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ANXIETY AND SPEAKING ENGLISH AS A SECOND LANGUAGE AMONG MALE AND FEMALE BUSINESS STUDENTS IN UNIVERSITI INDUSTRI SELANGOR Ayu Rita Bt Mohamad and Nadhia Dalila Bt Ab Wahid Industrial University of Selangor Jln Timur Tambahan, 456000 Bestari Jaya E-mail: ayurita@yahoo.com

ABSTRACT

This study explores the nature and anxiety of speaking English as a second language among male and female Business Degree students in Industrial University of Selangor (Unisel), Berjuntai Bestari, Selangor. This study attempts to identify potential sources of anxiety relevant to the students’ affective needs or concerns in an institution of higher learning through the use of an in-depth qualitative questionnaire. As the pre-administered questionnaire findings indicate, the differences in the level of language anxiety exhibited by the participants seem to vary by gender. Using various studies by previous researchers of language anxiety as a theoretical guideline for data collection and analysis, this study also discusses some of the influences or impact of anxiety-provoking factors on second language learning, along with some implications for further research on language anxiety.

1.0 INTRODUCTION 1.1 Introduction Anxiety is a negative way to present human feelings. When we are anxious, we feel nervous, worried, and fearful. We struggle, tremble, perspire, and our hearts beat quickly. In general, anxiety can be defined as a complex concept dependent upon not only on one’s feelings of selfefficacy but also appraisals concerning the potential and perceived threats inherent in certain situations (Tobias, 1986). In simple words, anxiety is usually associated with unpleasant feelings and is similar to fear (Lader, 1975). Anxiety in communicating in a second language, especially when that language is English can have a debilitating effect and can influence students’ adaptation to the target environment and ultimately their educational goals. There is also agreement that anxiety is related to performance (Balachandran & Skully, 2004; Tobias & Everson, 1997), and that anxiety has been shown to have a debilitating effect on learning and achievement (Gaudy & Spielberger, 1971; Tobias, 1980).

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1.2 Background of research In the past two decades, there has been a great deal of research in second language anxiety. Second language anxiety is defined as a distinct complex of self-perceptions, beliefs, feelings, and behaviours related to using a second language for communication beyond the classroom. Most people will experience language anxiety. Even though anxiety might not be the most important reason for failure or success in learning, we cannot ignore its affection. It cannot be denied that learning a second language is important especially when that second language is English. English is the most widespread and important language in the world today. It is a major language of international business, diplomacy, science and the professions. English is also an official language or the official language of many international and professional organizations. It is used not only for communication between native speakers of English but also between non-native speakers. Even though English does not have the greatest number of first-language speakers in the world, it is the most widely used language. The importance of learning, understanding and speaking English fluently is necessary for careers especially when applying for jobs with multinational companies (MNCs). This is because MNCs hire people from different countries and cultures and they use English as a medium of communication. The need for effective oral communication skills is crucial in the business world as there are many MNCs located all around the globe. However, for the past few decades, business graduates have been criticized by employers for their lack of communication skills (Greathouse, 1986; Dearlove, 1996). Curtis, Winsor and Stephens (1989) in one survey of personnel managers found that communication skills are more important for applicants in obtaining entrylevel positions than are their technical skills, grade point averages or their degrees. Among the communication skills deemed to be core managerial competency is the ability to make effective presentations (Fandt, 1994; Whetten & Cameron, 1998; de Janasz et al., 2002). Thus, because of the importance of English in the world today, especially for business graduates, this study analyzes the anxiety level of university students in Malaysia. However, due to the time constraints, this study focuses only on students of the Universiti Industri Selangor (UNISEL), Berjuntai Bestari Campus and the scope of the study is narrowed down to the Business Degree students of the Faculty of Industrial Management (FIM). The implications of the study are discussed and a number of recommendations are made to assist students in dealing with their anxiety level. This study assumes that the language anxiety is debilitating and investigates the possible causes of anxiety using qualitative methods. 1.3 Objectives This study is developed in order to fulfil the researchers’ objectives, which are: 1.3.1. To examine whether gender differences play a crucial role in determining the level of anxiety among male and female students. 66

