Free Essay

Sparkling Water

In: Business and Management

Submitted By May120
Words 1940
Pages 8
Introduction Consumer behaviour is the buying behaviour of the last consumers that buy goods or services for their personal consumption. As a marketer, in order to change customers’ think and act, understand consumer behaviour is really important. They have to know the ‘why’ to influence the remaining ‘WH’ in consumer behaviour (Kotler and Armstrong, 2014)1. In this assignment, I will be aiming the white-collar workers which also known as office workers, their ages are around 30 to 50 years old. I’ve chosen psychographic segmentation to target buyers in the market. This segmentation classify consumers based on social class, personality or lifestyles (Kotler and Armstrong, 2014)2. Office workers are the bunch that always work overtime and seldom have proper meal. This unhealthy lifestyle causes most of them having weak digestion system. Carbonated water is a plain water with sugar free, no calorie and contains carbon dioxide, it gives a bubbly mouthfeel and slightly sour taste. It also known as sparkling water, seltzer water or soda water (Collins, 2015). According to Greenfield (2014), consume carbonated water can help in curing the digestion problem like dyspepsia and constipation. Besides, with carbonated water that contained sodium, it can help in reduce the risk of getting heart diseases. Also, people will tend to drink more carbonated water because of its unique taste, it is good for those who are having dehydration.
The Characteristics that Affect Consumer Behaviour There are few factors affecting the consumer behaviour which are cultural, social, personal and psychological characteristics (Kotler and Armstrong, 2014)3. In my opinion, factor that influencing the office workers to purchase carbonated water is personal factor. In every stage of the lifetimes, people change their needs and tastes in purchasing goods and services (Kotler and Armstrong, 2014)4. The family lifecycle of an individual will have an impact to his or her buying behaviour by depends on their marital status and so on (Perreau, 2013). For example, those office workers who are bachelors, they are more willing to spend extravagantly for enjoyment and healthy lifestyle. Besides, persons in different occupational groups and economic conditions will have different kind of buying behaviour. Office workers which are also known as white-collar workers, they are classified as middle class in the social level. They want better things in life, they will follow trends and have a better living (Kotler and Armstrong, 2014)5. Therefore, this group of consumers are not grudge to buy carbonated water if they know it will benefits them. Not only that, Perreau (2013) stated that lifestyle of an individual are depends on their activities, interest and opinions. Consumers will buy goods or services according to their lifestyle. For example, a consumer with healthy lifestyle will eat organic products while the consumer with unhealthy lifestyle, they eat fast foods very often. Therefore, marketers can encourage the office workers to improve their lifestyle conveniently by consume carbonated water.
The Types of Consumer Buying Decisions There are two buying decision behaviours that influencing consumers in purchase bottled water (Custom Essay Cheap. 2011)1. Firstly, many consumers buy bottled water under habitual buying behaviour. They are in the low involvement and few substantial brand differences which charge them in a low costs and risks, they do not have to think much to decide on purchasing that certain products. Consumers in this group only buy the brand they recognise, and if they keep buying the same brand, it doesn’t mean they are loyal but just a habit. This kind of consumers can easily switch brand if there are sales promotions on other brands’ bottled water (Kotler and Armstrong, 2014)6. For the other group of consumers, they are under variety seeking buying behaviour. Bottled waters are containing low involvement but have multi-choices of brands. Because of this, consumers do brand switching very frequently (Kotler and Armstrong, 2014)7. In this situation, the leader and minor brands of the bottled water are having different marketing strategies. For the market leader, they are trying to encourage habitual buying behaviour; while the minor brands prefer variety seeking buying behaviour (Custom Essay Cheap, 2011)2. The example of the other product which manage these buying decision behaviours is biscuits. In the market, there are many types of biscuits with different flavours and brands.
The Components of the Decision-Making Process According to Kotler and Armstrong (2014), it involves 5 steps in consumers’ decision making process. First of all, the process will start with need recognition, it is an important stage where the buyers have a need and therefore they will purchase (Perreau, 2013)1. The recognition may be caused by internal stimuli when consumers’ needs have arises to become wants; whereas by external stimuli, they are influence by the advertisements or their friends and family (Kotler and Armstrong, 2014)8. What is the reason for them to purchase a goods and services? Because of their unhealthy lifestyle, I’ve aim the office workers to buy carbonated water because they will be concern about their health and this water can help them in repairing weak digestion system and reduce the possibility of getting heart diseases. Secondly, people are divided into two groups for information searching. For some of the consumers who have a strong desire on getting that product, they might just buy it; whereas for another group of consumers, they will have a consideration and do further information research. The office workers might get information of the carbonated water from their friends and family, advertisements, websites and many other sources, these are known as external information search. Besides, consumers can get information search internally through experiences and memories (Kotler and Armstrong, 2014)9. By word-of mouth influence or self-experienced, office workers can get information of carbonated water from