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Solar Energy

In: Computers and Technology

Submitted By ricardo1827
Words 3136
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Research suggests that solar energy is the best option for sustainable energy in this country because it generates clean, reliable electricity, it helps the economy, and it contributes to reducing the environmental impact generated by other energy sources
Ricardo Araujo
Westerns Governors University

Energy production and usage continue to pose significant environmental challenges. Various administrative organizations have established various mechanisms through which environmental protection can get achieved (Growing Significance of Renewable Energy (Presentation), 2007).
The threat emerges from the continuous usage of fossil fuels such as petrol and diesel that produce large amounts of emissions. Factories, households, transportation and offices continue to depend on fossil fuels as their primary source of energy for heating, lighting and other uses. The practice carries on despite the fact that they individual have the knowledge of the effects of the emissions that come from the fossil fuels. On the contrary, Craddock (2008) points out that individual choose to ignore the campaigns carried out by environmental safeguard activists across the world. As a result, the mitigation processes have had a slow but progressive response in the adoption of clean energy by various institutions across the globe. One of the focuses of the source of clean energy is solar power. The adoption of source of energy would significantly decrease the levels of global warming and ultimately, the termination of unpredictable climatic patterns (Craddock, 2008).
The research paper will focus on the assessment of fossil energy versus solar energy in order to come up with comprehensive findings from which a conclusion can be drawn to make the world a better place for all living beings. The research shall look into the sources and forms of fossils fuels to investigate the reasons for the greenhouse emission. Moreover, research shall assess different strategies and regulations that have been put in place by various institutions to reduce the rate and effect of the greenhouse emissions. The research paper will further assess the solar energy as the primary alternative to the fossil fuel usage. Additionally, the study shall look into how the energy gets taped, stored and put into usage by various organizations. In additions, the study shall evaluate the outcome of full-scale adoption of solar power uses by various institutions and its contribution toward environmental conservation and any draw-backs of using solar energy.
Fossil fuels get formed within the earth’s crust by a series of natural processes that include anaerobic decomposition of dead and buried organisms. The materials emerge from organisms such as plants and animals that died off millions of years ago.
The fossil fuels are made up of Carbon as the primary component. The fuels get constituted by petroleum, natural gasses and coal. The fossil components range from those that contain very low levels of carbon compared to hydrogen components such as methane to pure carbon content such as coal (Cleveland & Morris, 2006).
For the past series of decades, the primary sources of energy used in various institutions across the world have been from fossil energy. As at 2007, the global average usage of petroleum stood at thirty-six percent. The usage of natural gas was approximated at twenty-three percent while coal was at about twenty-seven percent (Craddock, 2008).
The accumulative average stood at eighty-six percent of global usage on fossil fuels as the primary source of energy. If the statistics show anything to go by, the heavy dependence on fossil energy has immensely contributed to the severe rate of rise in global warming and climatic changes experiences across the world.
The fossil fuels are referred to non-renewable resources since it takes millions of years to get formed while it gets extracted within a very short time. Research shows that the usage of fossil fuels as the primary source of energy produces up to twenty-one billion tons of carbon dioxide annually. However, Growing Significance of Renewable Energy (Presentation) (2007). Approximates that only a half of the amount is use used in the plants’ natural processes, such as photosynthesis, to produce oxygen.
According to Craddock (2008), the unused carbon dioxide enhances radioactive forcing and, as a result, immensely contributes to global warming. As had earlier seen, the average surface temperature has risen by two degrees Celsius within the past five decades.
The high levels of a range of hydrocarbon and organic compounds in the fossil fuels lead to a series of differences in boiling point, viscosity and density of different element of the energy source. As a result, the rates of emission by various elements depend on its components. Coal has been used in the past several decades to melt iron and drive steam engines due to the immense heat energy produced by its high carbon content (Dell & Rand, 2004). On the other hand, other components such as petroleum have low boiling points and, therefore, get used in other areas such as powering of automobile engines.
High carbon content in the fossil fuels results in incomplete combustion of the fossil materials. As a result, the energy produced by burning such materials result in the production of large volumes of carbon dioxide and soot. Besides, the hydrogen in the materials combines with oxygen and produce hydrogen oxide that is poisonous to living organisms (Garg, 1984).
The existence of minerals in coal such as pyrite and organic sulphur components result in the production of sulphur oxide that when can combine with the rain to produce sulphuric acid showers. The damage to living organisms is often severe and may result in death due to corrosion (Mathew, (2006).
Such consequences of fossil fuel have lead various organizations across the world to establish rules and regulations that seek to control the usage of fossil fuel as the main source of energy. As a result, in the year 2010, the US Department of Energy published a notice that made proposals that elaborated on the rules and regulations that focused on the implementation provisions of Energy Conservation and Production Act. The regulations required that all federal, commercial, low-rise and multi-family high-rise residential buildings to adopt clean energy usage (Growing Significance of Renewable Energy (Presentation), 2007). The main objective of the Act was to reduce the country’s dependency on fossil fuels as the primary sources of energy.
The US government has established an Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) that seeks to make regulations that promote environmental conservation. Especial on handling fossil fuel combustion issues in the country.
In the same line, the United Nations has been on the forefront in establishment of rules and regulations that seek to reduce the usage of fossil fuel. Besides, the organization uses its persuasive powers to convince the oil exploration corporations to leave at least three-quarters of oil in the ground and focus on generation of clean energy.
Additionally, Growing Significance of Renewable Energy (Presentation) (2007) points out that The organization has established treaty talks that with the various countries across the world to develop regulations that would promote the usage of clean energy such as solar power and abandon fossil fuels. Additionally, The European Union has engaged in treaties such as The Maastricht and Amsterdam treaties that were directed toward reduction in the usage of fossil fuels.

