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Some Factors That Affect the Mathematical Ability of 2nd Year Ssc Students in Panabo National High School

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Submitted By jeffdoblas
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CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION

Background of the Study In this time, good teachers and good teaching methods are needed in order that students can gain more knowledge especially in the subject Mathematics. Many students fail, because of the difficulty of this subject. These methods should be introduced to the students to improve more in their Mathematical abilities. In PNHS, many students have difficulty in Mathematics, because in this subject it uses more analysis and understanding problems. Math is not easy for the Math teachers, because some students have no interests of this subject; because of its difficulty. Teachers must encourage the students to study this subject. If the students able to study this subject, there is a big possibility to pass or increase their grades. But if the duration of time spent for studying this lesson is not enough, the student’s achievement in their Mathematical ability will be decreased. So, studying is very important to the students. There are so many factors that can affect or cannot affect the Mathematical ability of a student. One factor is watching Television, because it can consume the time of a students for studying their lessons. Another factor is, having not enough allowance, because some students are not interested to go to school if their allowance is not enough. Another is Internet addiction, because they spent their time and money for this, that lead to addiction and the students have lack of interest in studying that will lead for them got low grades. In this study, we will know the factors that can or cannot affect the Mathematical ability of I-Universe and I-Galaxy.

Statement of the Problem

This study aimed to answer the following questions:
-Gender
-Duration of time spent for studying Mathematics
-Number of hours spent for watching Television
-Internet Addiction

Sub-Problems: 1. What is the average grade of male students in Mathematics during 2nd Grading Period? 2. What the average grade of female students in Mathematics during 2nd Grading Period? 3. What the average numbers of hours do students spent for studying their lessons in Mathematics? 4. What the average numbers of hours do students spent for watching Television everyday? 5. What is the average numbers of hours do students spent for surfing the net? 6. Is there a significant difference between male and female students to their Mathematical ability? 7. Is there a significant relationship between the numbers of hours spent for studying their lessons in Math to their Mathematical ability? 8. Is there a significant relationship between the numbers of hours spent for watching Television to their Mathematical ability? 9. Is there a significant relationship between the numbers of hours spent for surfing the net to their Mathematical ability?
Theoretical Framework This study states the learning of the students using a good teaching method. If a student satisfies to the result of his/her Mathematical performance, the duration of time is enough, the television influence is minimized, internet addiction is also being minimized and the allowance must be increase.
Hypotheses
The following hypotheses were tested at0.05 or 5% level of significance.

Ho1: There is no significant difference between male and female students to their Mathematical ability.

Ho2: There is no significant relationship between the numbers of hours spent for studying Math lessons to their Mathematical ability.

Ho3: There is no significant relationship between the numbers of hours spent for watching television to their Mathematical ability.

Ho4: There is no significant relationship between the numbers of hours spent for surfing the net to their Mathematical ability
Conceptual Framework

Independent Dependent
Variables Variables

-Gender Academic performance
-Duration of time spent of First year SSC during for studying Mathematics second grading period
-Number of hours spent for watching Television
-Internet Addiction

Significance of the Study

This study will bring the factors that affect the grades of the students in Mathematics. If it is known by the parent, students and teachers, then the Mathematical performance of a student will be increased. This study is important to provide concern to the students on their Mathematical ability.
Scope and Limitations of this Study This study was limited to a questionnaire method. The respondents were the Freshmen SSC Students of Panabo National High School, batch 2009-2010. Their Mathematical performances were taken during their 2nd Grading Period.
Definition of Terms * Gender- male and female * Amount of Allowance- budget given by their parents * Internet Addiction- addiction to the internet for entertainment * PNHS- Panabo National High School, the school were the data was taken and the study was conducted * SSC Students- Freshmen SSC Students of PNHS which are the respondents of this study * Mathematical Performance- the average grade of the students in Math during 2nd Grading Period * Duration of time spent for studying- the numbers of hours spent for studying lessons in Mathematics
` CHAPTER 2