their colleagues’ experiences or their own memories. Next, consumers will use an alternative evaluation to choose final brand of the product. Consumers in different buying situation will cause them to have different kind of way in evaluate purchase alternatives. Sometimes, they might just buy a certain products impulsively without any thinking. At another times, the same consumer will rationally do comparison among the brands by comparing prices, popularity, ranking, benefits or other factors (Kotler and Armstrong, 2014)10. There are many kinds of bottled water in the markets, consumers will or will not do all these comparison in decide which bottled water they want to buy. If the office workers want to buy bottled water, they might consider carbonated water since it benefits their unhealthy lifestyle. After evaluating, it is the step on purchase decision. Consumers will decide to buy their preferable brand (Perreau, 2013)2. However, based to Armstrong to Kotler (2014), there are two factors might interfere the purchase decision. First, it’s the attitude or feedback from the others. For example, when an office worker want to buy plain water, his or her friends will suggest them to buy carbonated water because of its benefits; the other way round, when an office worker wanted to buy carbonated water, but his or her family tell them the disadvantages of it, they might not consider to buy it anymore. Second, there are some unexpected situational factors. When the colleagues of office workers tell them the improvement of their digestion system after consuming carbonated water, they might switch to buy it from their actual purchase choice. Lastly, this is the most important part among the five stages which is post-purchase behaviour. After consuming carbonated water, the office workers might be satisfied or dissatisfied with it. The experiences will be shared by word of mouth, it depends on the relationship between the product performance and consumers expectation. Consumers with dissatisfaction might criticize the products to their friends and families, while consumers who are satisfied with the experiences and products, they might be loyal to that certain brand (Flekel, 2015). However, cognitive dissonance always occur for almost every purchases. For an example, although sometimes when the office workers are actually satisfied with carbonated water, but somehow they will feel losing the benefits of the other bottled water like vitamin C water (Kotler and Armstrong, 2014)11.
Marketing Recommendations First of all, choosing a value proposition is very important for a company to set their position in the market with promises and satisfactions they can deliver to the targeted market (Skok, 2013). The bottled water I would like to sell is carbonated water, it gives a ‘fizzy’ and vibrant feeling in the mouth. Besides, carbonated water provides several health benefits to the consumers as well.
Next, as my target market are those office workers, what they will prefer is convenient and can easily look for. I will suggest to sell the products at convenient stores such as 99 Speedmart and 7-Eleven because these stores are normally located around the workplace and housing area. Not only that, selling products at hypermarkets and supermarkets are also needed since there are the places with a tide of people.
Besides, the marketers need to decide on how much the carbonated water they want to charge. This is the most important component as if the price was set too high, consumers will choose to buy other products; whereas if too low, people will suspects their products quality. The main targets for this product are office workers, therefore the price must be set at a value where they are afford to pay. For the promotion, I think advertising is importantly needed to introduce carbonated water to the general public. There are actually many people that do not know the benefits of carbonated water, people only related it to the sugary soda which are soft drinks but do not know that carbonated water are majority sell in form of bottled water as mineral water which is hydrating, sugar free and zero calorie. It does bring a lot of benefits rather than consuming plain water. A research has been done with patients that suffering from constipation and dyspepsia. They were divided into two groups for more than two weeks, one is drink carbonated water and another group drink tap water. The results had shown with patients who drink carbonated water improved in digestions and have less frequent of constipation than the group who drink tap water (Greenfield, 2014). Besides, the rumours about carbonated water’s health myth such as weakening our bones have to be clear. According to a professor in Nebraska, Robert Heaney had found out that carbonation did not cause calcium erosion from bones (Oaklander, 2015). With an advertising that have complete information of carbonated water’s benefits will attract the attention of consumers like office workers that seldom have proper meal, people who suffering in impaired digestion system, heart diseases and dehydration.
Conclusion
It can be seen about the importance of marketers to understand and grasp consumers’ buying behaviour and marketing segmentation. From this study, I’ve use psychographic segmentation to choose target market which are office workers in 30-50 years old to promote carbonated water that give them health benefits. The consumers’ buying behaviour in purchasing bottled water is mostly based on their personal characteristics which are family lifecycle, occupational groups, economic conditions and lifestyle. Besides, there are two buying decision behaviour when consumers buy bottled water which are habitual buying behaviour and variety seeking buying behaviour. It is not easy for the consumers to make a decision in buying goods and services. There are 5 stages in the process of decision making which are need recognition, information search, alternative evaluation, purchase decision and post-purchase behaviour. During making the marketing recommendation, I’ve obey the marketing 4P’s strategies by concern from the products, place, price and promotion aspects.