One of the sources promoted by the organizations is the use of solar energy as the primary alternative source of clean energy. There are research publications made by various institutions and scholars that seek to promote an ideology. The big question is how effective is the deployment of solar power as the global primary source of energy?
Acquisition of solar radiation collectors involves an initial investment into gadgets that would convert the sun’s radiation into forms that can be put into use. Solar panels are the most used collectors. The gadget contains a surface that gets filled with photovoltaic cells that convert the sun’s radiations into electrical form of energy (Hirschmann, 2006). The power can quickly be put into direct usage or stored in units such as batteries for future use. According to Cleveland & Morris (2006), the technologies used in collection and storage of solar energy can get categorized into ether passive or active solar. The categorization gets pegged on how the particular equipment captures, convert and distribute the energy. Active solar techniques involve the use of photovoltaic panels that collect the sun’s radiations and convert them into electrical energy that can be stored in batteries as chemical energy or used directly. The passive solar technique refers to designing of buildings to incorporate features that promote easy use of sunlight as the primary source of light by using light dispensing materials in the construction. Such designs can lead to the creation of well-lit spaces that get maintained in at comfortable temperature ranges.
The passive solar technique can further get identified in the establishment of greenhouses. In such scenarios, the solar energy gets converted to controllable levels of heat. As a result, a year-round production of specialty plants and other crops that would otherwise fail to grow in the climate in that region can be achieved.
Automobile engineers have continued to develop solar-powered cars for the past three decades. The result is the establishment of the World Solar Challenge that offers an opportunity for various innovators in the solar-powered car industry to showcase their inventions to the world. Besides, some vehicles use solar panels to generate power that is used by the auxiliary equipment such as air conditioning and, as a result, reduce the rate of fuel consumption.
Solar energy can further get used in heating systems and powering of ventilation equipment by homes and commercial buildings. Research shows that the heating and ventilation activates consume about thirty percent of the power required by the commercial building facilities and fifty percent in residential houses (Goetzberger, 2006).
Moreover, solar power can also be used in distillation and make saline water portable. Besides, the energy can be used in water disinfection that involves exposure of water-filled plastics bottles to the sunlight for several hours. Goetzberger (2006) shows that over two million people in the developing countries use the method to treatment of their daily drinking water.
In addition, solar energy can get used in water stabilization pond. The process can be used to treat wastewater without the use of electricity or chemical that would pollute the environment. Besides, algae grow such ponds and as a result, consume some of the carbon dioxide in the atmosphere.
Solar chemical processes can utilize the energy generated by the sunlight to drive chemical reactions in scientific experiments. The processes are at time carried out in the labs while using fossil gas for heating (Rickard, 1991). As a result, the process provides a direct alternative that is environmentally-friendly.
According to Goetzberger (2006), the solar energy can be stored using thermal mass systems that store the energy in the form of heat. Such equipment includes paraffin wax and Glauber’s salt. Besides, the energy can be stored at high temperatures using molten salts. Additionally, the solar energy can be stored in various ways for deferred future usage. Off-grid PV systems use rechargeable batteries to store excess electricity and avail the stored power for later use.
The storage of such energy results in boosting of the country’s energy independence. The federal government would, therefore, engage in other investment and establishment of social amenities that promote the well-being of the American citizens. Besides, individuals in the country would have lower costs on energies such as those that they use in lighting, transport and heating.
Adoption of solar power system result in lower maintenance costs since the equipment used in the collection as storage of solar energy does not have any moving components. As a result, the individual experiences no costs on maintenance.
Solar power produces zero emissions of greenhouse gases. Elimination of gasses such as sulphur oxide and excessive carbon dioxide from the earth’s atmosphere offers a significant chance the recuperation of the earth’s ozone layer (Craddock, 2008). Besides, the deployment of solar energy would reduce and ultimately eliminate severe climatic changes such as those featured in parts of Africa.
Additionally, according to Gunkel(2006), there have been significant breakthroughs in the development of optimal equipment that can be used to collect and store adequate solar energy for present and future uses. Customized solar panels have been developed by various organizations in order to promote the usage of such gadgets by both businesses and home-owners. The material comes at affordable prices that seek to promote elimination of reliance on fossil fuel for the American citizens and in other countries across the globe.
Solar energy can also be used in the production of steam to generate electricity by hydroelectric power plants. The radiation from the sun can be converged and used to heat up large vessels that contain water. The steam generated by the immense heat can then be channeled to power up turbines that generate electricity. As a result, the solar power can be a perfect replacement to coal fuel that is often used in such cases. Therefore, adequate amounts of electricity can be produced with no emission.
Solar energy is renewable and the most abundant source of energy on the planet. It is estimated that about one hundred and seventy-three terawatts of solar energy continuously strikes the surface of the earth. Therefore, the situation provides an opportunity for mankind to tap into the vast amounts of energy and convert them into forms that can be controlled and stored (Hirschmann, 2006).

