Free Essay

Soil Properties

In: Science

Submitted By chibbii
Words 3000
Pages 12
The purpose of a site investigation is to identify the ground conditions which might affect the proposed development. It enables better understanding of the site and immediate surroundings, which will enable safe and economic developments. They are a common requirement of the investors as well as the regulatory authorities.

In the broadest sense, the ground conditions are understood to include not only the underlying soils and rocks but also the groundwater regime, any contamination and effects of any previous uses of the site

The purpose of a site investigation is to identify the ground conditions which ma, any contamination and the effects o

1.1.1 The scale of problem
Various reports over the past 25 years have shown that the largest element of technical and financial risk normally lies in the ground. Ground related problems have led to late completions and high cost overruns on the national scale.

Lady using a tablet
Essay Writers
Get your grade or your money back using our Essay Writing Service!

In an analysis of 8000 building projects, National economic Development office (NEDO) stated that one third of the projects overran by more than a month, a further one third overran up to a month due to delays due to unforeseen ground conditions.

Work in groups or pairs, note down a few points on

Why carry out site investigation?
1.2 Why carry out site investigation?
The characterization of ground conditions whether for a 'greenfield' or a previously developed 'brownfield' site will include both the geotechnical and the geo-environmental issues. Site investigations can be required for both geotechnical and geo-environmental purposes and for many projects it would be advantageous to combine the investigations with resulting economics in cost, time and site disruption.

The investigations should allow a comprehensive risk assessment of the ground conditions to be made from which a programme of risk management can be developed,

The risks which may be defined can be health risks (from previous contamination of land), engineering risks (posed by difficult ground conditions), regulatory risks or financial risks, all of which may arise from unforeseen ground conditions and liabilities.

The object of the site investigation is to characterize the ground conditions sufficiently to allow safe and economic design to be developed and to reduce, as far as possible, the occurrence and impact of unforeseen conditions.

Objectives of Site Investigation
The principal questions for site Investigation would be as follows:

Suitability: Are the site and surroundings suitable for the project?

Design: Obtain all the design parameters necessary for the works.

Construction: Are there any potential ground or ground water conditions that would affect the construction?

Contamination: Any possibilities of the site being contaminated?

Materials: Are there any materials available on site, what quantity and quality?

Effect of changes: How will the design affect adjacent properties and the ground water?

In addition to these, it is necessary to investigate existing features of the natural ground.,M1

What does site investigation involve?
Site Investigation is the gathering of information about the proposed location of the project.The process of site investigation can be separated into the following areas:

Objectives of Site Investigation (SI)

Desk study


Ground investigation (GI)

Trial Pits




The sequence of a site investigation is as follows:

Desk Study

Site Reconnaissance -Walk-over study

Preliminary report or feasibility study

Preliminary Ground Investigation - Planning of main GI

Preliminary report

Main Ground Investigation

Laboratory testing

Final report

On-site Groundbreaking Work

Trial pits - by hand or excavator

'Lightweight' and 'Heavyweight' boring and testing equipment

Laboratory soil testing (eg. plasticity of Clays

1.3.1 Desk Study
According to the NHBC standards chapter 4.1, all sites must be assessed by a Desk Study and Walkover Survey (Clauses D1-D3).

Desk Study should be carried out for every development prior to any intrusive site investigation.

Lady using a tablet
Writing Services Plagiarism-free Always on Time Marked to Standard

The desk study is work taken up prior to commencing the work on site and the Ground Investigation. It should always be the first stage of the Site Investigation and is used to plan the Ground Investigation. The work involves researching the site to gain as much information as possible, both geological and historical.

The desk study examines and draws together existing information from a variety

of sources to form an initial appraisal of possible ground conditions and to

consider past uses and current status of a site.

This provides a preliminary assessment of the geotechnical and geo-environmental risks which may be associated with the site.

Records of Previous SI reports are also helpful in a desk study. The many sources of SI data include previous company reports,

Services records are also an essential part of the desk study, necessary to locate hidden services such as electricity cables, sewers and telephone wires. This in formation is usually provided free of charge by the relevant service provider. A suggested list of sources is: Local Authority; British Telecom; Electricity Company; British Gas; Water Companies.

It is also essential to check for the location of former mine workings as these can considerably affect construction and lead to cost increases. The location of these mines may be difficult but help can be found from the Divisional Plans Record Offices of the National Coal Board

It is essential when conducting a desk study that as much information as possible is obtained. Work at this stage of the Investigation saves much time later and vastly improves the planning and quality of the Investigation.