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Water

...PROJECT REPORT FOR BIS APRUVAL ISI MARKED PECKAGED WATER BASED ON R.O.MINARAL DRINKING WATER TRUNKEY PLANT PROJECTED BY A-ACCURATE ION EXCHANGE & CHEMICAL Vatva Ahmedabad A-ACCURATEION EXCHANGE &CHAMICAL 119, Rajdeep Indus. Estate/h Saurastra Narolak Paint, Vatva Tolnaka, Vatva cross Road Vatva, Ahmedabad-382440.Phone:64503834 M: +91 9537530913 E-mail:ronak@a-accuratewater.com Web:a-accuratewater.com Ai/ro/210/11 INTRODUCTION & ABOUT OF PROJECT HOLDER & MINERAL WATER PLANT Welcome to all living life of earth by A-ACCURATE ION EXCHAGE & CHEMICAL. Airs, Water & Food are most Precious gift to human living from nature. Human life circles are start from first to last with mother touch of air &water. Most of water is unusable or highly polluted, this is the reason to treat or filter & count every drop of water. From Human consumption to versatile industrial applications, there is no choice for pure & sure water & here we are step in A-ACCURATE Ion Exchange & Chemical, We are Designing, Manufacturing & Supplying Water Treatment system which adheres to world's most stringent norms, with our on knowledge & on work shop. About A-ACCURATE Ion Exchange & Chemical We are in design, development, & manufacturing since last 25 years. In this field we are working in turnkey project of Granule plant, water filtration system, pharmaindustri, chemical dies - intermediate &textile units. Our any suggestion , offer , or, solution are not as only types of sales agent or, traders,......

