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Sociology

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Table of content

No of the topic | Name of the topic | 1 | Introduction | 2 | Usage of Internet | 3 | Modern Uses | 4 | Internet in Bangladesh | 5 | Current Trend | 6 | Research Purpose | 7 | Review of Literature | 8 | Hypothesis | 9 | Contradictory research | 10 | Method | 11 | Result | 12 | Discussion | 13 | Limitations | 14 | Source |

Introduction:
The Internet is a global network connecting millions of computers. More than 100 countries are linked into exchanges of data, news and opinions. According to internet World Stats, as of December 31, 2011 there was an estimated 2,267,233,742 Internet users worldwide. This represents 32.7% of the world's population.
Now people are very much flexible in using internet to do their day to day works, file sharing, checking or sending mails, in social networking, to maintain corporate documents, servers etc.
Today almost every company or institution has their own website where people can get information about their services & offers. Maximum teaching institutions, schools, colleges & universities are under internet coverage. Besides, people are now learning to use internet to complete several tasks. For this reason, now we can see many people are having special courses on it & students are performing certain tasks through using internet from their primary level.

“Internet” is commonly used by male & female all over the world. Internet is for all. We can find various opinions, choices, interests in using internet by different individuals. Some prefer social networking, some like to play games, others like to explore different blogs, news etc. many people like to shopping in online, some people explore knowledge, share their views, collect study materials etc. Usages of internet could be differing from individuals out of their interests and wants.

Usages of Internet:
Internet is the most useful technology of the modern times which helps us not only in our daily lives, but also our personal and professional lives developments. Internet helps us achieve this in several different ways.
For the students and educational purposes the internet is widely used to gather information so as to do the research or add to the knowledge of any sort of subject they have. Even the business personals and the professions like doctors, access the internet to filter the necessary information for their use. The internet is therefore the largest encyclopedia for everyone, in all age categories. The internet has served to be more useful in maintaining contacts with friends and relatives who live abroad permanently. The easiest communication means like the internet chatting systems and the emails are the best and the most common for the maintaining contacts with the people around the world.

Not to forget internet is useful in providing with most of the fun these days. May it be all the games, and networking conferences or the online movies, songs, dramas and quizzes, internet has provided the users with a great opportunity to eradicate the boredom from their lives.
Internet is also used to upgrade the internet and use special software to work on the projects and documentation works as the internet enables the user to download a myriad of different software for a variety of different purposes, making it much easier than buying the costly software cads.

Modern Uses:
The Internet allows greater flexibility in working hours and location, especially with the spread of unmetered high-speed connections. The Internet can be accessed almost anywhere by numerous means, including through mobile Internet devices. Mobile phones, data cards, handheld game consoles and cellular routers allow users to connect to the Internet wirelessly. Within the limitations imposed by small screens and other limited facilities of such pocket-sized devices, the services of the Internet, including email and the web, may be available. Service providers may restrict the services offered and mobile data charges may be significantly higher than other access methods.
Educational material at all levels from pre-school to post-doctoral is available from websites. Examples range from CBeebies, through school and high-school revision guides and virtual universities, to access to top-end scholarly literature through the likes of Google Scholar. For distance education, help with homework and other assignments, self-guided learning, whiling away spare time, or just looking up more detail on an interesting fact, it has never been easier for people to access educational information at any level from anywhere. The Internet in general and the World Wide Web in particular are important enablers of both formal and informal education.
The low cost and nearly instantaneous sharing of ideas, knowledge, and skills has made collaborative work dramatically easier, with the help of collaborative software. Not only can a group cheaply communicate and share ideas but the wide reach of the Internet allows such groups more easily to form. An example of this is the free software movement, which has produced, among other things, Linux, Mozilla Firefox, and OpenOffice.org. Internet chat, whether using an IRC chat room, an instant messaging system, or a social networking website, allows colleagues to stay in touch in a very convenient way while working at their computers during the day. Messages can be exchanged even more quickly and conveniently than via email. These systems may allow files to be exchanged, drawings and images to be shared, or voice and video contact between team members.

