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Solutions to the Weaknesses of Globalisation and Corruption

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ABSTRACT
This paper is intended to provide critical responses to the weaknesses of globalization and corruption in the world that we are currently living based on the mixed economic worldview which is my personal economic worldview which threatens to undermine the stability of economic and political development on both a national and global scale, and which requires both immediate and wide-ranging policy interventions. The recent concern with corruption is attributable, not to any substantive increase in corrupt practices, but rather, to the re-framing of corruption in light of broader shifts and transformations within the global economy. The historical context of globalization covers centuries. This paper reviews the types, forms as well as the consequences of corruption. The paper also reviews the issues associated with globalization and the effect it has on the lives of various individuals. It questions the view that, under certain conditions, corruption may enhance efficiency and argues that though corruption may benefit powerful individuals it will indubitably lead to greater inefficiency and a waste of resources at a macro-economic level.
Table of Contents ABSTRACT i INTRODUCTION iii BACKGROUND iv Forms of Corruption vi 1.1 Bribery vi 1.2 Theft and fraud vi 1.3 Embezzlement vi 1.4 Nepotism vi 1.5 Conflict of Interest vi 1.6 Favouritism vii Types of Corruption vii 2.1. Grand corruption vii 2.2 Political corruption vii 2.3 Corporate corruption vii 2.4 Administrative corruption vii 2.5 Petty corruption vii 2.6 Systemic corruption vii PROBLEM STATEMENT v LITERATURE REVIEW 1 RESEARCH METHODS AND FINDINGS 5 RESEARCH METHODS 5 FINDINGS 5 CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS 5 BIBLIOGRAPHY 6

INTRODUCTION
As a human, consider this planet before the period of commercial and industrial development. Now, in this world, consider with the passage of time and technological changes affecting transport, agriculture and commerce. We are living in an era that is characterized mainly by corruption and globalization. Corruption and globalization are seen to be enduring and relatively constant features of the world political and economic systems today. Globalization, which has been the most talked about phenomena in the past 2 decades has been associated with the social changes in the world. Globalization describes global interconnectedness and involves the organisation and exercise of power on a global scale. Corruption on the other hand has emerged within the context of international policy debates as a serious social problem requiring integrated anti-corruption efforts on a global scale. With this international attention, what has historically been defined as a domestic issue, and subsequently, a cost of doing business with a select group of developing nations, has re-emerged as a global political concern. This paper sets out to provide solutions to the problems associated with globalization and corruption based on the mixed economic worldview. It starts by explaining the background of corruption alongside globalization, the various definition, forms and types of each phenomena and how it has developed over time. Furthermore, it discusses various problems and describes each problem statements and poses questions to be answered based on the problem statements. Following this, the literature review gives a brief explanation of the problems and gives some solutions to these problems. Also, the research methods and findings are also explained followed by the conclusion, recommendations and bibliography.

“Globalization is the buzzword of the moment. . . . Corruption is the spectre at this feast; it is the by-product of Globalization, and perhaps its fulfilment too” (Quah, 2001).

BACKGROUND
Globalization is an historical process that began with the first movement of people out of Africa into other parts of the world. Traveling short, then longer distances, migrants, merchants, and others have always taken their ideas, customs, and products into new lands. The melding, borrowing, and adaptation of outside influences can be found in many areas of human life. It is rapidly altering the lives of individuals in every corner of the planet (Northrup, 2006). It is a new contemporary stage of development of capitalism over the world. Globalization can be defined in a variety of ways since it is a very important term as it influences the global economies. Five broad sets of definitions as described by (Adil Najam, 2007) are:
1. Globalization as internationalization. The “global” in globalization is viewed “as simply another adjective to describe cross-border relations between countries.” It describes the growth in international exchange and interdependence.
2. Globalization as liberalization. Removing government imposed restrictions on movements between countries.
3. Globalization as universalization. Process of spreading ideas and experiences to people at all corners of the earth so that aspirations and experiences around the world become harmonized.
4. Globalization as westernization or modernization. The social structures of modernity (capitalism, industrialism, etc.) are spread the world over, destroying cultures and local self-determination in the process.
5. Globalization as deterritorialization. Process of the “reconfiguration of geography, so that social space is no longer wholly mapped in terms of territorial places, territorial distances and territorial borders.
