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Speech On Ground Water

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Earth is a blue planet as about 71% of its surface is covered by water. But, not all water is usable for human life. According to one study, Oceans, sea and bays comprise 96.54% of total ground water. 1.74% is locked up in glaciers, icecaps and permanent snows. Only 1.69% of total water is ground water which includes both saline and fresh water. Fresh water hardly comprises 0.76% of total water resources of the world. Ground water is essential for sustenance of human life. Ground water is part of water cycle. When natural recharge is less than rampant extraction, it causes depletion of ground water, drying up of aquifers.
Groundwater in India is a critical resource. India has over 17% of world's population but only 2.4% of world’s geographical area and less than 4% of the world’s fresh water resources. With India slated to become world's most populated country by 2022 (with a population of 1.70 billion people by 2050 A.D. and anticipated to grow till 2070 A.D. according to the UN estimates), there is looming danger of groundwater
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Much of these initiatives are based on building rainwater harvesting structures and encouraging State Governments to bring out legislations for discouraging excessive abuse of ground water. The State governments have taken steps to promote rainwater harvesting, moisture conservation of soil and similar measures which are very incremental. We have examined the legislative and constitutional frameworks which gives the State government prominent role in addressing the aggravating situation. Water, that is to say, water supplies, irrigation and canals, drainage and embankment, water storage and water power falls as Entry 17 of the State List under Seventh Schedule of the Constitution of India. We have also examined obsolete Acts like Indian Easement Act, 1882 and suggested certain amendments to declare groundwater as Common Property Resources

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