Words: 5924 - Pages: 24

Free Essay

Water

...‘Water is essential for life’. It keeps our body hydrated, it is healthy, and helps carry oxygen to our brain (blood cell). Without water, we would all shrivel up and die. After all, our body is made up of 70%water! But there’s more to water than you think. In the next few paragraphs, you will learn more about water than you would ever want to and find some amazing facts! You all know that humans are made up of 70% water, right? Our lungs, brain, and heart all are made up of mainly water. But what about a chicken’s lung? Or a worm’s brain? Or even an elephant’ heart? It might surprise you or it might not, but chickens, worms, and elephants are all made up of 72% water! Think of how big an elephant is. More than half of that is water. That’s a lot of water! Drinking a glass of cold, pure water? Well, next time you drink a glass of water, think about this. That glass of water has been around longer than you. Water is continuously recycled and never lost. The water you drink is the same kind of water that dinosaurs used to drink! Millions and millions of years old! Of course though, water can get contaminated and then we humans have to purify it to make it fit to drink. Did you know that all foods have at least a little bit of water in them? All food has some water in it, even carrots! ANYTHING YOU CAN THINK OF! Bread has water in it! Cheese has water in it! Even eggs have some water in them! So don’t think that meeting your daily requirement of 8-10 cups of water is that......

Words: 523 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Water

...demand at the water refilling stations – water stores that sell purified water – is now increasing. The quality of purified water conforms with the national standards for drinking water and is even better than the quality of water produced by traditional water supply systems in terms of removed impurities. Over the years, as the demand for cleaner water becomes higher, the price of household water purifiers and bottled water has become prohibitive. Water refilling stations managed by private entrepreneurs offer a cheaper and more convenient solution to the public’s drinking water needs than bottled water or the use of household filters. At present, about 3,000 water refilling stations have proliferated nationwide. They sell purified water of comparable quality with bottled water at a lower price. For example, the current price per gallon of refilled purified water in Metro Manila ranges from P 50 to P 120 per 5-gallon container or about P 2.50 to P 6.00 per liter while the bottled water is sold at P 12.00 to P 25.00 per liter. Household filters, on the other hand, cost P 5,000 to P 25,000 per unit ( 1 US $ = P 56 in 2004). In Metro Manila, most of the water refilling stations are connected to the pipes of two concessionaires: Maynilad Water Company or Manila Water Company for their source of raw water while in other areas they opt to use private deep wells. The “potable water” supplied by the providers is then further purified by utilizing a combination of water......

Words: 1155 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Water

...Water is a chemical compound with the chemical formula H 2O. A water molecule contains one oxygen and two hydrogen atoms connected by covalent bonds. Water is a liquid at standard ambient temperature and pressure, but it often co-exists on Earth with its solid state, ice, and gaseous state, steam (water vapor). Water also exists in a liquid crystal state near hydrophilic surfaces.[1][2][3] Water covers 71% of the Earth's surface,[4] and is vital for all known forms of life.[5] On Earth, 96.5% of the planet's water is found in seas and oceans, 1.7% in groundwater, 1.7% in glaciers and the ice caps of Antarctica and Greenland, a small fraction in other large water bodies, and 0.001% in the air as vapor, clouds (formed of solid and liquid water particles suspended in air), and precipitation.[6][7] Only 2.5% of the Earth's water is freshwater, and 98.8% of that water is in ice and groundwater. Less than 0.3% of all freshwater is in rivers, lakes, and the atmosphere, and an even smaller amount of the Earth's freshwater (0.003%) is contained within biological bodies and manufactured products.[6] Water on Earth moves continually through the water cycle of evaporation and transpiration (evapotranspiration), condensation, precipitation, and runoff, usually reaching the sea. Evaporation and transpiration contribute to the precipitation over land. Safe drinking water is essential to humans and other lifeforms even though it provides no calories or organic nutrients. Access to safe......

Words: 393 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Sparkling Glass

...Sparkling glass limited a company with 300 million turnover, is running through losses for the past 2 years. The financial problems have resulted because, production is outpacing sales, as production cost is 75 percent of the sales. Government also hold most of the company's input which results in increase in price of the product and at the same time competitors, sell glass containers at lower prices because of which customers prefer to buy from those sellers. Manufacturing of glass containers is a continuous process and requires a lot of training. Working conditions near the glass furnace is very difficult because of immense heat and there are no fans in that area, which poses a problem for workers. Glass manufacture deals in variety and if we see other companies produce variety of bottles and whereas our company only deal with a single variety, which is very economical. Ashok the in-charge of general shift, who has been responsible for routine function of the general shift, production planning, scheduling and costing, is going to retire in few months time and there is a need for replacement in Ashok's place. Recruiting externally is not feasible for the company looking at the current situations. There are four replacements internally in the company to take over Ashok's place ~Khanna, Panjabi, Gupta and Gulati. Khanna:- He holds a 5 years of work experience and is a glass technologist. He has good communication skills and applies them while solving issues. His...