Internet in Bangladesh:
Starting in the early 1990s, Bangladesh had dialup access to e-mail using the Bulletin Board Systems (BBSs) of a few local providers, but the number of users did not total more than 500. Users were charged by the kilobyte and email was transferred from the BBS service providers to the rest of the world by international dialup using UUCP.
In June 1996 the first VSAT base data circuit in the country was commissioned and the Bangladesh Telegraph and Telephone Board (BTTB) granted licenses to two Internet Service Providers (ISPs). In subsequent years more liberal government policies led to a rapid expansion of the industry, resulting in over 180 registered ISP's by 2005. ISPs are currently regulated by the Bangladesh Telecommunication Regulatory Commission (BTRC) through the Bangladesh Telecommunications Act.
In May 2006 Bangladesh inaugurated new submarine optic fiber connectivity as part of the 16 country consortium SEA-ME-WE 4project. The landing station is in Cox's Bazar, the southern city near the Bay of Bengal. In July 2008 the Submarine Cable Project was transformed into the company Bangladesh Submarine Cable Company Limited (BSCCL), which is now responsible for all services related to the submarine cable.
Between June and August 2012 international Internet service in Bangladesh was slowed following a cable cut on the eastern leg of the SEA-ME-WE 4 optical fiber cable and the fact that Bangladesh does not have an alternative submarine cable or other high-speed international connections. In 2014 the new SEA-ME-WE 5 cable is expected to provide an alternative operating at 100 Gbit/s, roughly 10 times faster than the current connection.

Internet Usage and Population Statistics:

YEAR | Users | Population | % Pen. | GDP p.c.* | Usage Source | 2000 | 100,000 | 134,824,000 | 0.1 % | N/A | ITU | 2007 | 450,000 | 137,493,990 | 0.3 % | US$ 466 | ITU | 2009 | 556,000 | 156,050,883 | 0.4 % | US$ 574 | ITU | 2010 | 617,300 | 158,065,841 | 0.4 % | US$ 624 | ITU | 2011 | 5,501,609 | 158,570,535 | 3.5 % | US$ 700 | ITU |

Note: Per Capita GDP in US dollars, source: International Monetary Fund.

Current Trend:
The rapid growth of digital technology is fundamentally changing the world as we know it. Global internet penetration in 2010 stood at 1.9 billion people and is expected to grow to 5 billion by 2015. The internet subscriber base in Bangladesh (excluding mobile) currently stands at just over 1.5 million (BTRC, Feb 2012). However, total desktop internet users in Bangladesh is actually far greater than that number, likely driven by heavy usage in offices, internet cafes and multiple users accessing the internet from a single household. Local industry estimates suggest that in 2011 access to the web was closer to 8 million users, having grown 300% since 2010 and expected grow a further 500% by 2020 (BCG, 2010). This acceleration of internet consumption is undoubtedly fueled not only by the growth in access, such as through WIMAX modems, but also through the proliferation of increasingly affordable laptops, desktops and tablets. Until now, it wasn't clear how people in Bangladesh actually spend their time on the web on a daily basis. The data G&R gathered sheds some more light on consumer behavior online.
The average user accesses the web on 3 separate occasions throughout the day, with usage peaking during the morning hours. In addition, a total of 4 different websites are typically visited during these sessions.
While usage of social networks and email services account for a considerable portion web activity, the data collected by the G&R indicates that Bangladeshis also spend a lot of time browsing the web. Such users are actively seeking information and content online and this is only going to grow further as more local websites and web applications start to enter the public domain.

Which days are Bangladeshis most online is a question that has been asked a lot at G&R. As visualized in the chart on left , web usage varies considerably based on the day of the week. Internet traffic among local Bangladeshis peaks on Mondays and is generally higher during the working days. Fridays represent substantially less traffic, but it is worth noting that internet consumption remains high for non-resident Bangladeshis visiting local Bangladeshi sites on Fridays.

Finally we can say that the rapid development of the online space in Bangladesh is very exciting and promising. The frenetic popularity of global platforms like Google, Facebook and Twitter as well as the innovation and growth of local websites, Bangla content, localized online tools and ecommerce which indicates that the internet will have an increasingly positive impact on the daily lives of people in this country.

