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Spanish Heritage

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¿Quiénes son los latinoamericanos? ¿El pueblo en constante búsqueda de una indistinguible identidad? ¿Un pueblo marcado por la dominación Española? Como veremos contestar los anteriores interrogantes no es simple.
España antes de ofrecer libremente, impuso su cultura a los pueblos nativos americanos. Los conquistadores españoles y consiguientes colonos europeos, consideraban a los habitantes americanos como seres salvajes e inferiores.
Durante mucho tiempo fue planteado que la campaña de occidentalización, llevada a cabo durante la conquista, fue un aporte de luz en un lugar cundido por las tinieblas. Desgraciadamente, la realidad no pudo ser más diferente, la educación católica y la imposición del español como lengua franca, más allá que civilizar tenía como objetivo de facilitar la obra de explotación y recepción de tributo por parte de los representantes de la corona Española. (Najera)
En menos de 10 años enteras poblaciones fueron diezmadas gracias al uso ingente de la violencia por parte de la raza “superior”. El abuso que sufrieron los nativos americanos los redujo a la miseria, enfermedad y al suicidio. Un buen ejemplo de cómo dicho trato anulo la población indígena, lo encontramos en las historias de las islas de Cuba y Puerto Rico. Unas de las últimas colonias en independizarse en el año de 1898 cuando Los Estados Unidos de Norte América se la arrebataron a los españoles.
En realidad, las historias de Cuba Y Puerto Rico, muestran similitudes con la mayoría de los países latinoamericanos, donde se establecieron las primeras colonias, llegada de los españoles, reducción de la población indígena a la esclavitud y consiguiente exterminio de masa. Importación de esclavos provenientes de África para asumir el vacío dejado por la exterminación indígena en el saqueo y explotación de las tierras americanas.
Milagrosamente, los indígenas no fueron completamente exterminados, hoy en día existen resguardos amerindios que corresponden a un 10% de la población total de Latinoamérica. Este porcentaje que ha ido incrementado en años recientes gracias no solo a la introducción de leyes y recursos otorgados por los gobiernos latinoamericanos, pero sobre todo debido a la mayor organización de las tribus nativas. Si hoy en día, los nativos son una minoría, entonces, Latinoamérica no puede ser considerada amerindia.
En realidad América latina es mestiza, resultado de mesclas iniciales de sangre nativa con aquellas de los europeos y luego del influjo de las etnias africanas con estas dos primeras. Donde la cultura preponderante fue aquella impuesta por los conquistadores y colonos blancos, aunque si bien, esta conserva influencias indígenas, pero sobre todo en el caribe, una gran influencia africana.
Tal vez de en este modo es posible explicar cómo después de proclamar la libertad del régimen español, su transición bajo la hegemonía del control comercial americano fue imperceptible. Le fue fácil adoptar los productos y a través de estos las costumbres, porque al final también “América” es un pueblo mestizo hecho de inmigrantes blancos, esclavos negros y una minoría indígena.
Y entonces ¿Quiénes son los latinoamericanos? Los latinoamericanos son un grupo con un pasado triste, pero común, una lengua impuesta y con cadencia diversa pero carácter personal y republicano que se distinguen y a veces contagian aquellos de los dominadores; una música que transmite inequivocablemente una perspectiva diferente hacia la vida; una religión de fuerte carácter sacro que esconde debajo de sus santos y credos, ritos paganos de culturas que se creían difuntas, pero viven ocultas en un sinnúmero de supersticiones que la hacen única. Esta unicidad, carácter, perspectiva, lengua y pasado común convierten a los latinos más que a los pobladores de una serie de estados contiguos, en un grupo que comparte un sentimiento especial y porque no en una gran nación.

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[ 1 ]. Nájera, Luna (2011) "Myth and Prophecy in Juan Ginés de Sepúlveda’s Crusading "Exhortación"," Bulletin for Spanish and Portuguese Historical Studies: Vol. 35: Iss. 1, Article 4.
Available at: http://digitalcommons.asphs.net/bsphs/vol35/iss1/4
[ 2 ]. Nemogá Soto, Gabriel Ricardo PhD. Profesor Asociado Director Cátedra Jorge Eliécer Gaitán, II semestre(2008): “ La reducción de los Pueblos Indígenas como constante histórica”: pag 1-8
[ 3 ]. Cagiao Vila, Pilar “Cuba, Puerto Rico y su historia” Universidad Santiago de la Compostela: pag 31
[ 4 ]. Ramos, Jorge Abelardo “Historia de la Nación latinoamericana” :pag 71-99
[ 5 ]. (Fuentes, C. (1992) El espejo enterrado, México, Fondo de Cultura Económica, pp.15–17)
[ 6 ]. UNICEF “Los pueblos indígenas de Latinoamérica”: pag 3
[ 7 ]. Ramos, Jorge Abelardo “Historia de la Nación latinoamericana” :pag 71
[ 8 ]. (Fuentes, C. (1992) El espejo enterrado, México, Fondo de Cultura Económica, pp.15–17
[ 9 ]. Ramos, Jorge Abelardo “Historia de la Nación latinoamericana” :pag 460
[ 10 ]. Zea, L. (1993) Fuentes de la cultura latinoamericana, México, Fondo de Cultura Económica, pp.7–8)

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