Review of Related Literature

Gender

“Over the last two decades, the gender differences in mathematics performance have been studied intensively, and the findings of these studies have produced controversy regarding educational strategies for teaching mathematics. Some researchers have even examined the possibility of segregated classes for female students, and special teaching and learning styles as congruent with women's "ways of knowing" (Belenky et al., 1986; Matt and Helme, 1992; Kaur, 1992). Gender and Mathematics was the focus of the International Organization of Women and Mathematics Education (IOWME) meetings at the Sixth International Congress on Mathematical Education (ICME-6) in Budapest, Hungary, in 1988.”
“In this study, I have examined the question of gender and mathematics performance at post-secondary education by using the semester grades of 479 students at a two-year community college and four-year state college in Denver, Colorado, in the United States. In the following sections, after a brief survey of the literature, the procedure of evaluating the students' performance, testing method, and the special features of this study are explained. The final section concludes the paper.” By: Amin M. Kianian [1]

(http://www.questia.com/googleScholar.qst;jsessionid=LdqMwHLXQMcbdpKfGd5DdVgqdNkssnJwWv5X86SpZrxp7JT2TXrc!-1404068679!-1679437133?docId=5000397862) [ 1 ]

“Learning strategies and affective factors could have a profound impact on student standardized mathematics performance. This study investigated gender differences in affective factors, learning strategies, and preferred learning situations, and how these variables affect math achievement of 15 year olds in the United States and Hong Kong on the PISA 2003 assessment. Math self-efficacy was found to be the best predictor of math performance in both countries. A striking mismatch was identified between Hong Kong students' superior math performance and extremely low math self-concept and between U.S. students' high confidence and weak performance. In addition, U.S. students' interest in math was significantly negatively related to their math performance. Contrary to a widely reported finding that East Asian students emphasize memorization, U.S. students were found to heavily rely on memorization strategies, which was also a negative predictor of math achievement.” By: Ou Lydia Liu [ 2 ] Internet Addiction
“Academic impairment from excessive Internet use is not surprising, and students are often seen as one of the most vulnerable groups for Internet addiction. Students have access to free, ubiquitous, and high-speed Internet connections at college which allow downloading of large file sizes (pornography) and networked video gaming with relative ease. Academic impairment involves missed classes, missed assignments, and poor grades. One example of academic impairment is 'Jamie' a case study who stated the Internet was, "the most important thing in his life" and found himself missing classes due to late night logins. In South Korea, Kim Myung found himself retreating more and more into online gaming to escape parental pressures to do well in school. Whether the avoidance is intentional or not, student performance can be heavily impacted by problematic Internet use” by Ian McCullough [ 3 ] .

“Recently, negative aspects of the Internet are frequently rising. This is because as the Internet has become a part of our life, people unconsciously fell into it and this lead to a plenty of problems. This great diffusion of the Internet culture has brought cheap and fast communication which has no limitation on time and space. Also, as cyberspace appeared, it changed our living pattern and thoughts. However, through this popularization of the Internet, some side effects which was not appeared in the past was also showed. Among them, the representative one is Internet addiction. Especially, Internet addiction of campus students is one of the most serious problems because their studies are very closely related to their future life and career and in fact, they are most sensitive age for new information and technology. In order to help the addicted students, inquiring into the true state of Internet addiction is very important. If causes are clear, we can easily find out solutions. Therefore, in this paper, I am going to investigate psychological, personal and physical, social factors that contribute to Internet addiction of students through three professional articles”. “The first one, written on 2001 by Robert W. Kubey et al., is entitled “Internet Use and Collegiate Academic Performance Decrements: Early findings” and it deals with current Internet use of college students and its cause and effect by carrying out a survey method. Through this survey, most addicted students said they want to make a friend and feel lonely and authors found that loneliness is very associated with Internet dependency. In other words, loneliness is a factor of the Internet addiction and the more someone use the Internet, the more he or she feels lonely. That is using the Internet makes a role to substitute social activities in terms of spending time. Actually, lonely students who are lack of sociality want to acquire new friends and join clubs but since they feel difficulty to communicate directly, the Internet can be a great tool to communicate and offer a better opportunity than offline for lonely students. If they are on web, they do not need to face each other and they are not limited to time and space. As the result, they can make a friend readily even though they do not know each face. After all, in order to overcome their loneliness, they use the Internet continuously and they become addicted to the Internet. This article also shows that this addiction of campus students negatively affects to academic performance. Since the addicted students spend their whole nights to chat, play games, or surf web, they feel tired in the morning and to they miss classes. Although they go to a class, it is very difficult to concentrate on the lecture. In the end, their grades will be down. Hence, loneliness is one of the psychological factors of Internet addiction which causes negative effect on studies. This article gives us confidence in that the authors analyze the addicting situations by survey. This method is more trustful since they used the survey by dividing into two groups; Internet dependent and nondependent. This makes us judge the interrelationship between the Internet and users more exactly. Moreover, this survey method do not only offer confidence but also give significant data about current state of addicted campus students. Some graphs they provided are very useful to understand readily” [ 4 ].

