Free Essay

Spanish Cinema

In: Film and Music

Submitted By jlavine
Words 1671
Pages 7
Global Studies 298: Barcelona
Winter 2009

Cinema History in Barcelona and Spain

Cinema reflects the voice and culture of a nation. It documents important changes in politics, lifestyle, and even language. Barcelona was the birthplace for Cinema in of Spain. During the silent period of film all of the biggest Spanish directors including Marro, Chómon, Gelabert, and Bános were based out of Barcelona (Alvarez 6). The first films that had sound where shown in Barcelona before anywhere else, although without sound due to the lapse in technological capabilities (Alvarez 7). Barcelona’s movement in film did not stop there. Throughout the years and generations Catalan cinema has been a part of Spanish culture and has in its own right fought to survive. In the beginning Barcelona was the sole player in Spanish Cinema. Madrid, the other major metropolitan area, was more concerned with traditional forms of entertainment such as bullfighting and la zarzuela (musical theater) (Alvarez 6). The first Spanish film was actually that of a group of church goers leaving Sunday Mass which was entitled Salida de la misa de doce del Pilar or in English: “Leaving the Midday Mass at the Church of Pilar in Zaragoza.” This film was already the way from 1896 and would seem to show an enthusiastic future for film if it were not for such factors as foreign competition, government, and an overbearing church (Stone 14). During the turn of the century in particular themes of the church dominated with films such as The View of Campo Valdés Taken at the Leaving of Midday Mass, Leaving the Midday Mass at the Church of Saint Peter, and Voyage of His Majesty to Albufera (Stone 15). The first fiction film did not come along until 1897. The director was Fructouso Gelabert who was born in Barcelona and was a carpenter and photographer by trade (Stone 16). His first film, Brawl in a Café, reflected the Catalan mindset of revolution and separating from its current government (which back then was not quite yet under Franco’s rule, allowing this films sediment to be expressed). The film was only 48 seconds long, and the story reflected the title: two gentleman fighting in a café only to be separated by a good Samaritan. Much like Gelabert, even those of middle class status showcased their wealth by sponsoring films that featured boats and trains(Stone 17). Gelabert, however, was the one who tried to pull stories into these silent films. He went on to do several literary adaptions such as Terra Baixa and Mala Raza, the latter of which he was unsuccessfully sued for plagiarism (Bentley 6). He had a sense of humor and enjoyed utilizing special effects in his film as illustrating in his films Cerveza gratis and Choque de dos translánticos respectively (Bentley 6). By the time he died he had produced over 111 films (Bentley 6). Another notable director was Segundo de Chomón. Chomón studied film in Paris, but experimented in Barcelona (Bentley 7). He brought not only color to the industry, but was the first one who introduced the concept of moving a camera while filming and thus inventing the traveling shot (Stone 18). He also introduced stop motion into the industry with his well known film El hotel eléctrico (The Haunted Hotel) which consisted of a couple checking into a hotel and witnessing inanimate objects moving by themselves (Bentley 7). While the concept may sound cryptic, the film was actually done in a very light hearted and humorous manner (Stone 18). Chomón eventually teamed up with Joan Fuster Gari to start a production company of which they turned out thirty seven films, but only two of these films were picked up for distribution, making the company unprofitable. Fuster abandoned the company leaving Chomón without a studio or equiptment, and thus ending another period in Spanish and Catalan film (Stone 19). Around this time a war erupted that would change the face of cinema all over. World War I had begun, and while Spain was doing its best to stay out of it while dealing with Catalan and Basque autonomy, much of the film industry had relocated to a safer haven; the US. The US had not been a major player in film until then, but was able to develop its production while Europe faced its own affairs. This effected Spain greatly, as by 1918 the US had taken 50% of the market (Bentley 25). Even after the war was over, no European production company’s became anywhere near as big as what existed in the US. In particular, Spain was hindered by “no laboratories to manufacture film stock, was short of necessary capital investments to create a viable industry and in any case lacked an infrastructure to give it a competitive edge, in spite of some interesting