Globalization is a movement toward communications, financial, economic, and trade integration that entails opening out beyond nationalistic and local perspectives to a wider outlook of an interdependent and interconnected world through free transfer of goods, services, and capital over national frontiers. Globalization is a term that is frequently employed to place a trend in the direction of increased flow of ideas, money, goods, and services across national borders and the resultant consolidation of the global economy (Essays, 2013). Globalization is closely related to international trade which can be defined as the exchange of goods, services, and capital across territories or national border. The increase in the international trade enhances the continuance of globalization. If there were no international trade, then apparently nations would not get access to the variety of goods and services produced in different nations of the world (Essays, 2013). It has been found that globalization does not involve unhindered labour movement, and as intimated by some economists, globalization may hurt fragile or smaller economies if practiced indiscriminately. Globalization is generally recognized as being goaded by a combination of technological, political, economic, biological and socio-cultural factors. From some other perspective, globalization can refer to the multinational circulation of languages, popular culture, or ideas by acculturation. Just like many other issues, globalization has got its own strengths and weakness to the global world. It has been seen that globalization has got its strengths on the advancement of world economies. Many nations in the world have experienced the positive effects of globalization, for instance poverty has been reduced to greatest extent, modern and new methods of production have been realized, a good number of employment opportunities have been created, and most countries have obtained the advanced modern technology among many other strengths. In spite of all these benefits of globalization, it has also been found that globalization has its own negative impacts on world economies. Globalization has encouraged spread of diseases, and has brought about loss of cultural identity among many other weaknesses. For some, globalization has been seen positively and for others pessimistically. It may have benefits as well as risks for the society. Local places and cultures can be seen as increasingly threatened by global flows (Held, 2000).
Corruption is essentially the use of public power for private gain. The first obvious spot for such corruption is the public sector. The state's monopoly on control of public resources and its preferential access to certain sources of information require strict rules and procedures to ensure fair practice. In the absence of such rules, and even at times when these do exist, the government is open to a number of types and forms of corruption. Corruption can be caused by ambiguous laws and regulations, poor enforcement of property rights and the rule of law and the overall culture of governance also plays an important role in corruption. The exact boundary of what is considered corruption may depend on culture. According to (Wei, 2001), a survey in Thailand in the early 1990s revealed that the Thai people are willing to regard a wide range of behaviour by government officials as "permissible" that would have been considered corrupt in the United States or Western Europe. Still, there are abuses of power that are considered corruption everywhere in the world. It is these extreme forms of abuse that generate the highest risk of macroeconomic instability in these countries and in the international financial system. The same Thai survey revealed that the Thai people, despite their higher tolerance for misbehaviour by government officials, still considered official corruption to be a major issue in their country. An overwhelming majority of them wished something could be done to substantially reduce it. This is not just a Thai phenomenon. From Russia to Indonesia, and from China to Venezuela, corruption is being denounced as a threat to economic development. According to (Montesh, 2015), the forms of corruption are stated below:
Forms of Corruption
1.1 Bribery
Bribery is arguably the most common form of corruption. It entails beneficiaries using extra legal means of payment to acquire government favours and resource allocations which can involve contracts, tax exemptions, timeframes and technical standards for complying with procurement rules and licences, public information being monopolised, or getting the government to turn a blind eye to illegal activities.
1.2 Theft and fraud
Some officials steal state assets under their jurisdiction or made accessible to them as a function of their positions in government. Acquiring publicly owned assets through illegal transactions and fraud constitutes the most extensive form of such corruption.
1.3 Embezzlement
It is theft of resources by people who are put to administer it. It occurs when unfaithful employees steal from their employers. This is a serious offence when public officials are misappropriating public resources, when state official steals from the public institution in which he or she is employed and from resources he is supposed to administer on behalf of the public.
1.4 Nepotism
Nepotism is typical favouritism, in which an officer prefers his proper kinfolk and family members (wife, brothers and sisters, children, nephews, cousins, in-laws). Many unrestricted presidents have tried to secure their (precarious) power position by nominating family members to key political, economic and military/security positions in the state apparatus.
1.5 Conflict of Interest
It is small but significant part of wider problem of police ethics and corruption.
1.6 Favouritism
Favouritism is a tool of power abuse implying "privatisation" and a highly biased distribution of state resources, no matter how these resources have been amassed in the first place. Favouritism is the natural human tendency to favour friends, family. Favouritism is closely related to corruption so far as it implies a corrupted distribution of resources. It can be said that this is the other side of the coin where corruption is the accumulation of resources.