1.3.2 Walk -over survey -Walk -over survey of a site can give valuable insight into potential ground condition problems (for example slope instability or shallow groundwater) and contamination issues. Such site visits often give rise to anecdotal contributions by local residents.

The Site Reconnaissance phase of a site investigation is normally in the form of a walk over survey of the site. Important evidence to look for is:

Hydrogeology: Wet marshy ground, springs or seepage, ponds or streams and Wells.

Slope Instability: Signs of slope instability include bent trees, hummocks on the ground and displaced fences or drains.

Mining: The presence of mining is often signs of subsidence and possibly disused mine shafts. Open cast mining is indicated by diverted streams replaced or removed fence/hedge lines.

Access: It is essential that access to the site can be easily obtained. Possible problems include low overhead cables and watercourses

The combination of desk study and walk-over survey is an extremely cost-effective first stage in an investigation. It provides early warning of potential problems and a sound basis for the scope of intrusive investigation which is to follow. The desk study and walk-over survey can also provide early recognition of site

issues such as ecology and archaeology which may have profound implications in both programme and financial terms.

1.3.2 Planning a Site Investigation
Dumbleton And West2 have discussed the planning and direction of site investigations. They state that "the main investigation is the full investigation of the site using boreholes and trial pits and includes the preparation of the site-investigation report with revised plans and sections, interpretation and recommendations for design."

They consider that there are two aspects to the site investigation.

The geological structure and character of the site and

the testing of the soil both in the laboratory and in-situ.

They suggest that the planning should consider the following questions.

Is the succession of strata known over the whole site and is there correlation across the whole site known?

Are the different strata fairly homogeneous over the site or do local variations exist? Are there more complex areas of strata that require investigation or closer examination during construction? Will there be areas where the excavated material will be unsuitable for fill and will need to be replaced?

Are there areas where needs to be assessed to ascertain working methods?

Will any part of the site be subject to flooding? What contact will there be with water bearing strata and will ground water lowering methods be required during construction?

Lady using a tablet
This Essay is a Student's Work
This essay has been submitted by a student. This is not an example of the work written by our professional essay writers.

Do requirements for the carrying out of special in-situ tests or the taking of undisturbed samples affect the conduct of the qualitative investigation? For example, with forethought a single trial pit may be made to serve both for examining ground materials and structure, and for the in-situ testing and the taking of block samples.

1.4 Ground Investigation
Ground investigation is taken to be that other than the information available from the walk over survey as discussed previously.

There are two principal methods of investigating the ground conditions, trial pits and boreholes. In addition, the reader should be aware of geophysical techniques such as seismic surveys, which are not discussed here.

1.4.1 Trial Pits
Trial pits are shallow excavations going down to a depth no greater 6m. The trial pit as such is used extensively at the surface for block sampling and detection of services prior to borehole excavation.


Excavation Method


By Hand


Wheeled Back Hoe


Hydraulic Excavator

An important safety point to note is that ALL pits below a depth of 1.2m must be supported. In addition care should be taken as gases such as methane and carbon dioxide can build up in a trial pit. Breathing apparatus must therefore be used if no gas detection equipment is available.

Support for a trial pit generally takes one of three forms:


Steel frames with hydraulic jacks

Battered or tapered sides

Three types of sample can be taken from a trial pit:

Disturbed Sample - Samples where the soils in-situ properties are not retained.

Block Sample - A sample that is not undisturbed but retains some in-situ properies.

Push in tube sample - Tube samples of the soil in a trial pit.

When preparing a trial pit log, the following information should be included. The location, orientation and size of the pit; sketches of faces; depth scale; root structur; water level; seepage. In addidtion the weather at the time of sampling should be noted as many soils are weather dependant.

It is extremely important when finished to reinstate the trial pit as well as possible.

1.4.2 Boreholes
A borhole is used to determine the nature of the ground (usually below 6m depth) in a qualitative manner and then recover undisturbed samples for quantitative examination. Where this is not possible, for in gravelly soils below the water table, in-situ testing methods are used.

Obviously the information gained from a borehole is an extremely limited picture of the subsurface structure. It is therefore essential to compare the results obtained with those that could have been expected from the desk study. The greater the number of boreholes the more certain it is possible to be of the correlation and thus to trust in the results.