Research Purpose:
Today “Internet” is practiced by millions of people all over the world. They’re engaged with it to accomplish several tasks or to perform many day to day activities. Apart from that, internet is now treating like a source of entertainment.
So, through our study we tried to find out specifically the activities & opinions of the private university students about internet. Here, we tried to find out their perceptions, usages, preference & their activities through internet (e.g. with internet what they like to do most? or how much time they spent with internet?).

Through this research, we tried to focus on the usages of internet by male & female students, so that we can measure a bit how they’re treating it, what are they dealing with, is this positive for them or not, how much time they spent with it etc. Besides, with this study we may have an aspect of internet usages of new generations. From that we can highlight the advantages & disadvantages of internet usage and can predict the future condition a bit.

A new social class is being created, mainly amongst the young generation who find the Internet an effective tool for their career development and the globalization of their thoughts and creativity. Many Internet users have stated that a whole new world has been opened to them, they are getting a new source of knowledge, and they are also making relations with many good friends and organizations worldwide. But some say that going online is a very costly habit, which sometimes appears as an addiction and causes a big waste of time. A group of young people, notably from the affluent section of the society, is abusing the Internet by using it mostly for entertainment, which is certainly not a healthy practice for a poor country like us. But the saddest news is that Bangladesh has yet to set up an academic network to provide Internet access to the large number of university teachers, students, scientists, and researchers who play vital roles in building a better nation.

Review of Literature: 1. Internet Addiction: The Emergence of a New Clinical Disorder
To cite this article:

KIMBERLY S. YOUNG. CyberPsychology & Behavior. FALL 1998, 1(3): 237-244. doi:10.1089/cpb.1998.1.237.
Published in Volume: 1 Issue 3: January 29, 2009

ABSTRACT
Anecdotal reports indicated that some on-line users were becoming addicted to the Internet in much the same way that others became addicted to drugs or alcohol, which resulted in academic, social, and occupational impairment. However, research among sociologists, psychologists, or psychiatrists has not formally identified addictive use of the Internet as a problematic behavior. This study investigated the existence of Internet addiction and the extent of problems caused by such potential misuse. Of all the diagnoses referenced in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders—Fourth Edition (DSM-IV; American Psychiatric Association, 1995), Pathological Gambling was viewed as most akin to the pathological nature of Internet use. By using Pathological Gambling as a model, addictive Internet use can be defined as an impulse-control disorder that does not involve an intoxicant. Therefore, this study developed a brief eight-item questionnaire referred to as a Diagnostic Questionnaire (DQ), which modified criteria for pathological gambling to provide a screening instrument for classification of participants. On the basis of this criteria, case studies of 396 dependent Internet users (Dependents) and 100 nondependent Internet users (Nondependents) were classified. Qualitative analyses suggest significant behavioral and functional usage differences between the two groups such as the types of applications utilized, the degree of difficulty controlling weekly usage, and the severity of problems noted. Clinical and social implications of pathological Internet use and future directions for research are discussed.

2. Informal Learning with Technology Outside School
Julian Sefton-Green, WAC Performing Arts and Media College
Abstract:
When we think about learning, we often tend to think about schools, universities, colleges. If we go a little further and think about learning outside school, we might begin to consider museums, galleries and science centres. What we often tend to overlook, however, is the sort of learning that goes on as part of our normal day-to-day activities when we don't even think we are learning. Today, however, anyone who has an interest in how children learn with digital technologies needs to look beyond institutional contexts to consider the implications of children's use of computers, mobile phones, digital television and so on as part of their informal day-to-day lives. How are children learning when playing computer games? What are they learning when they create animations or websites on a computer at home? Why are they interested and engaged in using these technologies outside school? What can we learn from these activities that can help us in designing our approaches to formal education?