(http://www.informaworld.com/smpp/content~db=all~content=a913818712) [ 2 ]
(http://web.utk.edu/~imccullo/IA/effects.html) [ 3 ]
(http://web.ics.purdue.edu/~changj/P2D2.htm) [ 4 ]

Television Watching

“TV viewing may replace activities that we know help with school performance, such as reading, doing homework, pursuing hobbies, and getting enough sleep.
One research study found that TV's effects on education were long term. The study found that watching TV as a child affected educational achievement at age 26. Watching more TV in childhood increased chances of dropping out of school and decreased chances of getting a college degree, even after controlling for confounding factors Watching TV at age four was one factor found to be associated with bullying in grade school” [ 5]

“Only a handful of programs teach children important skills such as math, reading, science or problem solving. Most of the shows on television, including cartoons, are non educational. More time spent watching these shows is linked with poorer school performance overall and decreased scores on standardized tests. This makes sense when you consider that more time spent in front of a television means less time spent on homework or having stimulating interactions with adults or other children. In addition, late-night TV watching tires kids out so that they can't pay attention in school. Also, television hands kids all the answers, promoting passive learning and short attention spans. As a result, kids have difficulty concentrating and working hard to solve a problem” [ 6 ] .

(http://www.med.umich.edu/yourchild/topics/tv.htm) [ 5 ]
(http://www.cnn.com/HEALTH/9908/20/kids.tv.effects) [ 6 ]

Chapter 3
Research Methodology and Procedure

This chapter discusses the research s\design, the research environment, sampling technique, research instrument and statistical treatment.

Research Design The research used questionnaire method: a set of questionnaire was given to the respondents. The questionnaire is concerned with the students Mathematical ability and study habits. The sets of questionnaires were administered to all I-Universe and I-Galaxy that were present during the study. They were enrolled at Panabo National High School, Special Science, and School Year-2010.

Research Environment This study was conducted in Panabo National High School, it was located at New Site, Brgy. Gredu, Panabo City. In figure 3.1 shows the map of Davao del Norte. Figure 3.2 shows the map Panabo City. Locating Panabo National High School and Figure 3.3 shows the scool map of Panabo National High School. Panabo City is located between Davao City and Tagum City. Panabo City has mangrove trees. Panabo City is now a Milkfish Breeder. Panabo City free from typhoon because it is surrounded by high mountain ranges. Panabo City has many agricultural crops. Panabo City has been enriched with soil, so it is suitable for planting bananas. In fact, the bananas from Panabo City have high quality standard that are suitable for other countries. The people who lived in Panabo City are very friendly, kind, industrious and hospitable. So, Panabo City is truly a beautiful city.

Figure 3.1 shows the map of Davao del Norte indicating Panabo City.

Figure 3.2 shows the map of Panabo City locating Panabo National High School.

Figure 3.3 The school map of Panabo National High School.