The types of corruption as explained by (Byrne, 2007) are:
Types of Corruption
2.1. Grand corruption
This type of corruption is defined as corruption that involves heads of state, ministers, or other senior government officials and serves the interests of a narrow group of business people and politicians as criminal elements.
2.2 Political corruption
Political corruption involves lawmakers, such as monarchs, dictators, and legislators. Such officials engage in corruption when they seek bribes or other rewards for their own political or personal benefit in return for political favours to their supporters at the expense of the public interest.
2.3 Corporate corruption
This occurs in relationships between private business corporations and the suppliers or clients. It also occurs within corporations, when corporate officials use the corporation resources for private gain, at the expense of the shareholders.
2.4 Administrative corruption
Administrative corruption includes the use of bribery and favouritism to allow certain individual businesses to lower their taxes, escape regulations, or win low-level procurement contracts.
2.5 Petty corruption
This type of corruption involves the payment of comparatively small amounts of money to facilitate official transactions, such as customs clearance or the issuing of building permits.
2.6 Systemic corruption
This type of corruption is that type of corruption that is prevalent throughout all levels of society.
In the world today, there are three main economic worldviews which are the Capitalist, the Communist and the mixed economic worldview. The Capitalist economic worldview which was developed by a Scottish moral philosopher and economist known as Adam Smith is based on the private ownership of capital and production inputs and Individual self-interests. On the other hand, the communist view as established by Karl Marx, a German philosopher and economist seems to be the opposite of the Capitalist. This view suggests that capitalism led to inequality and rule by a certain class of individuals. It therefore suggested that government must intervene and there should be a classless society. The mixed view entails a mixture of the Capitalist and the Communist worldview such that there is private ownership, self-interest as well as a substantial government intervention.
PROBLEM STATEMENT
In the world today, the problems associated with globalization and corruption are quite numerous. Globalization pushes for increased privatization, which promotes greater opportunities for corruption. Corruption has turned societal resources into illegal, immoral, and unproductive activities. It also challenges the very foundations of societal health and destroys citizens’ trust in leadership and system legitimacy.
Firstly, Globalization leads to bankruptcy of poor developing countries that cannot survive the economic might of developed countries, thereby, increasing the gap between the high class countries and the low class countries making the poor feel inferior to the rich and the poor getting poorer and the rich getting richer. Also, corruption is a major cause and result of poverty in the world today. It undermines political and economic development in the society. Corruption and globalization are the major contributors of poverty and crime in the society. In the society today, poverty is a social and economic issue as it hinders development. Corruption deprives people of the basic building blocks of a decent life; challenges democracy by distorting electoral processes and undermining government institutions, which can lead to political instability; intensifies inequality and injustice by perverting the rule of law and punishing victims of crime through corrupt rulings. On the other hand, globalization contributes to poverty from specific instances of impoverishment to grand global developments. When governments assume debt in private capital markets and declining world demand for their commodities depresses prices and they seek funds from the IMF to repay loans and they agree to conditions for internal reform and these conditions impose hardship on their people (Habeeb, 2009). Now, what can be done to minimize the contribution of globalization and corruption to poverty in the society today?
Secondly, globalization has been a major influence on the spread of various infectious diseases. This is because people are allowed to cross the international frontiers and get into foreign countries. The free movement of people, vectors, commodities, food, decision-making power, and capital, alongside global demographic trends, has brought about the incidence of infectious diseases in the place of destination. The unprecedented speed and volume of human mobility are the most obvious manifestation in today's era of globalization. The global population is seen to grow at an increased rate such that the social and economic disparities between the poor and rich countries become intense. This has brought about increased number of migrants as they search for employment opportunities to better the quality of their lives. Many demographers and political scientists have observed the twenty-first century as characterized by migrations. Migrant populations comprise the most susceptible group to emerging and remerging communicable diseases and have been seen as the major causal factor in the worldwide spread of such infectious diseases such as the multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. The modern modes of transportation that enable more products and people to get to different place in the world at faster speed have also opened airways for the movement of disease vectors from one continent to another. For instance, mosquitoes can possibly cross the seas and oceans by riding in the wheel wells of an airplane. How can this spread of diseases be eradicated?