Words: 593 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Water

...Controller Water Contents About this support guide 1 How this support guide is structured ................................................................................. 1 Course overview 3 Welcome to Water (Natural Science and Health Education) ............................................ 3 Water (Natural Science and Health Education)—is this course for you? ......................... 3 Study skills ........................................................................................................................ 4 Need help? ......................................................................................................................... 5 Getting around this support guide 6 Margin icons ...................................................................................................................... 6 Unit 1 8 Water: Grade 5................................................................................................................... 8 Introduction ....................................................................................................................... 8 1. Water around us ................................................................................................ 9 2. Water cycle ...................................................................................................... 13 3. Importance of water to plants and animals...................................................... 15 4. Importance of clean water......

Words: 9089 - Pages: 37

Premium Essay

Water

...Analysis: Bottled Water Causal Analysis: Bottled Water Ashlie Delaney Galen College of Nursing Bottled water has been around for centuries. While the aqueous solution in the bottle is imperative to your health, there are drawbacks to that liquid gold. And the package it rests in. Let us start of with a little history. One of the oldest discoveries of bottled water dates back to 1450 BC. There were murals painted the walls of ancient pharaohs tombs depicted canteens filled of the liquid. The Roman’s built one of the very first water transporting system. In 1767 water was first bottled in America under curative properties. Mineral water from New York was bottled commercially somewhere in the early 1800’s. In 1820, the popular Sarasota Springs sold their first bottled water. In the early times of commercially bottled water, it was marketed as a luxury drink to the wealthy and famous. It takes around 17 million barrels of oil to produce the plastic water bottles in The United States of America. Like bottled water, fossil fuels are harvested from locations around the world, processed, shipped and the consumed. Bottled water wastes a lot of fossil fuels. The burning of oil and other fossil fuels emits global warming pollution into the atmosphere. The price of bottled water is higher than the price of tap water, but in many instances, the water quality is the same. There is even a chance that an expensive bottle of water is just purified municipal tap water. The theory......

Words: 1101 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Sparkling Glass

...Sparkling Glass Limited A decision support document for the recruitment of the new General-Shift-in-Charge (748 words) Sourav Das PGP 2014-16, IIM Bangalore SR NO. 9233920 Sparkling Glass Limited Sparkling Glass limited Contents Background: ................................................................................................................................3 Purpose: ......................................................................................................................................3 Options Available ........................................................................................................................3 Option 1: Mr. Khanna ..............................................................................................................4 Option 2: Mr. Punjabi ..............................................................................................................4 Option 3: Mr. Gupta ................................................................................................................4 Option 4: Mr. Gulati .................................................................................................................4 Rationale used in decision making ...............................................................................................5 Recommendation ........................................................................................................................6 Appendix: Evaluation......

Words: 1327 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Sparkling

...Background Sparkling Glass Limited (SGL) is a medium scale glass container manufacturing unit. For the last two years SGL has made losses because of increasing cost of production. But this year it is expected to make profits. The reasons for high cost of production have been government policies, wage agreements and sales cartels which control the inputs. This report serves as the decision support document for the selection committee appointed to find the replacement of Mr. Ashok, the General-shift-in-charge who is slated to retire in few months. Purpose Mr. Prasad, the Plant Superintendent wants to find the replacement for Mr. Ashok. Four shift-in-charges, viz. Mr. Khanna, Mr. Punjabi, Mr. Gupta and Mr. Gulati are in contention for the job. The other options available are recruitment of a new person and extension of Mr. Ashok’s tenure. The decision tree for the given case is as follows: Options Available Among the possible options, the recruitment of a new person from another company might infuse new unbiased ideas. However, the following risks outweigh the benefit of recruiting a new person: • Possibility of friction with the existing shift-in-charges: The incumbent shift-in-charges may take some time to accept the newcomer to the company and vice versa and the difference in opinions of both the parties may create some conflict. • High cost implication: SGL has suffered losses for the last two years and wants to earn profits this year. In such a situation, hiring......