3. Coming of age with the internet
A qualitative exploration of how the internet has become an integral part of young people’s lives- 1. Sally J. Mcmillan 1. University of Tennessee, USA, sjmcmill@utk.edu 2. Margaret Morrison 2. University of Tennessee, USA

Abstract
Analyzing autobiographical essays written by 72 young adult college students, this study investigates how coming of age concurrently with the internet and related technologies has influenced these young people’s lives. An understanding of how the technology is influencing the various domains of their lives provides a window on what internet use may be like for future generations. Essays revealed insights into four primary domains: self, family, real communities, and virtual communities. Within each of these domains, participants’ responses tended to focus on key dualities. Additionally, these young people report a growing dependency on the internet for activities ranging from managing their daily lives to building and maintaining virtual communities.

Hypothesis:

Our study has indicated that there is no difference between genders in usages of internet. Their attitudes, priorities, perceptions are quite equal in respect of genders. In recent years, the usages of internet are growing higher rapidly. The number of Internet subscriptions in Bangladesh grew from 186,000 in 2000 to 617,300 in 2009. Young generations are mostly attached with it. Now, internet is available in mobile phones, school & college campuses, maximum universities are under Wi-Fi coverage. So, our study is on the usage of internet by private university students assumed that there is no difference in male & female.

Contradictory research:
In today’s world, usage of internet by male & female, its impact, advantages and disadvantages etc are the matter of global concern. Numerous sociologists & psychologists are studying on it & providing their different significant opinions on it. Many of them have found differences in usages of internet between male & female. They have mentioned that, there are much differences in their perceptions, usages, priorities etc based on different country & people.

Adolescent Internet usage in Taiwan: exploring gender differences.
Lin CH, Yu SF.
Author information-
Department of Business Administration, National Central University, Taiwan, ROC.
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to explore gender differences in adolescent Internet accessibility, motives for use, and online activities in Taiwan; 629 5th and 6th graders were surveyed. Findings revealed that the gap in gender differences with regard to Internet use has decreased in this generation. Even though the Internet is the most recent form of major media in the world, it has become the second most important medium as perceived by boys and girls. No gender difference was found in adolescents' motives for using the Internet. The ranking of relative importance of motives for adolescents going online was searching for information, followed by socializing, and boredom avoidance for both boys and girls. However, a gender difference in online activities seems to persist. Searching for homework information and playing games were the most popular online activities for all adolescents. However, while girls tended to view the Internet more as a means of searching for information and e-mailing friends, boys tended to use it more for playing games and down-loading software.

Method:
Participants:
To do our research we took 10 young participants ( 5 male & 5 female ) of private university students. We choose them indivially.

Materials:
In the materials we ask for their ages & genders. We didn’t query for their name, address or anything which seems to them personal. We tried to set up the personal information section very transparent & easy which they can feel comfortable to mention.

There were separate 17 questions. We tried to categories into hours are spent by them (e.g. in chat rooms, instant messenger, social networking, blogs, gaming etc.), what they do most, where they use internet most, their perception towards socialization through internet, study & job opportunity by internet etc.

All over, we had good response over it. Participants answer all the questions freely & we tried to help them as our best. In few questions they seem little confuse & close enough. Apart from that, it was good enough to deal with these materials.

Procedure: * At first, we distribute the question papers to the students who were free enough to spent few minutes with us. Then we informed them about our study on internet usages & assured them their identity would be safe & we’ll need their information for academic purpose only. * After their friendly response we gave them the papers & collected them after finishing it. We tried to get 100% response of them in the question papers. We tried to find out the papers are fully filled up or not. Apart from two or three questions we got answers of all of them.

Result:
(1) Comparison between Male & Female about Internet using (based on collected data):

Here we can see that, 3 female participants use internet less than 1 hour and 2 female participants use internet 1-2 hours every day; whereas 2 male participants use internet 1-2 hours and 1 participant use 2-3 hours every day.

(2) Years of experience with Internet (based on collected data)-

Here, 1 female participant has 4 years of experience in using internet, 3 users have 3 years of experience but 1 participant has 5 years of experience of using internet. On the other hand, 2 male has 4 years, 1 has 2 years and 2 males have 7 & 6 years’ experience in using internet respectively.

(3) Impact of internet on the quality of socialization spaces (based on collected data)-

According to 9 participants (male – 4, female -5) internet has a positive contribution towards socialization but only 1 male participant has contradictory opinion.