Thirdly, globalization undermines labour and environmental standards. Environmental and labour standards are undermined through globalization such that economic activity changes which might not favour labour. In cases where globalization results in improved technology, labour would be replaced with machines thereby reducing employment for human capital. Also, globalization leads to pollution of areas which is dangerous to the environment thereby reducing the standard of the environment. Globalization leads to the exploitation of nature which affects global warming and leads to various forms of negative effects. Globalization makes it increasingly difficult for states to rely only on national regulation to ensure the wellbeing of their citizens and their environment (Adil Najam, 2007). What needs to be done to improve labour and environmental standards?
Fourthly, Corruption undermines political stability and government legitimacy. As corruption in the provision of public goods and services becomes common knowledge, it can fuel distrust of government among the public (Montesh, 2015). If people have no effective means of removing the corrupt officials through the ballot box, the result can be an erosion of political stability. What can be done to improve political stability and government legitimacy?
Finally, Corruption jeopardizes the allocation of resources to sectors crucial for development. Where corruption is prevalent and widespread, the government may develop a preference for allocating resources to those sectors and projects, such as military procurement, where transparency is harder to achieve and secret deals are easy to make (Bhargava, 2005). This diversion of resources typically comes at the expense of the less corruptible social sectors, such as health and education, and thus at the expense of the country’s development. How can resources be allocated efficiently in order to improve development? This paper sets out to proffer answers to the questions asked and provide solutions to these problems and weaknesses triggered by globalization and corruption.
LITERATURE REVIEW
In a world today that is characterised by global changes and improvements, it is evident that corrupt and malicious practices will be apparent. It has been said that globalization has increased the risks of corruption, but also the opportunities. Increasing worldwide access to information and the growing influence of the media have enhanced public awareness about corruption and its consequences (Bhargava, 2005). It has also increased transparency in public sector management and the public accountability of leaders. At the same time, however, globalization has helped corrupt officials to increase their activity because the blurring of economic boundaries and technological advances have made it more difficult to monitor their practices. In view of the capitalist economic worldview, Adam Smith and the 19th century classical economists believed that economic growth could only be stimulated and sustained if private individuals were allowed to pursue their self-interests unhindered by the state. In his highly-acclaimed book, The Wealth of Nations, Smith (1937) suggested that left on its own, capitalism would operate on a rationality which makes possible the transformation of individual selfish interests into public virtue. With the capitalist economic worldview which is based on privatisation and self-interest, issues such as corruption would arise as a result of global changes because individuals will only be concerned about their own selfish interests such as creating wealth for themselves through various forms which can include corporate corruption, bribery, administrative corruption and many more thereby ignoring the poor and less privileged. The communist economic worldview which supports nationalisation could also be self-destructive as it gives room for government to be corrupt and to practice political and grand corruption which undermines political stability and government legitimacy. It is characterised by public ownership of resources whereby decision making is centralised and coordinated by a central plan (Fourie, 2008). However, these systems do not provide solutions to the weaknesses of globalization and corruption but intensify the problems associated with them. In order to provide answers to the questions posed and solutions to the problems associated with globalization and corruption, the mixed economic worldview which was initiated by John Maynard Keynes serves as my personal economic worldview. The mixed economic worldview is a view that features characteristics of both capitalism and socialism. It allows a level of private economic freedom in the use of capital, but also allows for governments to interfere in economic activities in order to achieve social aims. The claims of classical economists were weakened by the economic devastations of the post-World War I period which resulted in the Great Depression. The social chaos created by this global economic depression exposed the weakness of the type of untrammelled capitalism advocated by Adam Smith and created the background for the emergence of a social economics known as Keynesianism. Unlike classical economics which emphasized economic growth and the creation of private wealth with the belief that it would improve public good, Keynesianism focused on human welfare and argued for the intervention of the state in economic activities in order to achieve this objective (Ezeonu, 2008). The Keynesian economics stressed the crucial role of the state as a moderating institution in economic development, especially through its investments in public infrastructure and the development of human capital. However, pro-market economists and political leaders have since undermined the social economics of Keynesianism and revived the classical economic thinking which is now repackaged as neoliberalism. Based on the problems associated with globalization and corruption, the mixed economic worldview provides solutions to these problems.