1.3.2. To identify causes of anxiety while speaking English in public. 1.4 Research Questions This study is also made in order to answer the research questions: 1.4.1 Do gender differences have an impact towards the level of anxiety of students in UNISEL? 1.4.2 What are the possible causes of anxiety and of speaking English in public? 1.5 Significance of the Study This research is significant to the lecturers in term of giving them insights into the causes of anxiety faced by students. This study provides the lecturers with a starting point in understanding the causes of language anxiety and how they can help students overcome their anxiety. This finding is not only applicable for students and lecturers but also helpful to others who are facing the same problem of second language anxiety. 1.6 Limitations of the Study Due to time constraints, the scope of the study was limited to all the Business Degree students of the Faculty of Industrial Management, Universiti Industri Selangor (UNISEL), Berjuntai Bestari Campus, Selangor and does not represent business students in other universities. Thus, the sample is not relevant for other higher institutions because the level of anxiety may be different and the findings may also differ. Most of the samples are non-native speakers of English and they were Malays, Indians, Chinese and others speaking in their own mother tongue. Most of these students use or study English only as their second language. 1.7 1.7.1 Definition of Terms Anxiety

Anxiety is part of the human condition and it has a broad definition. Anxiety in general can be defined as “the subjective feeling of tension, apprehension, nervousness, and worry associated with an arousal of the autonomic nervous system” (Horwitz et al, 1986, p.125). 1.7.2 Speaking Anxiety

The fear of speaking in public is related with anxiety or communication apprehension. It’s a panicky feeling associated with physical sensations that are all too painfully familiar to those affected - increased heart and breathing rates, increased adrenaline, over-rapid reactions, and a tension in the shoulder and neck area. 67

1.7.3

Second Language Anxiety

Second language anxiety is usually related with the usage of English language in Malaysian context. It can be defined as distinctly complex self-perceptions, beliefs, feelings, and behaviours related to using a foreign or second language for communication beyond the classroom. 1.7.4 Business Students of Industrial Management Faculty

These students are from Business Degree courses in UNISEL, Berjuntai Bestari Campus, Selangor, comprising of; Bachelor of Industrial Management (BIM), Bachelor of Business Management (BBM), Bachelor of Accounting (BOA), Bachelor of Marketing (BOM) and Bachelor of Finance (BOF). 1.7.5 Sample

The sample is selected from the five major courses of the Business Degree students of the Faculty of Industrial Management, UNISEL, Berjuntai Bestari Campus, Selangor. Each course is represented by 30 samples in which 15 samples were male and the other half being female students. The total sample size is 150 students in which each gender has 75 representatives. The samples were selected randomly in term of age and semester or year of studies because the main objectives of this research is to identify whether gender differences gives an impact towards anxiety levels. 2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1 Introduction Anxiety is generally defined as " a state of apprehension, a vague fear" (Scovel, 1978, p. 134), and it seems difficult to describe in a simple and exhaustive manner, as it arises from many kinds of sources often associated with particular contexts or situations that individuals perceive threatening according to their unique frame of reference (Eharman, 1996). Previous anxiety research suggests that there are roughly two types that can be experienced at different psychological levels (Spielberger, 1983; Levitt, 1980; Schwarzer, 1986). At a global level, anxiety is viewed as a permanent trait, as some people are predisposed to be anxious. At a more local or situational level, anxiety can be experienced in response to a particular situation or act (Brown, 1994). However, the question of how these constructs relate to second language learning contexts is still under debate, although several interpretations of language anxiety are offered in terms of situational nature of anxiety (MacIntyre and Gardner, 1991a). According to Tobias (1979, 1980, 1986), anxiety may work as a mental block to cognitive performance at all three cognitive stages: Input, Processing, and Output. In other words, anxiety arousal, which is typically associated with self-deprecating thoughts, fear of failure, or worry 68