technical developments and innovations (Bentley 25). After the war, and with some national unrest still in the air, film did once again start to take shape. Madrid began opening up studios to compete with Barcelona (although with only relative success at first). It was in Madrid that the first Spanish film club, Cineclub Español, was founded in October 1928 (Bentley 40). Barcelona soon followed suit the next year and opened their own club, the Mirador Cineclub (Bentley 41). Along with this re-emergence came avante gard film. This experimental style was popular with French and Spanish artists of all realms, and borrowed from the surrealist movement that was happening. Of this period came one very notable Spanish director; Luis Buñuel. You cannot speak of Spanish film without mentioning his short film, Un Chien andalou. The style of the film was a “juxtaposition of images, scenes and sequences that allow a narrative to be inferred, but it has the consistency of dreams where the situation is constantly changing through associations and without appearant causal relationships,” (Bentley 43). The importance of this film is that it made movies a recognizable medium for surrealism (Stone 23). Perhaps because of this, French surrealists tried to claim him as their own, but the fact remains that Buñuel’s surrealist roots come from his time studying in Madrid with other artists such as Dalî (who helped him make Un Chien andalou) (Stone 22). On the heals of this phenomenon sound began to be incorporated into film. This was a problem for Spanish cinema because most screens did not have the capacity to support sound in their theaters, so movies like The Jazz Singer were shown in places like the Cineclub in Madrid with only a small orchestra to accompany its performance (Bentley 50). It wasn’t until September 19th, 1929 that the Barcelona Coliseum became the first theater in Spain to be fitted with sound thanks to foreign investments (Bentley 50). This still put Spain behind in the film industry, and less films were produced in Spain and Barcelona during this time (even with the French industry developing progressively so close by). As a result of lacking sound capabilities, most Spanish films were either done abroad or where sent abroad to process sound (usually to Paris). Hollywood, in particular, still saw a viable market and reshot a number of movies with Spanish actors as dubbing and subtitles were not available yet (Bentley 51). These movies were unpopular because they used actors from all nationalities and began what was referred to as an “accent war,” (Bentley 51). The first Spanish sound film was not until four years after The Jazz Singer was released. Toda la vida was directed by Adequi Millar and released in 1931 (Stone 26). Shortly after this, however, the Spanish Civil War would end and Franco would take over and change the face of Spanish cinema. This effected Barcelona greatly, as it was no longer recognized as the capital of Spain and was greatly repressed during this period. Companies like the Compania Industrial del Film Español were geared towards making Francoist propaganda films (Stone 28). The nationalist government had tight control over its film industry, and even films that were pro-Franco were not approved for distribution because they were “not good enough to be effective propaganda,” (Bentley 85). However, films that did meet the standards were titled “of national interested,” and their producers were given lucrative licenses for distribution. Out of this came cine cruzada; films which glorified Spanish imperialism (Stone 38). This period extended over a large part of Spain’s cinema history. Even after Franco died his predecessor did little to change the direction of cinema. Eventually that did slowly change. In the late nineties “productions and spectatorship… slowly reconsolidated and cinema [was] invigorated by a new generation of directors well versed in different cinemas and wanting to emulate, in their own way, what they enjoy[ed] on screen,” (Bentley 320). In the 1990’s, despite efforts from the US to put tariffs on film and television, two films from Spain received Oscars for Best Foreign Film: Belle Epoque and Todo sobre mi madre (Alvarez 184-185). Film continues to flourish in Spain today. While productions are now more evenly split between Barcelona and Madrid, Barcelona still holds a place in cinema history. In 1995 Barcelona hosted the “100 Years of Spanish Cinema,” conference (Alvarez 244). Although, because of war and politics, film has had a slow start in Spain it continues to flourish and find directors such as Isabel Coitex both teaming up with foreign production companies and producing their own native cinema. As time goes on we will only see cinema continue to grow in Spain.

