this level they are referred to as macro theories, theories which best fit the study of massive number of people include (social conflict and functional theories). When theories are used to study small groups of people or individuals e.g. couples, family or team they are referred as micro theories, theories which best fit the study of small groups and their members (symbolic interaction, symbolism or social exchange theories).