The energy source is highly economical to use. The prices of installation and maintenance of the equipment used in the collection and storage of solar energy continue to drop as various institutions across the world, including governments, provide the price incentive that seeks to promote the elimination of usage of fossil fuels. The drive to promote installations of solar panels in various institutions and homes has resulted in promotional activities by the companies that manufacture such equipment. On the other hand, fossil fuel prices have been continuously changing and have become highly unpredictable. Therefore, solar power produces excellent opportunity that individuals can exploit and acquire the same amounts of energy as in fossil fuels from solar power (Gunkel, 2006).
Fossil fuel work to generate electricity, steam, and manufacturing and even power transport systems. According to Cleveland & Morris (2006), the most used fossil fuel is oil. The products obtained from a mixture of organic compound include gasoline, aviation fuel, diesel and heating oil that get used in various sectors in the economy. Research shows that about forty-five percent of the usable components in the oil are gasoline. Diesel accounts from thirty percent while the rest claim the remaining twenty-five percent.
The uses of oil as a source of energy have been at the top end for the past decades. Unfortunately, the high demand is commensurate to the dilapidating environmental pollution that has continued to provide massive challenge for environmentally concerned institutions. However, the functions carried out by the fossil fuels can be carried out using solar energy.
In its contribution to environmental conservation, solar energy can be used as a direct substitute by various institutions to eliminate the use of fossil fuels such as gas as coal. As the research had earlier established, the energy source can be used in the generation of electricity that can power industries and light homes through steam generation (Rickard, (1991). Besides, ventilation systems can be power from such energy source.
Research publications on clean energy condemn the use of fossil fuel as the primary source of energy. Various draw-backs have been identified in research writing. The only question is that does solar energy possess any demerits? According to Growing Significance of Renewable Energy (Presentation) (2007), although solar energy gets considered as one of the least renewable sources of energy, it poses some threat to the environment.
The sun’s radiations have to access a series of photovoltaic cells that get engraved into the solar panels. The manufacturing of the cells to produce solar power requires the use of silicon as one of the raw materials. The processing of the silicon results in the generation of some waste products. When the waste materials are not handled properly, they can contribute to environmental pollution as they pose hazardous risks to humans. In addition, installations of solar power plants that can offer services to large populations often require large tracks of land. Reorganization of such settings can interfere with the existing ecosystem and contribute further to environmental degradation.