Works Cited
Alvarez, Inmaculada, Rosana Blanco-Cano, Anitra Grisales, Alejandra Osorio, Tatjana Pavlovic, and Alejandra Sánchez. 100 Years of Spanish Cinema. New ed. Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell, 2008. Print.
Bentley, Bernard P. E.. A Companion to Spanish Cinema, Tamesis Books, 2008. Print.
Mira, Alberto. The Cinema of Spain and Portugal (24 Frames). London: Wallflower Press, 2005. Print.
Stone, Rob. Spanish Cinema (Inside Film). New York: Longman, 2001. Print. Spanish cinema: Calling the shots (Leeds Iberian papers). Great Britian: Trinity And All Saints, University Of Leeds, 1999. Print.

Similar Documents

Free Essay

Spanish Cinema

...Cultural Project 2 – Spanish Cinema For the Cultural Project 2 assignment I decided to continue my exploration of Spanish cinema. I searched for a movie that would include historical events that could broaden my knowledge of the Spanish culture. I chose the Spanish-American film entitled “Goya’s Ghosts” because of the historical relevance the time period had on Spanish culture. The film included references to the Spanish Monarchy, the influence of the Catholic Church, the Spanish Inquisition, French Revolution, and a renowned Spanish painter named Francisco Goya. “Although the historical setting of the movie was based on actual historical events, the movie itself is a work of fiction”(Goya’s). The setting for Goya’s Ghosts begins in Spain in the year 1792. The Catholic Church is “disturbed by prints, created by an artist named Francisco Goya, that are being circulated around the country depicting the clergy using unflattering imagery”(Francisco). There is a long discussion on how the Church should handle the situation, when Brother Lorenzo intervenes. He suggests that “the artist’s depiction is insight into a bigger problem and should be handled by increasing the pressure the church applies to finding people who do not believe in their faith”(Spanish). “The Tribunal of the Holy Office of the Inquisition (Spanish: Tribunal del Santo Oficio de la Inquisición), commonly known as the Spanish Inquisition (Inquisición española), was a tribunal established...

Words: 1051 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

Movies Worldwide

...Question 1 Why have American films been so successful over the last half century? Outline what you consider to be key success factors for a film (type of story and genre; actors; directors, pace, music, and so on). Was the fascination for the American culture and way of life the prominent reason for that success? What was the contribution of the American melting pot with its huge diversity of migrants’ origins to the creativity and global outlook of the American movie industry? There are several reasons for the success of American movies: the budget, the Hollywood brand, the directors and the universal themes that appeal to a broad public. When the production can cover most of its costs by the local profit, it allows for a relatively low selling price to the foreign distributors. A large budget also makes it possible to use expensive actors with a recognized name that attracts visitors, as well as developing an efficient distribution system. The US has the most prominent country-brand equity in the world, which has without a doubt contributed to the Hollywood success. Therefore one might say that the fascination for American culture has helped their movie industry, but there are too many other factors to say that this is the main reason for its success. Several of the well renowned Hollywood directors have origins outside of the US. This knowledge of more than one culture might have contributed to a more international touch to their films, appealing to many different......

Words: 3243 - Pages: 13

Free Essay

Relevance of Home

...A Proposal for a Visiting Resident Fellowship at the Virginia Commonwealth University of Virginia, U.S.A. I: Introduction Mevlana Jalaluddin Rumi, the twelfth century mystic, says in a poem with which I often begin my recitals: I am neither Christian nor Jew nor Magian nor Musalman, I am not of any one country : India, China, Bulgaria, Scyte.. My place is placeless My trace is traceless It is neither body nor soul It is all the life of my Beloved. This proposal is about a seeker, an explorer of the soul through poetry and acting, with entertainment as second nature, by getting into the skin of men, women and children as actors do – in addition to a desire that seeks to understand and interact with others. Sufism expounds on simple living, sharing and forsaking for others. The good food and vine need not be consumed, but the spicier, crustier and more divine it is when given away, carries it farther with wings of the soul. That man by the Church who cannot walk as you do, who is asking for alms is doing what he does, but you need him more than he needs your cents. These viewpoints are inspired from Sufi thought but the anecdotes are my own assimilation from Italy this summer. This proposal is on the cutting edge for the Department of Film and Photography at the Virginia Commonwealth University. This is a proposal by a writer/actor......

Words: 1788 - Pages: 8

Free Essay


...|Carrer de Còrsega, 258, 3º 2ª , 08008 Barcelona, Espanya | |Mobile: +34 717 139 823 | |E-Mail: | |Date of Birth: 09.02.1989 | |Nationality: Turkish / Female | CANAN YILMAZ 1 WORK EXPERIENCE 10/2011 – 03/2012: Project Assistant CAPITAL EVENTS A.S, Istanbul, TURKEY Capital Events Company is event management firm in Turkey. As Project Assistant, I was able to plan events, activities and strategy development. To create team of RSVP, controlling and managing. To prepare of the event presentation for bidding, event program flow and text, field management, meet and deal with the protocol. To accreditation management and customer relations. To arrange accommodation and transport planning. 04/2011 – 09/2011: Program Coordinator OMER MEDYA / PARADISO FILM A.S, Istanbul, TURKEY Making a Tv Program which name is ‘Tea, Bagel, Talk on The Ferry’.It is the first program that taken on ferry in İstanbul.Each program select new topics like art, policy,music.The role is planning the course of program,arrenge the guests and their transportation.To prepare news stories for Press Media, program evaluation and field management. ...