(4) Main reason for getting in touch with new persons on-line (based on collected data)-

In this graph, we can figure out that 3 female participants have some personal ‘others’ opinions regarding getting in touch with new persons on-line. Apart from that 2 female have mentioned ‘curiosity’ in this case. But 2 male participants mentioned ‘curiosity’ and 1 stated ‘personality match’ for making friendship with new persons on-line.

(5) Internet usage impact on job opportunity (based on collected data)-

According to everyone, internet has a positive space for job opportunities.

Discussion:
Through our combined study on internet usages by male & female of private university students we have acquired significant experiences for our further academic career. We got a chance to explore young people’s nature & attitudes towards usages of internet of both male & female. As we mentioned before, we have applied a survey on usages of internet through few questionnaires on young people & there out of their answers we could measure the result later.
We have found differences between male & female users, in their choice, preferences, activities, priorities towards internet. At first, we found differences in their spare of time spent in internet. Maximum of male & female users use internet every day. But, females use it less than one hour most & males use 2-3 hours most every day. Most of the males do social networking at internet most & females prefer to spent time in chat rooms, social networking specially. Males don’t prefer chat rooms every day where females do, so instant messenger is not their area at all for males. Both males and females have not so much interest in reading r writing blogs whereas they prefer to browse webs and listen to music every day. Online gaming is mostly preferred by males where females have less interest in it. Both male & female share files but not every day. Besides, we noticed that online shopping is not so well admissible by both parties. We think this trend have to invest more to attract their considerations & have to be more reliable and trustworthy. Because, in other countries online shopping is doing really well & they are also opening a new era in business trend ahead. But, online news is widely appreciated by both parties & every day they like to access it through both mobiles and personal computers. Internet TV is not widely practiced by them though now all the operators are providing 3G services. They mention high price plan of internet packages for not using internet TV though we found that maximum of the participants have 3G enable handsets & internet at their home. As we survey on the private university students, we found that all of them mostly use internet at home. And maximum males & females prefer voice calls to communicate with their friends when they are offline. At the time of study we came to know that, participants like to make friendship with unknown persons at online while discussing with them. According to males they highlighted to the same discussion group & common interest mostly for making friendship with unknown persons where girls have mixed reasons for getting in touch with strangers. Both of the parties expressed their positive opinion to meet with the strangers in real world with whom they met only online. Thus, virtual world has a tremendous impact on their personal life they thought so. After that, we tried to figure out the years of experiences of their internet life. Here we found that, males have 4 to 7 years of internet experience & females have 3 to 6 years. So, we can assume that these people had started internet using from their higher school level near about from class 8. Out of their years of experiences we asked them about the contribution of internet in socialization. And in a very much positive way they said “YES”. But, one of our male participants has a contradictory opinion. According to him, for the rapid growth of internet using is liable for decreasing people’s real life gatherings as well as socializations. People like to spend hours with virtual world skipping behind their real one. Cultures, traditions are changing in an undesirable way which is not belonging to our real culture at all. On the other hand, all of them have considered internet as a huge scope for opening job opportunities. Now, almost every well-known company has their own official website & likes to give advertisements for vacancies in online newspapers too.

Unlike job opportunities, internet has a positive impact on study. Now, with the help of internet students can access their study materials & information quite easily. It also time consuming & provide us vast information about anything.
Finally, after finishing this little research we can have bit knowledge about internet usages & trends of recent times. Now, we can easily differentiate the perceptions &tastes of both young male and female users. Out of their taste & use now we can predict which type of further editions should be added. What will be accepted by them at all? “Internet” is a vast network or store of knowledge & information. We should try to learn how to use it properly in a positive way without wasting our time & harming our main duties. Only then, it can have a significant use in our life.