over performance procedures, may compete for cognitive resources that normal cognitive processing will demand. 2.2 Anxiety in Speaking Public speaking anxiety is very common among both universities students and also the general population. It is a feeling of panic associated with physical sensations that are all too painfully familiar to those affected such as increased heart and breathing rates, increased adrenaline, over-rapid reactions, and a tension in the shoulder and neck area. Almost 20% of university students face the problem of public speaking anxiety (McCroskey, 1977). He also defined anxiety in broad-based as “an individual’s level of fear or anxiety associated with either real or anticipated communication with another person or persons”. The apprehension of speaking before a group of individuals remains a problem in the twenty-first century. According to Krannich (2004), the fear of delivering a speech or a presentation ranks as the number one fear among most people, including students as well as adults from many diverse backgrounds. Ayres, Hopt and Peterson (2000) referred communication anxiety related with the delivering of speech or the fear or anxiety associated with anticipating the delivery of a speech. According to Phillips (1991), “it is clear that fear of speaking in public is different from anxiety about social contact”. True communication apprehension means that the sufferers see more value in keeping quiet in all circumstances (even in conversation) than they do from talking. Speech anxiety is a much targeted fear. “Our sense of public speaking anxiety is closer to what psychologists and psychiatrists refer to as a phobia rather than a free-floating anxiety” (Ayres & Hopf, 1993). It is an anxiety-based response not unlike the wide range of phobias that can be found in the areas of psychology and psychiatry. 2.3 Causes of Anxiety There are various causes of anxiety. According to one article, there ten top causes for anxiety in public speaking. The first one is lack of preparation. The second cause of anxiety is the feeling that the students have either too many points to cover in the allotted time period. The third cause is worrying that the audience will be overly critical. Fear about not entertaining or arousing the interest of people and they will walk out is the fourth causes of public speaking anxiety. Speakers who compare their perceptions to audience expectations and public speaking anxiety are revealed when audiences’ expectations are perceived greater than the speaker’s ability (Ayres, 1986). Perceived audience expectations influence a speaker’s level of anxiety as audiences too play a role in public speaking anxiety. The fifth cause is students’ intend to emulate other speakers rather than being themselves. Other possible causes of anxiety can be the fear of potential negative outcomes and stuttering or difficulty to finding words. The next cause is where students spend too much time over-preparing instead of developing confidence and trust in their own natural ability to succeed. The last two causes are dislike in being the centre of attention and also low self-confidence. Ayres, Schliesman and Sonandre (1998), in their research, found that students who feel they have skill deficiencies in public speaking apprehension often experience anxiety. 69

While, in the context of speaking English as a second language, Young (1991) listed six potential causes of language anxiety which include both personal and interpersonal factors, learners’ beliefs about language learning, instructors’ beliefs about language teaching, instructor-learner interactions, classroom procedures and language tests. However, to date, findings by Horwitz et al. (1986) have been the most influential. They identified three causes of language anxiety, that is, communication apprehension, test anxiety and fear of negative evaluation. Based on these three components they also designed a Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety Scale (FLCAS) comprising thirty-three items. This scale was later used widely by researchers to measure foreign language learners’ anxiety and examine the effect of anxiety on learning in different contexts. 3.0 RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY 3.1 Introduction This explains the steps taken in acquiring the needed data to answer the research questions. For better understanding, this is divided into six sections, which are: Research Design Research Population Research Sample Data Collection Procedures Data Analysis Procedures Conclusion 3.2 Research Population For the purpose of this study, the target population is the Business Degree students of the Faculty of Industrial Management in Universiti Industri Selangor (UNISEL), Berjuntai Bestari Campus, Selangor. The reason this population was chosen is because the title of the project requires the study of anxiety and speaking English as a second language among male and female students of Industrial Management students in UNISEL. 3.3 Research Sample The samples in this study were selected through non-probability sampling in which the samples are selected on the basis of convenience. The procedure that is used is convenience sampling which comprises units or people most conveniently available. These samples were chosen from the Business Degree students of the Faculty of Industrial Management. The five major courses in the faculty selected are; Bachelor of Finance, Bachelor of Industrial Management, Bachelor of Business Management, Bachelor of Marketing and Bachelor of Accounting. From these five courses, a total of150 samples were , comprising 30 respondents from each course.

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The reason why these samples were selected was because these students represent the whole population of the Business Degree students in the Faculty of Industrial Management thus, covering the reliability criteria. 3.4 Data Collection Procedures Two procedures were used in conducting this research project, collection of secondary and primary data. 3.4.1 Primary Data

For the purpose of this research, the primary data is collected through a self-administered questionnaire. 3.4.2 Secondary Data

Some of the secondary data that are used in this research are from journals, website, articles, books, and newspaper cuttings. 3.5 Data Analysis Procedures The data is analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS). The results are then transformed into quantitative measurement and for clear understanding; the data is represented using tables, bar charts and pie-charts. 4.0 DATA ANALYSIS AND FINDINGS As stated earlier, the samples are the students of the Faculty of Industrial Management (FIM) and 150 samples are selected. The questionnaire was developed based on the Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety Scale (FCLAS) where the researcher changed the proposed scale in order to make it suitable for the current study. 4.1 Analysis for Part B: Adoption and Perception of Speaking English Anxiety Statement 6: In classes, I forget how to say things I know Referring to Figure 4.6, it can be concluded that female respondents experienced more anxiety compared to male respondents in terms of forgetting to say things they know even though the result is quite similar. From 75 female respondents, 20 or 26.7% agreed with the statements, and 19 male respondents (25.3%) agreed that they sometimes forget how to say things they know in class.