Words: 571 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Brush Teeth

...------------------------------------------------- Top of Form * Brush teeth | * * Comb hair | * * Do hair | * * * * Eat breakfast | * * Get backpack | * * Get books | * * Get dressed | * * * * Get lunch money | * * * * Get water bottle | * * * * Make lunch | * * Make your bed | * * Pack homework | * * Pack lunch | * * Play time | * * Put on boots | * * Put on coat | * * Put on glasses | * * Put on hat | * * Put on mittens | * * Put on pants | * * Put on shoes | * * Put on socks | * * Put on sunglasses | * * Put on sunscreen | * * Put on underwear | * * Put on warm hat | * * Shower | * * Take a bath | * * * Me levanto a las siete y media. I get up at half past seven * A las ocho me ducho. At eight o'clock I have a shower. * Después desayuno. Then I have breakfast. * Compro el periódico. I buy the newspaper. * Luego voy al trabajo en metro. Then I go to work by underground. * Empiezo a trabajar a las ocho y cuarto. I start to work at quarter past eight. * A las dos paro para comer. At two o'clock I have my lunch break. * Después trabajo desde la una y media hasta......

Words: 954 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Drown by Diaz

...Drown Drown, the compilation of ten short stories written by Junot Diaz narrates the experience of Hispanic Latino teenagers with different themes and from one part of life to another. He pictured the world of Drown as a rough, violent, poor and seemingly hopeless experiences. The compilation of stories narrated by Yunior tells his stories from different points of view of life. The events and experiences mentioned in this novel by Diaz are what most Hispanic teenagers go through. As the novel begins with “The fact that I am writing you in English already falsifies what I wanted to tell you.” (Drown). This epigraph in beginning by Gustavo Perez Firmat gives a clue of focusing Hispanic community. After reading the whole book my question is this book merely story telling or autobiographical? This question came to my mind by relating Diaz’s interview in Colbert’s show. Stephen Colbert, the host of show when asked him how he came to America, Diaz answered that his father first came to New York, settled here and called them over. Diaz also mentioned that he saw his dad the first time as he was away from family and once they landed to America his father took them to New Jersey which was weird according to Diaz. Same scenario was somewhat presented in beginning of Drown but through Yunior- the narrator. Diaz used the specific words and some symbols which the reader can almost feel the story as if it is real. Diaz, who was born in Santo Domingo in Dominican Republic and......

Words: 2142 - Pages: 9

Free Essay

Spanglish in Lone Star

...Proseminar Paper in ESOC Spanglish in the cinema Juan Ramón Abarca García 12-068-391 4th Semester 19th December 2014 Table of contents 1.-Introduction, aim and scope..........................................................................................3 2.-Literature review...........................................................................................................3 2.1.-Code-switching...............................................................................................3 2.2.-Spanish in the United States...........................................................................5 2.3.-Spanglish........................................................................................................6 3.-Data and methodology..................................................................................................8 4.-Analysis.........................................................................................................................9 5.-Conclusion...................................................................................................................13 6.-Transcription......

Words: 5667 - Pages: 23

Free Essay


...Appraising Internationality in Spanish Communication Journals ´ david ferna ndez-quijada This article explores how journals published in a language other than English achieve a degree of internationality and can increase our knowledge of scientific publication patterns. This author offers a case study focused on Spanish communication journals from a sample of 1182 articles published from 2007 to 2009. The article examines three variables in this sample: the number of non-Spanish scholars, the use of languages other than Spanish, and how often non-Spanish journals are referred to. The results show that (a) these journals find it difficult to attract foreign scholars, (b) open-language policies have had a limited effect, and (c) internationality is constrained to the Spanish geolinguistic region. Keywords: internationality, local journals, Spanish scholarly journals, journal evaluation, communication sciences introduction The impact of published research is measured by means of well-established tools; one such tool is the Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI). However, in the field of communication studies — and in fact in all the social sciences — the SSCI does not take account of all the research published; this is particularly visible in cases where research is published in languages other than English. For example, in 2009, only 81 out of the 1585 articles (5.11 per cent) indexed in the Communication category of the SSCI were not written in English. In the context of these...