The two principal types of boring machine used for Site Investigation in the United Kingdom are light percussive and drilling machines.

Light Percussive is the process of making boreholes by striking the soil then removing it and the most common method is the shell and auger. This is a general term to describe various tools suspended from a triangular tripod incorporating a power winch. The tools are repeatedly dropped down the borehole while suspended by wire from the power winch.

The different tools used include:

Clay Cutter - Used in cohesive materials and is raised and lowered, using it's own weight to cut into the material.

Shell - Used for boring in silts and sands. Similar to the clay cutter, but has a trap door at the bottom to catch material.

Chisel - Used for breaking up hard material such as boulders or rocks. Additional payment is required for chiselling as per the Bill of Quantities and permission is normally required from the Resident Engineer before work can start.

Drilling is the process of boring normally by using a combination of a rotating action and a hydraulic ram. There are many different types of rig depending on access and type of ground expected. Hollow drilling rods enable a flush of water, air, foam or mud which is used to carry the cuttings to the surface as well as lubricating and cooling the drill bit. The three main types of drill bit are:

Typing on a laptop keyboard
Get our Essay
Writing Guide
As the UK's leading essay and dissertation writing service, we have put together the ultimate guide to writing your essay!

Double tube is where the outer tube rotates and allows for the removal of the cuttings while the inner tube is stationary and prevents the core from shearing. There are different designs of tube varying the location of the flush discharge so as to prevent sample erosion. It is necessary for the hole to be bigger than the tube and so the diamond bits are attached to the outside of the hole, thus allowing the flush to return to the surface.

Triple tube in corporates a third tube to protect the core even further during extrusion and can have either a split tube, which is removed, or a plastic tube to provide longer term protection. A less effective alternative is to incorporate a nylon liner in a double tube.

Retractable triple tube is a variation where the inner tube is attached to a retractor and can extend beyond the cutting edge. This gives complete protection to the core in softer rock whilst in harder rock where this is not necesary, it retracts to become a standard triple tube. This is used in alternating soft/hard rock, typical of a weathered profile.

Core bits are usually diamond tipped and are either surface set, where diamonds are mounted into a matrix, or impregnated where a fine diamond dust is used in the matrix. In softer rocks, the cuttings can clog up the matrix so the softer the rock, the larger the diamonds need to be. Tungsten carbide bits can also be used in the softer rocks.

Sampling can be either undisturbed, of which in-situ testing is a form, or disturbed. The principal sampling methods used in boreholes are:

SPT test: This is a dynamic test as described in BS1377 (Part 9) and is a measure of the density of the soil. The test incorporates a small diameter tube with a cutting shoe known as the 'split barrel sampler' of about 650mm length, 50mm external diameter and 35mm internal diameter. The sampler is forced into the soil dynamically using blows from a 63.5kg hammer dropped through 760mm. The sampler is forced 150mm into the soil then the number of blows required to lower the sampler each 75mm up to a depth of 300mm is recorded. This is known as the "N" value. For coarse gravels the split barrel is replaced by a 60 degree cone.

Core Sample: Core samples must be sealed with parafin to maintain the water conditions and then end sealed to prevent physical interferance. The mpst common of these is the U100 (see below) although other sizes from 54mm to 100mm diameter are used. The standard U100 has a sample area ratio of 30% so large ammounts of soil are displaced. A thin walled Piston Sampler reduces this to 10%. The sample is pushed or jacked into the ground as opposed to a dynamic action.

U100: This is a 450mm long, 100mm diameter undisturbed sample. The tube has a cutter at one end and the driving equipment at the other. Behind the cutter is a core catcher, incorporating 3 arms that go into the sample as it is withdrawn, to prevent the sample from falling out. Care should be taken to ensure that the cutting shoe is as clean and sharp as possible.

Bulk Samples: Usually taken from trial pits or in soils where there is little or no cohesion. Often called block samples.

WaterSamples: Water samples should be taken as soon as water is first struck and the depth recorded. After a suitable period of time (usually 10-15 mins) the depth should be re-recorded and a further sample taken. A final sample should be taken at the end of the borehole and the depth to water regularly recorded. The sample is taken using a device known as a bailer, made from teflon or plastic it incrporates a float to trap the water and should be cleaned after each sample.

The sampling procedure varies according to the type of strata in which the investigation takes place. A reccomended sampling procedure is listed below.

Clays: Normally need undisturbed samples

U100 every 1.5m or change of stratum. Blow count and penetration should be noted.