Firstly, a problem associated with globalization and corruption is poverty. Globalization leads to bankruptcy of poor developing countries that cannot survive the economic might of developed countries, thereby, increasing the gap between the high class countries and the low class countries making the poor feel inferior to the rich and the poor getting poorer and the rich getting richer. Also, corruption is a major cause and result of poverty in the world today. It undermines political and economic development in the society. Corruption and globalization are the major contributors of poverty and crime in the society. In the society today, poverty is a social and economic issue as it hinders development. Corruption deprives people of the basic building blocks of a decent life; challenges democracy by distorting electoral processes and undermining government institutions, which can lead to political instability; intensifies inequality and injustice by perverting the rule of law and punishing victims of crime through corrupt rulings. On the other hand, globalization contributes to poverty from specific instances of impoverishment to grand global developments. When governments assume debt in private capital markets and declining world demand for their commodities depresses prices and they seek funds from the IMF to repay loans and they agree to conditions for internal reform and these conditions impose hardship on their people (Habeeb, 2009). Now, what can be done to minimize the contribution of globalization and corruption to poverty in the society today? This problem can be controlled if there is a level of government intervention such that government can control how resources are allocated to the various segments of the society. Also, government should be able to ensure that employment opportunities are available for everyone, both skilled and unskilled labour. Finally, government officials should learn to avoid being corrupt by reducing the incentives for multinational businesses to pay bribes (Bhargava, 2005) . Such measures may include criminalizing bribery, eliminating the tax deductibility of bribery as a business expense, and increasing the transparency and integrity of public procurement. Government should control its public debt in order to have sufficient resources to cater for all the members of the society, thereby, providing decent lifestyles for individuals.
Secondly, globalization has been a major influence on the spread of various infectious diseases. This is because people are allowed to cross the international frontiers and get into foreign countries. The free movement of people, vectors, commodities, food, decision-making power, and capital, alongside global demographic trends, has brought about the incidence of infectious diseases in the place of destination. The unprecedented speed and volume of human mobility are the most obvious manifestation in today's era of globalization. The global population is seen to grow at an increased rate such that the social and economic disparities between the poor and rich countries become intense. This has brought about increased number of migrants as they search for employment opportunities to better the quality of their lives. Many demographers and political scientists have observed the twenty-first century as characterized by migrations. The modern modes of transportation that enable more products and people to get to different place in the world at faster speed have also opened airways for the movement of disease vectors from one continent to another. For instance, mosquitoes can possibly cross the seas and oceans by riding in the wheel wells of an airplane. How can this spread of diseases be eradicated? The spread of diseases can be eradicated by reducing migration by the modern modes of transportation. Referring to the mixed economic worldview, the interference of both government and individuals in economic activities will reduce the effect of migration. People will have no reason to move from one place to another in search of a better life because they are directly involved in the economic activities of their society.
Thirdly, globalization undermines labour and environmental standards. Environmental and labour standards are undermined through globalization such that economic activity changes which might not favour labour. In cases where globalization results in improved technology, labour would be replaced with machines thereby reducing employment for human capital. Also, globalization leads to pollution of areas which is dangerous to the environment thereby reducing the standard of the environment. Globalization leads to the exploitation of nature which affects global warming and leads to various forms of negative effects. Globalization makes it increasingly difficult for states to rely only on national regulation to ensure the wellbeing of their citizens and their environment (Adil Najam, 2007). What needs to be done to improve labour and environmental standards?
Labour and environmental standards can be improved if there is substantial private economic freedom for various individuals to pursue their own personal economic activity. This will assist in increasing the standard of labour as they will be responsible for ensuring that their standards are high enough and the standards meet their personal interests. Furthermore, environmental standards can be improved by constructing industries in areas that are not close to individual neighbourhoods. Such Industries can be owned by individuals as well as the government, such that, decisions are made to favour every member of the society.
Fourthly, Corruption undermines political stability and government legitimacy. As corruption in the provision of public goods and services becomes common knowledge, it can fuel distrust of government among the public (Montesh, 2015). If people have no effective means of removing the corrupt officials through the ballot box, the result can be an erosion of political stability. What can be done to improve political stability and government legitimacy?
In order to improve political stability and government legitimacy, government can promote international programs to control organized crime and the flow of illicit funds. It is very hard for outside organizations to reduce corruption linked to organized crime, such as money laundering, if such corruption has already become systemic. Government can also be more transparent in their dealings and publish reports regularly for access by members of the society.