Words: 5814 - Pages: 24

Free Essay

Interpretations of the Civil War in Early Film

...INTERPRETATIONS OF THE CIVIL WAR IN EARLY FILM One Film To Rule Them All In 1915, the blockbuster film, The Birth of a Nation swept the nation. In a pivotal scene, the attractive daughter of a former slave owner, whose cotton business had been ruined by the war, is stalked by a menacing looking black soldier, named Gus. He is shown with his shirt wide open and bare-chested. Flora, the stereotypical southern belle, notices the voyeur and is visibly shaken. Flora tries to hide from Gus, but Gus corners her and tells her that he wants her and that he is not married. Since the end of the Civil War, Flora has noticed several black soldiers in the area in the past few months harassing her family and other upstanding families. Gus forces Flora closer and tries to kiss her. In a panic, Flora slaps him and pushes him away. Flora flees into the woods. The ensuing pursuit shows Gus as a sex-crazed maniacal troll chasing down the seemingly innocent virginal fairy. Gus follows her absorbedly intent on raping her. Flora winds up on a cliff overlooking a series of jagged rocks. She stares at Gus and motions for him to leave her alone. In a silent ultimatum, she gesticulates that if he doesn’t leave then she’ll leap from the cliff to the rocks below. Gus is exposed as a beast, sweating and pulsating lustful desires. He moves closer to Flora to stop her from leaping. Unwilling to give herself to a black man and death being the only alternative, Flora jumps from......

Words: 5187 - Pages: 21

Free Essay

Spanish History Through Film

...Spanish History Through Film Final Paper 2/6/2015 Transition of Spanish Film During and After Franco Censorship It may not be clear in 2015 when traveling to Spain but this is a country that has had one of the most troubled histories and some argue that problems from it are still going on today. The largest problem that Spain has had to deal with from its past is the legacy of the Spanish Civil War and the Dictatorship of General Francisco Franco. The Spanish Civil was was fought between the Republicans who wanted more of a democratic state, and the Nationalists who favored Fascism. Because of the beliefs of the nationalists they drew much needed support from Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy which gave them a large advantage. The war began in 1936 and concluded in 1939 with the victory by the nationalists and their leader Francisco Franco. Following the war Franco got rid of the republic system of government that was in place and instituted a dictatorship that he held until his death in 1975. While the civil war was over, there were still many citizens of Spain that did not support Franco and the dictatorship, but if they were to speak out against the regime there were harsh consequences that sometimes included death. One of the ways many people tried to express their rejection of the regime was through various art forms which included, literature, paintings and films. Since citizens could not overtly talk about the regime they were able to use symbols and......

Words: 2836 - Pages: 12

Premium Essay

Andres Bonifacio Reaction Paper

...“Reaction Paper About Andres Bonifacio” When a film is described as poetic, it is often taken as a compliment. However, when a film is described as theatrical, it is seen as a critique, scathing at that. What makes poetry the better spouse to cinema? Isn’t cinema but a visual and aural interplay of poetry and theater to begin with? Theater provides the cornerstones: the narrative, the milieu, the setting and the characters. Poetry, on the other hand, more than the façade and the flourishes, provides the requisite subtlety in the execution, the minute gestures that accentuate a character, that last five seconds of absolute silence before a cut, the symbols, the verses, the rhymes, and rhythms. This is purely hypothetical. But if films are judged based on a balance where theatricality is measured with poetry, and the former outweighs the latter by a large margin, does it mean that the film is better off staged than filmed? Of course, cinema, contrary to common misconception, is vaster than the trite and absolutely baseless hypothesis that was just forwarded. For that reason, cinema should and cannot be caged to what is merely “cinematic” because the term “cinematic” itself is already enigmatic, subjective in its very definition and has something more to do with how the recorded moving pictures are treated and utilized to express rather than how these pictures are moved and later on recorded. That being said, for all the accusations of supposed theatricality, Mario......