If unable to obtain a U100 then bulk samples as above.

If U100 does not full penetrate SPT test is required.

Sands & Gravels: Undisturbed samples are not practical due to the lack of cohesion.

SPT every 1m or change of stratum. Number of seating blows should also be recorded.

Bulk samples to be taken between SPT's.


Alternate SPT and U100 samples at 0.75m intervals

1.5 Reporting
The Site Investigation report should answer all the questions set out in the planning phase of the Investigation This should include an assessment of the viability of the proposed project.

Included in the report should be a location of all the boreholes, trial pits, other excavations and their logs. These logs should give as much information as possible on the soil and rock structure as it is possible to obtain.

Similar Documents

Free Essay

Linkages of Plant Traits to Soil Properties

...21 October 2014 Review of: Linkages of plant traits to soil properties and the functioning of temperate grassland The researchers and authors of this paper looked at the idea of plant-soil interactions and how their traits can be a tool to help understand ecosystem functions. Global climate change has affected many factors involved in ecosystems and their functions, and this will continue to happen. A very likely outcome of continued climate change is the changing of plant communities and their traits. This in turn affects the surrounding soil, and that will have an impact on the nutrient cycling which rely very heavily on the soil to be the mediator. Most of Earth’s processes and functions are interconnected and are difficult to alter without having an effect on something else. The relationship of plant traits to ecosystem properties can tell researchers a great deal about the current state of the ecosystem and the kind of functions that are present. Key nutrient cycles such as nitrogen, phosphorus, and carbon are intricate and affected by many factors. The researchers of this paper believed that by studying the plant traits and soil properties they could gain a better idea of these cycles and the way that they are affected. Their main goal was to determine whether or not the traits of co-existing grassland species grown with different growth strategies would have an effect/differ the soil properties. They measured the plant traits on fresh leaf, litter, and......

Words: 561 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Soil Investigation

...Soil investigation is often neglected or rejected by most clients on the basis of cost, despite the fact that the cost of carrying out a soil investigation is very little compared to the cost of the project Soil investigation is done for various purposes. In engineering, soil investigation is very necessary. It is essential to investigate the soil of the selected plot on which a structure will be constructed. Based on soil investigation a soil report is prepared for the purpose of designing the building foundation. When an engineer designs building foundation he/she must carefully read the report and design the foundation based on the data provided in the report. Soil investigation is required for the following purposes - To know the allowable bearing capacity of foundation for proposed building. To know the depth and type of foundation for the proposed building. To know the allowable passive resistance for the foundation of proposed building. To know the type, grading and nature of soil. To know the ground water level. Typical steps of soil investigation Soil investigation involves following steps –  Details planning for the sequence of operations.  Collecting the samples of soil from the plot.  Determining the soil characteristics by conducting field tests.  Study the condition of ground water level.  Collecting ground water sample for chemical analysis.  Soil exploration.  Testing all collected samples in the laboratory.  Preparation of......

Words: 1233 - Pages: 5

Free Essay


...steel Types and Uses Steel is often classified by its carbon content: a high-carbon steel is serviceable for dies and cutting tools because of its great hardness and brittleness; low- or medium-carbon steel is used for sheeting and structural forms because of its amenability to welding and tooling. Alloy steels, now most widely used, contain one or more other elements to give them specific qualities. Aluminum steel is smooth and has a high tensile strength. Chromium steel finds wide use in automobile and airplane parts on account of its hardness, strength, and elasticity, as does the chromium-vanadium variety. Nickel steel is the most widely used of the alloys; it is nonmagnetic and has the tensile properties of high-carbon steel without the brittleness. Nickel-chromium steel possesses a shock resistant quality that makes it suitable for armor plate. Wolfram (tungsten), molybdenum, and high-manganese steel are other alloys. Stainless steel, which was developed in England, has a high tensile strength and resists abrasion and corrosion because of its high chromium content. Steel guide - Steel classification Steel may be classified in categories Steel can be subdivided into different categories which represent different chemical composition standards. Due to the large variety of categories and grades only a few kinds can be introduced below. Sorted steel rods Carbon Steel Carbon steel is a simple kind of steel which can be hardened. Carbon steel contains......