Description of the Respondents There are thirty-seven (37) students in I-Universe and thirty-six students in I-Galaxy are the respondents of this study. The respondents were currently enrolled at Panabo National High School for S.Y. 2009-2010. These students belong to Special Science Curriculum.
Table 3.1
Distribution of Number of Subject-Respondents
Involved in the Study. Sections | Population | Number of Cases | Percentage | | F | M | F | M | F | M | I-Universe | 25 | 12 | 25 | 12 | 100% | 100% | I-Galaxy | 25 | 12 | 25 | 12 | 100% | 100% | Total | 49 | 24 | 49 | 24 | 100% | 100% |

Research Instrument
Preparation: The questionnaire was made by the researcher. It has simple and brief questions to provide understanding for the purpose of the study. It contains sentences in relevance with: (1) study habits (2) watching television (3) internet addiction. The prepared survey was checked by following the given format. Also, an approval letter was prepared and signed by the principal.
Reproduction: The researcher produced the research instrument in order to maintain the confidentiality of the result obtained. Each of the respondent was given a copy of the questionnaire and giving them the time to answer the statements honestly.
Scoring and Tally: The scores were tallied carefully by gender. The tally results were done only with the researcher to avoid biases. The results were treated confidentially.
Sampling Techniques: The universal sampling technique was used for the seventy-three (73) first year SSC students that were taken as the respondents of this study. The students given with these questionnaires were the students who were present during the conduct of this study.

Research Respondents The researcher prepared an official correspondence and addressed to the school principal requesting an approval to conduct a survey among First Year SSC students. The data gathered are used in the thesis entitled “Some Factors Affecting the Mathematical Ability of First Year SSC students on the Second Grading Period, S.Y. 2009-2010.” The outcome of the data gathering were held strictly in confidential.

Statistical Treatment The data gathered were tested statistically using various statistical tools in order to arrive to the accurate answer. This research were only tested only the null hypothesis of the specific problems at 5% or 0.05 level of significance tested statistically.

1.) Weighted Mean

Weighted Mean was employed in order to give a concise description of Some Factors that Affect the Mathematical performance among Freshmen SSC students of Panabo National High School. The formula was:

X = TWS N
Where:
TWS= total weighted score
N= number of respondents
X= weighted mean

2.) Pearson, r

Pearson, r is a parametric test of relationship devised by Sir Karl Pearson, a measure of the correlation between two variables X and Y. Parametric test are Parametric tests are those statistical test that require certain assumption or conditions about the population from where the sample are drawn. The formula was: r = ∑xy – N( x ) ( y ) X = ∑x ; Y = ∑y [ ∑x2-N(x)2] [ ∑y2-N(y)2] N N

Where:
N = number of cases
R = Pearson, r
∑ = summation
X = mean of the first variable
Y = mean of the second variable
∑x2 = summation of the first variable squared
∑y2 = summation of the second variable squared

3.) T-test

T-test is a parametric test of difference used when data are in interval or ratio type. It is preferably used when the samples are small or less than thirty (30). In this study, the t-test was under Uncorrelated or Independent Samples. Independent samples are those wherein the selection of the members of one sample does not affect the selection of the other members of the other sample. The formula was:

t = X1 – X2 ∑χ12 + ∑χ22 1 + 1 N1 + N2 – 2 N1 N2

Where:
∑χ12 = ∑x12 – (∑x1)2 ; ∑χ22 = ∑x12 – (∑x22) ; χ1 = ∑x1 ; χ2 = ∑x2 N1 N2 N1 N2

Where:
∑x12 = summation of the first variable squared
∑x22 = summation of the second variable squared
N1 = total cases of the first variable
N2 = total cases of the second variable
X1 = mean of the first variable
X2 = mean of the second variable

4.) Criterion Continuum-
This tool was arbitrary established by the researcher for the precise interpretation of the data for appropriate textual analysis, interpretations, implications and analysis.
For Some Factors:
Points Hours Descriptive Ratings 5 9-10 hours Always (A) 4 7-8 hours More Often (MO) 3 5-6 hours Often (O) 2 3-4 hours Sometimes (S) 1 1-2 hours Never (N) For General Mathematical Performance: Scales Qualitative Ratings 91-100% Very Satisfactory (VS) 85-90% Satisfactory (S) 76-89% Fair (F) 70-75% Slightly Fair (SF) Below 70 Poor (P)

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