Words: 770 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

The Usefulness of the Term “Auteur” Has Been Questioned by Some Commentators as Failing to Acknowledge the Complexity of the Filmmaking Process. with Reference to One of the Directors Studied so Far on the Module,

...perspective can help or hinder understanding. You should take into account the ways in which your chosen director uses the resources of cinema as a medium as well as the question of personal vision. Film director Pedro Almodóvar was symbol of Spain’s newfound freedom in the post-Franco democracy and has since developed into the dominant figure of contemporary Spanish cinema. Paul Smith (2000: 5) describes him as “the one true auteur to emerge in the 1980’s”, while many commentators see him as a “consummate and undisputed auteur” (Jordan and Allinson, 2005: 77). However, attempting to conclusively define Almodóvar as an “auteur” is challenging as the concept has been consistently defined and redefined since its inception. Vernon and Morris (1995: 13) state, “Models of auteurism at work today bear scant resemblance to the term’s original meaning”. Through an auteurist perspective, we must consider how both Almodóvar and his films conform to aspects of both the original ‘theory’, such as personal vision and ‘signatures’, and subsequent developments of the concept focusing on areas of collaboration and commercialisation. Our conclusions can then be used to determine whether Almodóvar’s status, as an auteur or not, helps or hinders our understanding of his films. The original term “auteur”, pioneered in the pages of French journal Cahiers du Cinéma in 1954, instilled filmmaking as an art form, resulting from the personal vision and distinctive style of a single individual,......

Words: 2162 - Pages: 9

Premium Essay

Second Language Acquisition Case Study

...learning their first one as young children, and to the process of leaning that language” (p.2). She maintains that every subsequent language after the first language (L1) is referred to as the second language (L2) even though it might not necessarily be the second language learned. In the past, most SLA linguistic research that includes Spanish as an L1 or native language (NL) and English as an L2 or foreign language (FL) has been conducted predominately in the United States, Canada, and parts of Europe. Very little research if any has been done in Puerto Rico in applied linguistics...

Words: 1034 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

Global Cinema

...01/18/2013. Global Cinema Questions for Spanish Cinema and Cell 211. 1. Individual Question: I have not used this film in a class before. I want your honest opinion of it. Look at the course objectives and refer to specific ones as you address whether or not I should use this film again in Global Cinema. I think Cell 211 portrays a very excellent example of Spanish cinema and Global Cinema at large and hence, should be used in future classes. One of the main objectives of the Global Cinema course is for the student to be able to differentiate between film as mass consumption entertainment like the ones produced in Hollywood and film as cultural art as produced in other countries. Even though Cell 211 has a lot in common with Hollywood style of film production, I think it still kept close to the international style of filming because the main Character in the movie, Juan Oliver, was not Idolized and made to seem superhuman. The movie was realistic and not only was it entertaining but also very emotional, which is a strong trait of Spanish films. I particular like the final scene where Armando asked if there was any questions signifying that the movie answered all and any questions the audience had. Another important objective of this course is help the student identify the historical and political issues being addressed in the film and I think Cell 211 couldn’t have done that any better. The ETA members were taken hostage in the prison and I remember......

Words: 435 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Managing Marketing

...CIM Professional Diploma in Marketing Unit 1: The Marketing Planning Process Case Study: Brittany Ferries Brittany Ferries is a French-owned car ferry operator, running ships across the Western Channel between south-west Britain and ports in Brittany and Normandy. The company also operates between Ireland and Brittany, running ferries from Roscoff to Cork. Brittany Ferries was formed as a result of Britain joining the Common Market in 1972. The local farming co-operatives in Brittany joined with the Finistere Chambre du Commerce to create the company, mainly with the aim of shipping artichokes and cauliflowers from Brittany to Britain. The farmers recognised the huge potential market in Britain. At the time, the UK was a net importer of food, whereas France was (and still is) a net exporter of food. The Chambre du Commerce recognised an equally tempting potential for tourism from the UK. Brittany was a somewhat remote part of France, a long way from the Eastern Channel crossing point between Dover and Calais or Boulogne sur Mer, and not well-served by airports. In 1978, the company took the brave step of starting a direct route to Spain from Plymouth, making the crossing to Santander. This route opened up the possibility of taking one’s car to Spain without having to make the long drive through France, which in 1978 would typically take two days. 24 hours on a ferry seemed a much better alternative, albeit somewhat expensive. In 2009, the ferry (the Pont Aven) set a new......

Words: 1155 - Pages: 5