Words: 1300 - Pages: 6

Free Essay

Mass Wating

...Austin Pope Lesson 17 Exercise 29 April 2015 1. What do the various kinds of rocks used for monuments tell us about weathering? There are three principal types of stone used in the structures, pedestals, and ornament of the many monuments that may be found throughout the parks system: granite, limestone, and marble. Granite, an igneous rock, is formed through the cooling and crystallization of molten bodies within the earth. It is dense and durable. Limestone is a sedimentary rock comprised mainly of the mineral calcite and formed through the compression of mostly marine organisms in pre-historic times. It can be soft and flinty and porous and, though easy to cut and tool, it is susceptible to weathering from the effects of acid rain and other pollutants. Marble is created through a metamorphic process in which heat and pressure cause the recrystallization of sendimentary carbonate rocks, and is related to limestone. It is often prized for its variegated color and veining, but may also be found in a pure white. Most marble, especially the colorful variety, is actually limestone, though commercial quarries and vendors, unlike geologists, tend to distinguish the two. Marble is also highly vulnerable to damage from weathering and pollutants. As used in monuments, the same granite and marble may have a strikingly different appearance and coloration depending on whether their surface treatment has a flame finish, honed surface, or polished treatment. 2. What......

Words: 1993 - Pages: 8

Free Essay

Agroforestry Systems Have the Potential to Enhance Soil Fertility

... BSc. FORESTRY UNIT TITLE/CODE: ENF 313- AGROFORESTRY SYSTEMS ASSIGNMENT: AGROFORESTRY SYSTEMS HAVE THE POTENTIAL TO ENHANCE SOIL FERTILITY, USING SPECIFIC EXAMPLES DISCUSS INSTRUCTOR: MR. OKEYO QUESTION: AGROFORESTRY SYSTEMS HAVE THE POTENTIAL TO ENHANCE SOIL FERTILITY, USING SPECIFIC EXAMPLES DISCUSS (20 MKS) Agroforestry systems have the potential to enhance soil fertility due to the diverse interactions between the different components involved such as the trees, the crops and even the livestock .Soil is one of the most important natural resources to suffer as a result of clearance of the vegetation cover. If it is not protected, its productivity declines and it may become difficult to sustain the human and animal population even at its present level. Therefore, protection of this resource is important and an understanding of how this resource is influenced in an Agroforestry system is necessary. For instance, it is generally assumed that trees have deep and spreading roots and hence are capable of exploiting more soil volume and taking up nutrients and water from deeper layer not usually contacted by herbaceous crops. This process of taking up nutrients from deeper soil profiles and eventually depositing at least some portion of them on the surface layers through litter-fall and other mechanisms is referred to as 'nutrient pumping' by trees.......

Words: 1015 - Pages: 5

Free Essay


...UTILIZATION OF PINEAPPLE LEAF FIBERS AS GROUND COVER FOR SURFACE EROSION MITIGATION TO ASSIST IN THE ESTABILISHMENT OF VEGETATION A Thesis Presented to the Civil Engineering Department Faculty of Engineering University of Santo Tomas In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements For the Degree of Bachelor of Science in Civil Engineering Jonathan Alfonso Agoncillo Veronica Ebero Buensuceso Erol Rosales Guintu Arvin Bryan Nillasca Ramboanga May 2016 APPROVAL SHEET The Thesis entitled “UTILIZATION OF PINEAPPLE LEAF FIBERS AS GROUND COVER FOR SURFACE EROSION MITIGATION TO ASSIST IN THE ESTABLISHMENT OF VEGETATION”, prepared and submitted by Agoncillo, Jonathan A., Buensuceso, Veronica E., Guintu, Erol R., and Ramboanga, Arvin Bryan N., in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Bachelor of Science in Civil Engineering (BSCE) is hereby endorsed for approval and acceptance. Ryan A. Ramirez, BSCE, MSGeotech Thesis Adviser Accepted and approved by the Defense Panel: Prof Panel 1, BSCE Member Prof Panel 3, BSCE Member Prof Panel 2, BSCE Member Prof Panel 4, BSCE Member Accepted in partial fulfillment of the requirements of the degree of Bachelor of Science in Civil Engineering (BSCE), Department of Civil Engineering, University of Santo Tomas. Rodelio A. Tiburcio, BSCE, MCM Chairman May 2016 i ii iii vi vii 1 4 4 5 5 6 6 7 7 10 13 14 15 16 18 i ii iii vi vii 1 4 4 5 ...