Words: 1054 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Water

...Water is a molecule comprised of two hydrogen atoms (positively charged), and an oxygen atom (negatively charged)- bonded together by shared electrons. It is a V-shaped polar molecule, which gives water a high degree of polarity. In addition, water molecules are naturally strong, due to the interactions occurring between the hydrogen atoms, known as hydrogen bonding. Specifically, hydrogen bonding in water, accounts for some of its unique properties; such that it is denser in its liquid state than in its solid state (ice floats on water). Water is also the only substance that occurs naturally as a solid, liquid, or gas, and covers about 70% of the Earth’s surface (U.S. Geological Survey, 2000). Water is a very broad topic, and highly crucial to life on Earth. It is important to mention the movement of water throughout the planet, the usages of water, and the underlying scarcity of water. The Hydrologic cycle, more commonly known as the water cycle, is the movement of water between the Earth’s oceans, atmosphere, and land. There is continuous evaporation of water; uptake of water vapor into the atmosphere; precipitation onto the ocean and land surfaces; and the net atmospheric transport of water from land areas to the ocean. Essentially, the water cycle is the means of how the Earth’s constant supply of water is being recycled. It is imperative that this cycle exists, so that water is able to reach plants and animals; provide nutrients and sedimentary movements......

Words: 1471 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Sparkling Glass Limited

...Sparkling Glass Limited Written Analysis and Communication Assignment – 2 Nitesh Raj Nama Yogesh Singh FSB -1 Date : 16/09/2014 1 16th September, 2014 To, The Plant Superintendent Sparkling Glass Limited Subject: Report on Promotional Action to be taken. Dear Sir, A detailed report on the promotional activity which is to be commissioned by our committee headed by Mr. Prasad has been submitted to you. We have four people into our consideration namely, Khanna, Panjabi, Gulati, and Gupta. Various factors such as Educational Qualification, Work Experience, Socializing and many other factors have been taken into consideration. I hope the analysis I have done satisfies your concerns. Regards. Committee Member 2 Executive Summary : Mr. Ashok, who is in charge of the General Shift at Sparkling Glass Limited , is going to retire after few months. He has been responsible not only to do the basic routine work but also manage the Production Planning, Scheduling and Costing work. Therefore, the company needs to appoint someone on his behalf. Four people have taken into consideration for the post :1. 2. 3. 4. Khanna. Panjabi. Gupta. Gulati. The analysis talks about which persons fits best for the job on analyzing on Educational Qualification, Experience, Knowledge on Planning & Management , and Social Quality and Unions. After analyzing, Mr. Gupta seems fit to be promoted because he is qualified as a Glass technologist, manages the Production Planning, Costing and Scheduling work,......

Words: 961 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Safe Water

...Course Date Clean, Sparkling Water for the Developing World In most parts of the developed world, water is available upon demand. At any given moment, the citizens of these nations can be able to access fresh, clean and sparkling water. However, hundreds of thousands and in some instances, millions in the developing world are unable to access clean water. Imagine turning the taps on and there is no water gushing out or has been for the past couple of months. Imagine a fire outbreak, the fire hydrants are running dry, resulting into massive property losses and the possibility of loss of lives. These are the daily occurrences in the most parts of the world. The World Health Organization (WHO) gives an estimation of more than half of the populace in the developing countries lacks access to safe water. Often, people and most often women and children have to cover long distances during their search of the precious commodity (World Health Organization). The lack of access to safe water is a problem that often leads to other complications. For instance, insufficient drinking water will lead to the consumption of contaminated water, which exposes the individuals and communities to water borne diseases such as cholera and amoeba infections. Such complications often lead to death, and rob such communities within such countries of their productive populations and future generations (small children and babies). Another complication as a result of inaccessibility of water is the......