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Statement 7: I tremble when I’m going to have to speak in English This statement was developed in order to analyze whether the respondents tremble when they have to speak in English. Out of 75 female respondents, those who agreed with the statement accounted for 22 students (29.3%). Only two strongly agreed (2.7%) that they were trembling when they had to speak in English in class. It can be concluded that the majority of the male students are less anxious compared to female students as only 25.3% agreed with the statement. Statement 8: I start to panic and am confused when I have to speak in English without preparation The result is quite similar for both genders. 36 female respondents agreed with the statement (48.0%), while, for male respondents, 37 (49.3%) agreed that they feel anxious when they have to speak in English without preparation. It can be concluded that, in terms of speaking English without preparation, male students experienced slightly lower anxiety compared with female students. Statement 9: When I speak English, I feel like a different person This statement was developed in order to identify whether either or both genders felt that they are being somebody else when they speak in English. It can be summarized that most male students feel that they are a different person when they speak in English while 15 agreed with the statement (20.0%), while 14 of the female respondents (18.7%) agreed with the statement which makes them less anxious about being somebody else. Statement 10: Even when I’m prepared to speak English, I get nervous In this statement, the researcher wanted to determine whether the students are still nervous if they had prepared to speak in English (ie; during presentations, interviews, etc.) and which gender experienced more anxiety. Female respondents are more anxious compared to males with 44.0% being nervous even though they had prepared. Only 29 male students agreed with the statement (38.7%). Statement 11: I’m afraid that my lecturers are ready to correct every mistake I make More female students were afraid that their lecturers would correct their mistakes in class with 17 (22.7%) agreeing with the statement. This is because they are afraid of being embarrassed for being corrected in front of others. Meanwhile for male students, only 16% are afraid of being corrected. Male students are usually not afraid of being corrected in front of others as they usually perceive it positively. Statement 12: It embarrasses me to volunteer answers in class From figure 4.12, female students tend to be more anxious compared to male as 20 (26.7%) agreed that they feel embarrassed when they want to volunteer answers in class. In contrast,

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male students more willingly volunteered answers in class as they are more confident in themselves with only 10 of them (13.3%) agreeing with the statement. Statement 13: I never feel quite sure of myself when I am speaking in class This statement was developed in order to analyze whether the students feel confident when they were speaking in class and to identify which gender has more self confidence. It can be seen that both genders have the same percentage of 26.7%. But, there are minor differences that show that female students lacked self confidence in term of expressing themselves in English with 5.3% strongly agreeing with the statement. Statement 14: I always feel that the other students are speaking better than I do This statement also shows that female respondents have higher anxiety levels compared to male respondents with 29 (38.7%) tending to agree with the statement. In contrast, only 26.7% or 20 male respondents feel that the others are speaking better than they are. The reasons for this might be because male students usually perceiving the situation positively and they have more confidence in their ability compared to female students. Statement 15: I am afraid that the other students will have a bad perception at me when I speak in front of the class Perception of others is one of the major stressors of speaking English. In the findings, it can be analyzed that female students tend to keep thinking about the perceptions of others with 22.7% agreeing that they are afraid of others’ perceptions. Only 16% of male respondents agreed with the statement thus as a conclusion, female students have a higher anxiety level compared with male students. 4.2 Analysis for Part C: Open- Ended Questions Question 16: How do you feel exactly when you had to speak in English while communicating with other persons and in front of a large group? This question was developed in order to identify causes of anxiety of students when they had to speak in English. Out of 150 questionnaires that were distributed, only 50 of the respondents answered this open- ended question. Thus, the result of this finding is based from the answers given by the respondents. For better understanding, the researcher identified the causes given by the respondents through an open-ended questionnaire and the results were then tabulated into a table. The table was divided into seven different causes of anxiety and the causes identified are; i. ii. iii. iv. Nervous/panic/shy They rarely speak English Afraid of audience Poor in English Language (in terms of grammar, pronunciation, etc) 73

v. vi. vii.