Words: 640 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Earth History

...Earthquakes I Earth’s composition Earth is a dense, stratified planet with many layers: core (inner and outer), mantle and crust Inner core: most dense material, solid iron and nickel Outer core: second most dense, liquid, iron and nickel Mantle: composed of oxygen, silicon, magnesium, aluminum Crust: composed of sodium and potassium rich silicate rocks Upper 100-350 km of upper mantle makes up asthenosphere: fluid layer due to heating from core Plate tectonics Earth’s uppermost layer, the lithosphere, broken up into 7 plates due to movement of asthenosphere underneath Plate tectonics- name for dynamic interactions of these plates Plate boundaries 3 types: divergent, covergent, and transform Divergent boundaries: tension from deep earth pulls two plates away from each other, allowing lava to upwell through the cracks and create new seafloor Covergent boundaries: two plates coming together as stress pushes plates toward each other- one plate forced under another in a subduction zone Transform boundaries: two plates slide past each other horizontally-frequent cause of destructive forces like earthquakes The nature of earthquakes Cause = abrupt movements on faults Fractures in earths lithosphere Normal fault- block above the fault has moved downward relative to the black below Reverse fault- upper block, above the fault plane, moves up and over the lower block (aka thrust fault) Right lateral strike slip fault- two blocks slide past one another Earths......

Words: 11141 - Pages: 45

Premium Essay

Soil Protection in South Africa

...Soil Protection in South Africa. Soil protection is the protection and management of the quality of soil. It is all about solving the problems of land degradation. It can further be defined as the combination of the appropriate land use and management practices that promote the productive and sustainable use of soils and in the process minimise soil erosion and other forms of land degradation. 3.2.10 Causes of soil degradation in South Africa. Erosion. Erosion is the detachment and transportation of soil materials by wind or water. Soil erosion is a major problem of agriculture in South Africa. Soil erosion is a natural process but it becomes a serious problem when the activities of humans accelerate the process of its occurence. Land degradation caused by soil erosion causes the loss of fertile topsoil and reduces soil productivity. Researches have shown that over 70% of the soil in South Africa has been affected by one form of soil erosion or the other. The annual soil loss due to soil erosion in South Africa is estimated at 300 – 400 million tonnes for each hectare of land. South Africa loses an average of 20 tonnes of soil for each tonne of agricultural products produced. Soil erosion can be caused by water and, or wind. The effects of these factors on the soil are determined by the speed and the soil cover at the time of occurence. It is estimated that 25% of the country is covered by soil that is susceptible to wind erosion. These include the sandy soils in......

Words: 1745 - Pages: 7

Free Essay


...Agriculture’s Environmental Impact Human beings have used our earth’s natural resources to further our evolution and sustain global society. Throughout history, our relationship with agriculture has influenced our ability to cultivate crops and thus influencing the success of survival, evolution and our global community. With the basic essentials, water, soil and seeds we are able to produce food, through agriculture to maintain our society. Agriculture is a relatively new human innovative rapidly spreading across the world only 10,000 to 12,000 years ago, during the agricultural revolution (Diamond 1999, Montgomery 2007, Price & Gebauer 1995, Smith 1995). We have become completely reliable on our watersoil systems to produce vegetation for human beings as well as livestock. As society has developed into an agriculturally dependent society in the last ten millennia so has the complexity of urban civilization with increasing intellectual achievements and new advances. Its evident that agriculture defines our modern society but it also has negative impacts on our natural resources, some of these factors include: deforestation, soil degradation and climate change. Our human population in growing rapidly and with this there has been an increasing food demand. To meet this nutritional requirement, terrain has been altered to be suitable for agricultural use. Every year forests are cleared on a mass scale, often resulting in damage to the quality of the land. In fact, “ agriculture......

Words: 1465 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Cotton Soil Case Study

...Geographical area is covered by expansive ‘Black Cotton Soil’. These soils are characterized by their highly swelling and shrinkage properties. In dry conditions these soils have high strength which is almost completely lost when they come in contact with water. These soils are having high degree of expansion which creates a lot of problems during the execution of work and after completion of it. Hence stabilization of such soil is prime importance. Attempts have been made to stabilize these soils by using different materials such as lime, cement, asphalt etc. Industrial wastes such as fly ash, furnace slag can also be used for this purpose. In order to improve the engineering and index properties of soil, the experiments have been conducted with industrial wastes of steel foundry called as furnace slag plus black cotton soil. The results show...