Limitations: * Though the topic of our study was huge but for the shortage of time we have to do our survey only on ten participants. * We have to analysis the result based on few participants though we could find further different opinions regarding it. Source: * Google Scholar * Wikipedia * The Daily Star * Other several websites

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...The concept of sociology had been recognized by independent philosophers since the dawn of organized civilization. Philosophers such as Confucius and Xenophanes in their works had hinted at the clash of cultures and social hierarchy. Later, in the 14th century, Arab scholars such as Al Jahiz and Ibn Khaldun's compliled books on the history of society itself. These works are known to be forerunners of sociology. In fact, books written by Ibn Khaldun on social cohesion and conflict were translated into Latin in the 15th century. However, Sociology as a discipline has only been around since the late 17th century. Sociology then was very much the product of a rapidly changing world, from the violent revolutions in France to the subtle urbanization of Europe over a period of hundred years. Each philosopher, depending on the time period he was born in, and his background, contributed to sociology in his own unique way.The term "sociologie" was first coined by a French essayist named Emmanuel in the 17th century. However, little is known about his other contributions towards the field. Among most notable of early sociologists was Auguste Compte. He largey thought of sociology as a positivist science. In fact he himself coined the term positive philosophy . In his works, he established three stages of attainment of knowledge, theological, metaphysical and positive. Many historians belief that his conclusions on positivism and sociology were a direct result of the bloody French......

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...Reflective Essay Introduction to Sociology Nicola McMenamin 730353x Word Count: 1579 40 % Dr. John McCormack October 21st 2012 Sociology "The art of life lies in taking pleasures as they pass, and the keenest pleasures are not intellectual, nor are they always moral", this quote was once said by a Greek secular artist, by reading this quote one can presume that most philosophers and thinkers alike look for a deeper meaning within their lives and throughout society. Previous to this course my viewpoint and attitude were based on the people of which I surround myself with, the life experiences I have encountered and the way in which we make our decisions and why. Following my studies I have found this foundation of my knowledge to be valid and rather accurate although there are numerous factors which make up our decisions and how we end up where we are, studying sociology has assisted me in becoming more aware of different factors which I may have not considered to make up a society and how in turn this has enhanced my sense of identity. In relation to individuality and where I am in society I have found there are a number of entities which define me within the social order, that being of where I have lived in the world, the people I surround myself with, the cultures I have endured and seen, the values I was taught as a child and to this day as an adult and the......

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...What is Sociology? Sociology is defined as the scientific study of society and human behavior. Sociology is a part of social sciences. The study of sociology aims at analyzing the patterns of human behavior, deriving their causes and speculating the future of the behavioral patterns in society.  Importance of Sociology The various disciplines of sociology include the study of social interaction between people. The areas covered by sociology include the analysis of social contacts between members of a society as also the interactions between different people around the world. Sociology attempts to study how and why people are organized as a society. It analyzes the structure of society and studies the factors that contribute to the creation of social groups. Sociology includes the study of the behavioral patterns, interactions and relationships among the individuals of society. This field tries to examine the organizational structure of society and the influence it has on the social, political and religious ideas of the members. It encompasses the study of the organization of families and businesses. It attempts to analyze the creation and management of social groups as well as the factors, which lead to their breakdown. The disciplines of sociology are concerned with the effects of social behavior on the formation of social traits. It also includes the ethical and moral values of society.  Sociology is regarded as a branch of social sciences. It deals with the......

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...P2 Explain different sociological approaches to health and ill health There are different approaches to health and ill health in sociology, and these include Functionalism, Marxism, Feminism and Interactionism. The World Health Organisation (WHO) in 1974 defines positive health as a state of complete physical mental, social, spiritual and well-being not merely the absence of disease. The holistic approach is based on addressing the individual’s physical, social, emotional and spiritual health needs. The functionalist approach to health and ill health In the functionalist model, Parsons argued that illness is a form of deviance that disturbs the social function of a society; within the functionalist approach to health it studies the relationship between a sick individual and the society as a whole. Parsons stated that for the society to function efficiently the members of the society must be free from illness and must be of well health. Functionalists argued that stability and cooperation are very crucial for a society to function efficiently; functionalists explain that through the process of socialisation we learn our society’s general norms, values and social roles. An example of this is, saying “thank you or please” these are some of the values that are treasured within societies, and an example of a social role would be a grandmother fulfilling the role as a grandmother. For the grandmother to fulfil her role, the individual has to look after the grandchildren......