Speaking with people who are fluent in English Lack of self-confidence Afraid of perceptions of others.
28 17 20 13 14

30 25 20 15 10 5 0 y h S / c i n a P / s u o v r e N k a e p s y l e r a R h s i l g n E e c n e i d u A h s i l g n E n i r o o P ) c t e r a m m a r g ( 16

Nervous/Panic/Shy Rarely speak English

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Figure 4.16: Bar Chart of Causes of Anxiety
Audience Poor in English (gram ma r etc)

t n e u l f o h w e l p o e P

h s i l g n E n i

f l e s f o k c a L

e c n e d i f n o c

s r e h t o f o n o i t p e c r e P

People who fluent in English Lack of self- confidence Perception of othe rs

After the researcher had listed the possible causes of anxiety, the researcher then calculated and identified which causes are the highest among the students. It can be concluded that the majority of the students are afraid of the perceptions of others when they speak in English where 28 out of 50 respondents indicated the same answer. With a percentage of 56%, perceptions of others are placed as the major cause of anxiety and of speaking English. Most of the students were concerned about various kinds of evaluative situations in which their knowledge and performance of English will be monitored by people around them. They are conscious about the facial expressions of other students and also of the lecturer. They are afraid if their audiences look bored and confused, and cannot understand the information they are trying to deliver. Many of them commented on the classroom situation in a negative manner, for example they would try to avoid eye contact with the lecturers, fearing they would be called on to answer some questions in front of other students, even if they were sure of the topics being discussed. They were afraid of being embarrassed in front of their friends especially if their answers were criticized. The second cause that can be identified is a lack of English proficiency with 40% of the respondents writing a similar answer. Some of them said that they were weak in English, some were afraid of making mistakes in terms of grammar, pronunciation and arranging of words, and also their perceived lack of knowledge about the class subjects that they were studying. But the most frightening classroom situation experienced by most of the students is when their perceived lack of English proficiency is combined with their lack of knowledge or "unpreparedness" of the topics in question. These factors contribute to their level of anxiety.

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The next factor is audience, with 34% of the respondents writing the same answer. This is because they feel anxious when there are too many people in the audience and are afraid of being tongue-tied in that situation. The fourth factor is of rarely speaking English with 16 out of 50 respondents choosing it as one of the causes of language anxiety. Feeling shy, nervous or panicky also contributes as one of the causes of speaking English anxiety with 28% of the total respondents agreed on the same answer. The results were similar with lack of self confidence with 14 respondents said that they believe they do not have the confidence to express themselves in English. The last factor that caused anxiety when speaking in English is when speaking with people who are fluent in the language (26%). One of the students wrote that he feels anxious when he had to speak with people with a higher status as he believes these people are proficient in their English. There was also one student who wrote that she felt her confidence was lowered when she had to speak with foreigners. It can be concluded that among all of the factors that can be listed from the open- ended questions, the top cause is the perceptions of others. This finding is also similar with the study of Kota Ohata (2005) where in one of his interviews with five Japanese who studied in the USA, the respondents agreed that they felt anxious when they thought about the perceptions of others when they had to speak in English especially because their peers are native speakers of English. 5.0 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 5.1 Conclusions 5.1.1 To identify whether gender differences has an impact on the level of anxiety Conclusion 1: In classes, I forget how to say things I know. It shows that compared with male students, female students experienced much more anxiety. Conclusion 2: I tremble when I’m going to have to speak in English. The researchers found that most of the female students were more anxious than male students. Conclusion 3: I start to panic and am confused when I have to speak in English without preparation. It can be concluded that male students tend to panic and become more confusion when they had to speak in English without preparation. Conclusion 4: When I speak English, I feel like a different person The result of this statement shows that male students tend to feel like they become somebody else when they speak in English. Conclusion 5: Even when I’m prepared to speak English, I get nervous The result of the finding shows that female students experienced nervousness and panic even when they were prepared to speak English.

