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Southwest - Cost Structure Analysis

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מבנה העלויות של החברה:
מבנה העלויות של החברה הוא אחד המשאבים התורמים ביותר להצלחתה של החברה ולרווחיות שלה. הוא מורכב מכמה גורמים עיקריים אשר מאפשרים לחברה לשמור על עלויות נמוכות תוך כדי ניצול מרבי של שאר המשאבים. בין אותם גורמים ניתן למנות את עובדי התפעול היעילים של החברה, את המשכורות הנמוכות המאפיינות את צוותי האוויר אשר עוזרים גם בתפעול על הקרקע ואת השימוש בצי מטוסים אחיד אשר תורם להורדת עלויות אחזקת המטוסים והכשרה של טייסים ומכונאים. פעילותה העיקרית של החברה היא בקווים קצרי טווח בהם העלויות גבוהות מאשר בקווים ארוכי טווח (המטוס ממריא/נוחת יותר פעמים ודורש תפעול בכל תחנה).
Value – למשאב זה ערך רב שכן הקטנת העלויות מול שאר המתחרים תורם רבות להגדלת הרווחיות.
Rarity – מבנה עלויות נמוך כפי שאנו רואים ב-Southwest הוא אכן נדיר ולכן אנו לא רואים את אותן עלויות נמוכות גם בחברות המתחרות.
Imitability – עקב מכלול הגורמים אשר תורמים למבנה העלויות הנמוך קשה מאוד לחקות משאב זה. אפשר לראות זאת לפי מספר דברים, ראשית, אנו רואים כי בשנים 1993-1994 העלות הממוצעת של Southwest היא 7.1 סנט למייל בעוד העלות אצל המתחרות הגדולות גבוהה ב-20 עד 30 אחוז. שנית, מספר האנשים בצוותי הקרקע של Southwest נמוך ב-50 אחוז מאשר אצל המתחרות ועם זאת הם יעילים יותר (צוות קרקע של Southwest מסובב מטוס ב-15 דקות לעומת 35 דקות אצל המתחרים). בנוסף צוותי האוויר בחברה טסים יותר שעות אך מרוויחים משכורות נמוכות יותר מאשר אצל המתחרים. כדי לחקות מאפיין זה יצטרכו המתחרים לבצע שינויים מקיפים ולקצץ משכורות באופן מאסיבי. לבסוף, ב-Southwest לעומת המתחרים צי המטוסים מורכב רק ממטוסי בואינג 737 שכן החברה פעולת רק בקווים קצרי טווח. חברות התעופה הגדולות שמתחרות בה פועלות גם בקווים ארוכי טווח ולכן חייבות להחזיק גם מטוסים גדולים יותר, מה שגורר עלויות גבוהות יותר באחזקה והכשרת עובדים.
Organized Properly – החברה מנצלת את המשאב במלואו. מבנה החברה, העובדים והתרבות הארגונית מתואמים ותורמים לניצול מירבי של משאב זה על מנת להגדיל את היתרון התחרותי.
משאב זה לכן מהווה יתרון תחרותי ארוך...

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