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Sociology

...societies and world systems. * We study it to be able to evaluate the effects of gender, ethnic background, social class, religion, and community on an individual or group. Another is that the sociological perspective is crucial for success in today’s multicultural and multinational work environments. Thus, a background in social science is valuable preparation for careers in almost any modern organizational setting. 2. What are the disciplines of Social Science? * Social science is actually the commonly used as an umbrella term to refer to the academic disciplines concerned with society and the relationships among individuals within a society. These disciplines include anthropology, economics, political science, psychology and sociology and many more. 3. What is Anthropology? Why do we study Anthropology? * Anthropology is the study of humans, past and present. Anthropologists look at cross-cultural differences in social institutions, cultural beliefs, and communication styles. They often seek to promote understanding between groups by "translating" each culture to the other, for instance by spelling out common, taken-for-granted assumptions. * We study it to be able to understand the full sweep and complexity of cultures across all of human history. An anthropology class can be useful for students in a variety of majors, such as education, business, medicine, and law. Knowledge about human diversity is helpful in many careers. It is often an......

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...Sociology: Nature and Scope Sociology Defined. — Definitions of sociology are many. While it would be hardly correct to say that there are as many as there are sociologists, it is safe to say that they are as numerous as the various points of view of the respective groups of sociologists. The term 'Sociology' was coined by Auguste Comte, a French philosopher in 1839. It is the youngest of all social sciences. Sociology is the outcome of man's search for a more valid, and precise knowledge about the nature of man and the society. The word 'Sociology' is derived from the Latin word 'Societus' meaning 'society and the Greek word 'logos' meaning 'study or science'. Thus, the etymological meaning of 'Sociology' is the 'science of society'. In other words, we can say Sociology is the study of man's behaviour in groups or of interaction among human beings of social relationships and the processes by which human group activity takes place. Definitions: To make the study more clear, it is wise on our part to discuss some of the definitions given by famous sociologists. Unfortunately, there is no short-cut definition of Sociology so far. It has been defined in a number of ways by different sociologists, but no single definition of Sociology has yet been accepted as completely satisfactory. Auguste Comte, the founding father of Sociology, defines Sociology "as the science of social phenomena subject to natural and invariable laws, the discovery of which is the object of......

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...Glossary of Sociological Terms |11-Plus Exam |Examination introduced with the 1944 Education Act, sat by all pupils in the state sector| | |at the age of 11. If they passed they went to the selective Grammar School, or if they | | |failed to the Secondary Modern School. This exam still exists in some counties such as | | |Kent and also in Northern Ireland. | |12-Plus Exam |Exam made available only to a minority of 'high-flyers' in Secondary Modern schools, | | |offering a late chance to go to Grammar School at the age of 12. | |'30-30-40 society' |A term associated with Will Hutton to describe an increasingly insecure and polarised | | |society. The bottom 30 per cent is socially excluded by poverty from the rest of society.| | |The next 30 per cent live in fear and insecurity of falling into poverty. Only the top 40| | |per cent feel secure and confident. ...

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...produce unanticipated and harmful outcomes (Vaughan,1999). It is often an unintended consequence of the normal activities of actors within an organization” (Fox & Harding 2005) Sociology- scientific study of human behavior, social groups, and society. * As stated by the American Sociological Association, sociology is the study of social life and the social causes and the consequences of human behavior. The term social life encompasses all the interpersonal relationships, all groups or collections of person, and all types of social organizations. The “Causes and consequences of human behavior” encompass how these relationships, groups, and organizations are interrelated; how they influence personal and interpersonal behavior; how they affect and are affected by the larger society, how they change or why they remain static; and what the consequences are of these factors. This definition reflects the belief that people can be understood only in the context of their contacts, associations, and communications with other people. The very heart of sociology then its concern with the complexities and subtleties of human social life makes it a discipline that is highly relevant not only to professional sociologists, but also to people in virtually every line of work and at every level. * Thus sociology may consider a wide range of general questions such as the following; HOW DO GROUPS INFLUENCE INDIVIDUAL HUMAN BEHAVIOR? Social Imagination- quality of mind that allows......

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