In conclusion, the research analysis shows that the solar technology gets poised to play a significant role in the future of mankind. Continuous innovation and development of policies that seek to eliminate carbon emission will continue to suppress the desire for fossil fuel and call for the usage of solar power in the USA by the year 2025. Records show that in the recent years, the cost of manufacturing of photovoltaic cells has continued to drop at about 4 percent annually while government subsidies on the productions have continued to increase.
The main objectives of the above incentives are to lower the prices of solar panels and increase the number of intake of solar power generation amongst the US citizens. It is evidential that aggressive financial incentives into the solar energy collection industries in Japan and Germany take the lead in the race to terminate greenhouse gas emissions.
In our analysis, we have managed to evaluate and find the proof that solar power can act as a direct alternative to fossil fuel. Therefore, given that the energy source is reliable, cheap and produces no greenhouse gas emissions, the solar power technology can effectively and efficiently lead to energy sustainability and make contributions towards environmental conservation. As a result, solar energy is the best way forward in energy sustainability and environmental conservation.

Reference
Cleveland, C. J., & Morris, C. (2006). Dictionary of energy. Amsterdam: Elsevier.
Craddock, D. (2008). Renewable energy made easy: free energy from solar, wind, hydropower, and other alternative energy sources. Ocala, Fla.: Atlantic Pub. Group.
Dell, R., & Rand, D. A. (2004). Clean energy. Cambridge: Royal Society of Chemistry.
Goetzberger, A. (2006). The global significance of solar energy supply. Energy Materials: Materials Science and Engineering for Energy Systems, 1(1), 20-21.
Growing Significance of Renewable Energy (Presentation). (2007). Washington, D.C.: United States. Dept. of Energy
Gunkel, D. (2006). Alternative energy sources. Detroit: Greenhaven Press.
Hirschmann, K. (2006). Solar energy. Farmington Hills, MI: KidHaven Press.

Eric. W. Brown. (1988). An Introduction to Solar Energy.
Mathew, X. (2006). Solar cells and solar energy materials. Solar Energy, 80(2), 141.
Rickard, G. (1991). Solar energy (North American ed.). Milwaukee: G. Stevens Children's Books.
Garg H. P. (1984).Treatise on solar energyâ”Vol. 1: Fundamentals of solar energy. Solar Energy, 33(5), 477.

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...EXECUTIVE SUMMARY STRATEGY IN SOLAR ENERGY – MAHINDRA EPC Group 4 E023 Mayank Dugar E032 Pavan Kunjoor E050 Nithish S E051 Shaik Safik E052 Nithin Sandhyala E065 Pranav Venuturumilli E067 Dhruv Mehta INTRODUCTION Mahindra EPC is the Engineering Procurement & Construction arm of the Mahindra group committed to provide world class solutions to its customers. Mahindra EPC Services Pvt Ltd is a portfolio company under Mahindra Partners. Mahindra EPC’s services commenced its operation in the year 2011 by making a beginning in the renewable energy space with the turnkey execution of large grid connected and small off grid roof top PV Solar projects. In a short span of 3 years Mahindra EPC has achieved a dominant position. CRISIL Solar energy grading given to Mahindra EPC services Pvt Ltd is SP1A. SERVICES OFFERED Mahindra EPC generally operates in two service areas On Grid Services  Be it conducting a site survey, charting out a feasibility and detailed project report (DPR), selecting the appropriate technology, optimizing the array configuration or monitoring performance from strings to system, Mahindra EPC’s collaborative approach is a means to help its clients alleviate design and technology risks and make the project bankable. Off Grid Services​ With the Off-grid solar solutions, they aim to usher in a new dawn where the sunshine is being harnessed at the rooftops to power many homes, offices and industries. The end objective is to reduce the......

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Reserch Report Solar Energy

...reserch report Solar Energy Solar energy is a perfect source of energy. Energy with no pollution what so ever. No poisonous gasses or destruction of rainforests. This never ending source of energy comes from the sun. Solar energy is the visible energy produced in the sun as a result of a constant nuclear fusion reaction. The amount of energy at the solar constant, which is at outer edge of the earth's atmosphere, is two calories per minute per cm squared. A calorieis the amount of energy needed to raise one gram of water one degree Celsius.If we could efficiently harness the energy bombarding the earth for twenty-four hours we could power New York for a year. Unfortunately the photovoltaic cells that change the energy into electricity are so inefficient that it would take twenty-five years to pay for it's self in output. There many uses of solar energy. Some homes rely fully on the power of the sun to heat their water. Other houses have flat plate collectors which aid in the heating of the house and water. Solar Energy plays a vital role in the absorption cooling cycle in a process called solar cooling. Since wind is caused by the up and down movement of hot and cold air, wind energy can be a branch of solar energy. The same thing with tidal energy. And since the sun plays a vital role in the water cycle hydroelectric energy can be attributed to solar energy. Solar Energy has great potential in becoming a main source of energy in the...

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