Words: 651 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Water

...Most people know that drinking water is essential to human life. Without it, the human body will shut down and experience life-threatening health problems, or even death. However, many people tend to forget just how important water is to staying healthy and fit. The fact is, anyone who adopts a fitness regimen needs to understand just how important water is to a great workout and the role it plays in achieving optimal physical results. Working out will make you thirsty, but be sure you are drinking enough to compensate for your exercise? During one hour of intense exercise, the average person can lose a full quart of water just by sweating. To prevent dehydrating, it is a good idea to drink one glass of water for every twenty minutes of exercise. If you know you are prone to sweating a lot, you should be sure to drink even more. Drinking water during exercise is extremely important. However, it is just as important to drink water before and after a workout as well. If you are planning on a tough workout session, you should drink 3-4 glasses of water in the 3 hours before you start sweating. If your muscles are not hydrated when you begin working out, they will be more prone to cramping and injury. Dehydration is also linked to muscle soreness, so be sure your muscles are nice and hydrated before you start. After your workout, you will want to rehydrate your body with even more water. The optimal time for this is within the first two hours after you exercise. At a......

Words: 353 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Water

...As an aside, Mpemba was mocked by his teacher for claiming hot water freezes faster than cold water because it seemed to contradict thermodynamics. Moral of the story? Don't be so fast to dismiss the observations of a non-scientist just because they don't agree with what you think you know. In fact, that lesson probably applies to most academic disciplines and, perhaps, all of human knowledge. Skepticism of people's claims is important. The Mpemba effect occurs when two bodies of water, identical in every way, except that one is at a higher temperature than the other, are exposed to identical subzero surroundings, and the initially hotter water freezes first. The effect appears theoretically impossible at first sight. Nevertheless, it has been observed in numerous experiments, and we will see that it is in fact possible. Readers who are quite certain that the effect is forbidden by the laws of thermodynamics should pause for a moment to do two things. First, to try to explain, as precisely as possible, why it is impossible. And second, to decide how to respond to a non-scientist who insists that they have observed the Mpemba effect in a home experiment. Whether or not the effect is real, careful consideration of these tasks will bring up a wealth of important issues about the scientific method, that can be understood and discussed by students without any knowledge of advanced physics... To see how the effect might occur, it is useful to carefully think about why the...

Words: 571 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Water

...Water Life on earth evolved in water, and all life still depends on water. At least 80% of the mass of living organisms is water and almost all chemical reactions of life take place in aqueous solution. Water molecules are charged, with the oxygen atom being slightly negative and the hydrogen atoms being slightly positive. These opposite attract each other, forming hydrogen bonds. These are weak, long distance bonds that are very common and very important in biology. Water has a number of Important properties essential for life. * Excellent Solvent- Because it is charged water is a very good solvent.Charged molecules such as salts, sugars, amino acids dissolve readily in water and are called hydrophilic. Uncharged molecules such as lipids do not dissolve so well in water and are called hydrophobic. * High Specific heat capacity- Water has a specific heat capacity of 4.2 J g-1 oC-1, which means that it takes 4.2 joules of energy to heat 1g of water by 1oC. This is unusually high and it means that water does not change temperature easily. This minimises fluctuations in temperature inside cells and it also means that sea temperature is quite constant. * Latent heat of vaporisation- Water requires a lot of energy to change state from a liquid to a gas, and this is made use of a cooling mechanism in animals (sweating and panting) and plants (transpiration). As water evaporates it extracts heats from the surrounding area, cooling the organism * Latent heat......

Words: 414 - Pages: 2