Words: 1410 - Pages: 6

Free Essay


...Name: Date: March 29 2013 Instructor’s Name: Assignment: SCIE207 Phase 1 Lab Report Title: Using Scientific Method Table 1: Maize Yield From Arable Soil |Amount of Mineral Nitrogen Fertilization (kg per 100 acres) |Yield of Maize (mg of dry mass per 100 acres per year) in | | |Arable Soil | |40 |13 | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | ...

Words: 529 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Essay On Geography Of Soil

...Maeve Upton 14310368 C. ‘In order to understand the geography of soil all one needs is a good map of the solid geology.’ Abstract: It would be naïve to assume that a good map of solid geology is the only resource needed to understand the geography of soils. The geography of soil does not depend solely on the solid geology of the biosphere and lithosphere. When one studies the geography of soil it is important to look at the properties of soils including the parent material which is usually the dominating underlying bedrock. However, one must take into account the factors that affect soil development and the processes in soils that can produce variations. For examples, climate, topography, time, biological agents such as animals and human interference. Pedology provides us with a soil classification system that can be used to determine types of soil but throughout history it has been...

Words: 1667 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay


...ENVIRONMENTAL RESPONSE DIVISION DESIGN, O & M UNIT FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES OF BIOREMEDIATION (An Aid to the Development of Bioremediation Proposals) APRIL 1998 S:\CP\BIOREM\NEW_BIO.DOC TABLE OF CONTENTS Foreword ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- iv I. INTRODUCTION --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 1 II. POTENTIAL ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF BIOREMEDIATION TECHNOLOGIES ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 2 III. IV. A. B. C. D. E. PRESUMPTIVE EVIDENCE FOR BIOREMEDIATION ----------------------------------- 3 GLOSSARY OF TERMINOLOGY -------------------------------------------------------------- 3 Intrinsic Bioremediation --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 4 Engineered Bioremediation ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 4 Combination of Technologies-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 4 In Situ Bioremediation ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 4 Ex Situ Bioremediation ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 4 V. MICROBIAL ECOLOGY......

Words: 9200 - Pages: 37

Premium Essay


...There is massive amounts of waste being thrown into landfills, much of what can be recycled or composted. Landfills are running out of space. Statistics show that ninety percent of waste in landfills was deposited there in the mid 1980’s. (Master Composter) In 1989 Americans disposed of 3.5 pounds of solid waste per day. (Master Composter) Estimates show that every Sunday, more than 500,000 trees are used to produce eighty eight percent of newspapers, much which is not recycled. (Master Composter) Estimates show that American’s throw away enough office paper to build a twelve foot high wall from Los Angeles, California to New York City. (Master Composter) 2.5 million plastics bottles per hour are used by Americans in which only a small percentage is recycled. (Master Composter) There is enough iron and steel thrown out to supply all of America’s auto markets and enough aluminum to rebuild the entire air fleet every three months. (Master Composter) Americans dispose 24 million tons of leaves and grass clippings every way, which by the way can be composted. (Master Composter) Much of this space taken up could be limited if everyone would just recycle what can be recycled and compost what can be composted. Composting in Vermont is making substantial headway since the passing of the Universal Recycling Law which calls for all food scraps to be out of trash by July, 1, 2020. Many companies have already started to compost to adhere to new regulations put into place. Wayside......

Words: 2213 - Pages: 9

Premium Essay

Ust 259

...on his property. While going over his land he finds that there is an abandoned oil well that was abandoned decades ago. Before he found this current oil well he had a previous abandoned oil well on his property too. This oil well had to be taken care of because it was leaking water bubbles and bits of oil too that was described in the article as “not a pretty sight to see at all”. The landowner is having trouble with the government because they are debating to even properly seal them back up. The biggest concern to the government with this issue is that it is very costly to seal such old oil wells back up. In the article wells of this age cost in the range of 30,000 dollars up to 170,000 dollars. The landowner needs the government to take care of this situation because it is ruining his soil underneath his land, the ground water that is beneath the land as well, and the pollution that is occurring in the air of his fields. Simply put if this situation does not get taken care of, soon he will no longer be able put his land to use at all. This article relates to an ample amount of issues that we have discussed within our classes. It could be an example from the temperature and weather because of the pollution that the abandoned oil wells bring about. Also, it is a prime example of the soil development we discussed in our lecture. If the pollution continues in the ground water it would ultimately destroy the process of creating ‘healthy’ soils. The moisture of the soil will......

Words: 342 - Pages: 2