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Conclusion 6: I’m afraid that my lecturers are ready to correct every mistake I make In this finding, the researchers identified that female students felt fear that their lecturer would correct their mistake directly in class thus embarrassing them in front of their friends. Conclusion 7: It embarrasses me to volunteer answers in class It can be concluded that male students experienced less anxiety when it comes to volunteering answer in English in class. Conclusion 8: I never feel quite sure of myself when I am speaking English in class It can be concluded that there are similarities between both genders in terms of being confused of their own capabilities when they had to speak in English. Conclusion 9: I always feel that the other students are speaking better than I do In this statement, the researcher found that female students tend to think about their friends who are much better than them in English, thus experiencing lower self-confidence. Conclusion 10: I am afraid that the other students will have bad perceptions at me when I speak in front of the class It can be concluded that female students felt more anxious about the perceptions of others when they have to express themselves in English in class. Based on the overall findings, it can be concluded that female students tend to be more anxious compared with male students. 5.1.2 To identify causes of anxiety while speaking English in public Based on the analysis from the open-ended questionnaire, the researchers identified several causes of anxiety in speaking English. Seven major causes were identified which had similarities with previous studies. Among the seven major causes, the highest stressor of speaking in English was the perceptions of others. This has been supported by Pappamihiel (2002), where in one of her interview processes, one participant in her study said that one cause that made him feel anxious was being afraid that the other students will laugh at him when he says something in a class. Another cause that the researcher identified was similar to the study made by Woodrow (2006). In her study, Woodrow found that the major stressor of speaking English was when the students were interacting with native speakers. The other causes she identified were performing in front of a class and when a student had to give an oral performance. Thus, from the findings, it can be concluded that English language anxiety is multi-dimensional where it affects students differently depending on the context of the situation. The respondents’ anxiety levels vary depending on the situation. This result is also supported by the study of Pappamihiel (2002) where she finds that English language anxiety is of a dynamic nature where it can possibly affect students in many different ways.

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5.2 Recommendations For the purpose of this study, the researcher gives several suggestions in dealing with second language anxiety. According to Rolls (1998) and Kim (2005), there are various strategies which can be used in coping with second language anxiety. The first strategy is to recognize your own feelings of second language anxiety. It is vital to identify your own feelings as in the process we will be able to recognize the causes of our anxiety. Just because people are nervous, it does not mean they have poor performance. Nervousness sometimes will help in enhancing the vitality and enthusiasm brought to the situation. The next strategy is to share your feelings with others. It is helpful knowing that you are not suffering those feelings alone. Even professionals such as artists or experienced speakers may feel some sort of anxiety when they have to speak in public. Thus, having a slight feeling of anxiety is normal as it is experienced by many of us. Students must bear in their mind that nobody is aware of their fright except if there are outward signs of nervousness. However, nervousness can be controlled. Students must focus on getting their message across to the audience and not be afraid to make mistakes. Mistakes are the best way of learning so that we are less likely to keep making them. Many native English speakers do not speak a second language, so the fact that the students are able to converse in a second language at all says a lot. Universities should adopt innovative approaches to minimize apprehension and maximize student achievement. Lecturers must encourage the students to express themselves in English and help them reduce their anxiety by giving them support. Lecturers might also used quick relaxation techniques such as that suggested by Psychologist Anthony Grasha to tense the body for a count of 10 and then breathe deeply in and out to a count of four for a period of three to five minutes. This is especially effective after a tension-producing event. The most important thing is, in order to increase the level of efficiency in the English language, we need to practice. Practice will make perfect. Practice speaking with friends or family, or even text messaging them in English which will also help to increase the level of proficiency in English thus indirectly, it will reduce the level of second language anxiety. REFERENCES Abdullah, Khairi Izwan. (1993), Teaching Reading Vocabulary: From Theory to Practice. TESOL Forum 31, (3; July-September): pp 10 (1-10). Alpert, R. & Haber, R.N. (1960). Anxiety in academic achievement situations. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 10, 207-215. Ashley, J (1996). Overcoming stage fright in everyday life. New York: Clarkson Potter.

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Sociology

...produce unanticipated and harmful outcomes (Vaughan,1999). It is often an unintended consequence of the normal activities of actors within an organization” (Fox & Harding 2005) Sociology- scientific study of human behavior, social groups, and society. * As stated by the American Sociological Association, sociology is the study of social life and the social causes and the consequences of human behavior. The term social life encompasses all the interpersonal relationships, all groups or collections of person, and all types of social organizations. The “Causes and consequences of human behavior” encompass how these relationships, groups, and organizations are interrelated; how they influence personal and interpersonal behavior; how they affect and are affected by the larger society, how they change or why they remain static; and what the consequences are of these factors. This definition reflects the belief that people can be understood only in the context of their contacts, associations, and communications with other people. The very heart of sociology then its concern with the complexities and subtleties of human social life makes it a discipline that is highly relevant not only to professional sociologists, but also to people in virtually every line of work and at every level. * Thus sociology may consider a wide range of general questions such as the following; HOW DO GROUPS INFLUENCE INDIVIDUAL HUMAN BEHAVIOR? Social Imagination- quality of mind that allows......

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