Finally, Corruption jeopardizes the allocation of resources to sectors crucial for development. Where corruption is prevalent and widespread, the government may develop a preference for allocating resources to those sectors and projects, such as military procurement, where transparency is harder to achieve and secret deals are easy to make (Bhargava, 2005). This diversion of resources typically comes at the expense of the less corruptible social sectors, such as health and education, and thus at the expense of the country’s development.
In order to improve development through the allocation of resources, it is needful for international trade imports to be minimized. Government and private individuals should produce more within the borders of their country and export more goods and services in order to allow for the equal allocation of resources. Equal allocation of resources helps to improve individual development in various ways. RESEARCH METHODS AND FINDINGS
RESEARCH METHODS
The methods and Instruments that have been used in this literature study include textbooks, which have been carefully cited, database search through NWU e-library and google scholar. These methods have contributed to the information presented in the literature review and the other parts of this paper. Based on the question which states that solutions should be provided for the weaknesses of globalization and corruption grounded in my personal economic worldview, some of the information that was researched are the problems associated with globalization and corruption and how global corruption affects the lives of individuals.
FINDINGS
Referring to the aim of this paper which is to proffer solutions to the weaknesses of corruption and globalization based on the mixed economic worldview, it is evident that the mixed economic system creates a balance between the Capitalist and the Communist economic worldview which reduces the effects of globalization and corruption. Centred on the research was the weaknesses of globalization and corruption, the solutions to the problems associated with globalization and corruption as well as the background and existing literature on globalization, corruption and the economic worldviews.
CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
In summary, globalization and corruption raise profound questions for the society today. These phenomena’s are associated with risks as well as positive effects. It should therefore be clear now that the weaknesses globalisation and corruption can be solved through a few measures mentioned above which can in turn change these weaknesses into strengths. It is needful for government and Individuals to work collaboratively in order to improve the quality of lives of people as the mixed economic worldview encompasses private property ownership, self-interest as well as government intervention.
BIBLIOGRAPHY
Adil Najam, D. R. (2007). Environment and Globalization: Five propositions. Manitoba: International Institute for Sustainable Development.
Bhargava, V. (2005, September 26). World Bank Global Issues Seminar Series . The Cancer of Corruption .
Byrne, E. (2007). he Moral and Legal Development of Corruption: Nineteeth and Twentieth Century Corruption in Ireland. Ireland: University of Limerick.
Cockcroft, L. (2012). Global Corruption. Cape town: BestRed.
Essays, U. (2013, November). Assessing the strengths and weaknesses of globalization. Retrieved from UKessays: from http://www.ukessays.com/essays/economics/assessing-the-strengths-and-weaknesses-of-globalization-economics-essay.php?cref=1
Ezeonu, I. (2008). Crimes of Globalization: Health Care, HIV and the. International journal of Social Inquiry, 113-134.
Farrales, M. J. (2005, June). What is Corruption? A History of Corruption Studies and the Great Definitions Debate. Retrieved from SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=1739962
Fourie, P. M. (2008). Economics for South African Students. Pretoria: Van Schaik.
Habeeb, F. (2009, August 31). Globalization, its challenges and advantage. Retrieved from Slideshare: http://www.slideshare.net/fathima_sy/globalization-its-challenges-and-advantages
Held, D. (2000). A globalizing world? culture, economics, politics. London: Routledge.
McCarthy, L. F. (2014). Has globalization made corruption worse? Retrieved from The Economic Forum blog: https://agenda.weforum.org/2014/10/globalization-anti-corruption-world-bank/
Montesh, M. (2015, October). Conceptualising Corruption: Forms, Causes, Types and Consequences. Retrieved from UNISA: http://www.icac.org.hk/newsl/issue30eng/button4.htm.
Northrup, D. (2006). World System History. Globalization in Historical Perspective.
Potter, V. D. (2008). The Companion to Development Studies. London: Hodder Education.
Quah, J. S. (2001). Globalization and Corruption control in Asian Countries: The case for divergence . Public Management Review, 453-470.
Rahschulte, E. H. (2011). History of Globalization. Insights to a changing world journal.
Seyf, A. (2001). Corruption and development: A study of conflict . Development in practice, 597-605.
Warner, C. (n.d.). Globalization and corruption. The Blackwell Companion to Globalization, 593.
Wei, S.-J. (2001). Corruption and Globalization. Retrieved from Brooking Policy brief series: http://www.brookings.edu/research/papers/2001/04/corruption-wei

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