Free Essay

Speech

In: Other Topics

Submitted By mariaespinoza
Words 5814
Pages 24
Appraising Internationality in Spanish Communication Journals
´ david ferna ndez-quijada
This article explores how journals published in a language other than English achieve a degree of internationality and can increase our knowledge of scientific publication patterns. This author offers a case study focused on Spanish communication journals from a sample of 1182 articles published from 2007 to 2009. The article examines three variables in this sample: the number of non-Spanish scholars, the use of languages other than Spanish, and how often non-Spanish journals are referred to. The results show that (a) these journals find it difficult to attract foreign scholars, (b) open-language policies have had a limited effect, and (c) internationality is constrained to the Spanish geolinguistic region. Keywords: internationality, local journals, Spanish scholarly journals, journal evaluation, communication sciences

introduction The impact of published research is measured by means of well-established tools; one such tool is the Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI). However, in the field of communication studies — and in fact in all the social sciences — the SSCI does not take account of all the research published; this is particularly visible in cases where research is published in languages other than English. For example, in 2009, only 81 out of the 1585 articles (5.11 per cent) indexed in the Communication category of the SSCI were not written in English. In the context of these facts, analysing the research published in a certain language, such as Spanish, becomes a valid task, especially since Spanish is the second most-used language in the Communication category of SSCI with 64 articles. By looking at how journals are published in languages other than English, and thus achieve a degree of internationality, we can add to our knowledge about patterns in scholarly publishing. That is the main purpose of this paper, which focuses on the case of Spanish communication journals. This paper can contribute
Journal of Scholarly Publishing October 2011 doi: 10.3138/jsp.43.1.90

Appraising Internationality in Spanish Communication Journals

91

significantly to the emerging debate concerning the role of scientific journals in the field of communication. The conclusions drawn also form and stand out as one of the first attempts to analyse the internationality of non-English communication journals.

review of the literature English has become the standard language for researchers in many areas, a kind of lingua franca to exchange knowledge among researchers from ´ different linguistic domains. For example, Moya-Anegon et al. claim that 85 per cent of the journals indexed in the Scopus database were mainly written in English.1 This fact, along with the exclusion of a large part of the scholarly output published in languages other than English may very well create a bias2 that affects the whole science system of Spain.3 Osca-Lluch and Haba found that only 10 per cent of Spanish social sciences and humanities journals were indexed in the main international bibliographic databases,4 despite the fact that Spain represents nearly half of the scientific production of the Ibero-American countries.5 This privileged position of English journals has further implications. Tardy explains that it contributes to the predominance of topics, methodologies, and tools of the scientists that publish in English at the expense of topics, methodologies, and tools of those who publish in other languages.6 As Donovan states, ‘Publishing an important paper in a local journal might be condemning it to unwarranted obscurity.’7 Zitt and Bassecoulard were among the first scholars to measure internationality.8 Buela-Casal et al. describe the ambiguity that internationality as a concept entails: It is often confused with quality, although it is not necessarily correlated with quality.9 The same authors proposed eleven criteria to define internationality. Focusing on the field of psychology, Buela-Casal et al. and Zych and Buela-Casal applied an Internationality Index based on results of a survey conducted among scientists, classifying criteria of internationality and establishing the following ranking: (1) publication language, (2) online access, (3) international standards of publication, (4) inclusion in Journal Citation Reports (JCR), (5) inclusion in databases, (6) composition of the editorial board, (7) free online access, (8) impact factor, (9) diversity of authors’ nationalities, (10) affiliation with an ‘international’ association, and (11) the word ‘international’ in the journal’s name.10 In Spain, the international composition of editorial boards has also been analysed as a sign of maturity.11

92

Journal of Scholarly Publishing

A similar approach is used by Calver et al., who developed their own Index of Internationality of Journals (IIJ) based on ten criteria applied to a set of biology journals: (1) percentage of international collaboration; (2) richness, (3) diversity, and (4) evenness of article authors’ countries of origin; (5) richness, (6) diversity, and (7) evenness of cited authors’ countries of origin; (8) diversity and (9) evenness of editors’ countries of origin; and (10) proportion of authors from countries other than the country of publication.12 These and other criteria have been applied to journals devoted to different fields, like humanities,13 information science,14 physics and chemistry,15 and industrial engineering.16 In the field of communication, Lauf found that there was a clear predominance of authors from Englishspeaking countries in SSCI journals,17 a finding which is consistent with the studies of Masip.18 Lauf clearly distinguished between nationallyand internationally-oriented journals, and identified two factors relevant to determining the internationality of journals in this field: an explicit international mission statement and a strong impact factor. Lauf also found that newer journals tend to publish more works by authors outside the English-speaking world than older journals do. As a whole, internationality appears to be an elusive concept. Some of its defining elements concern the journal (e.g., standard of publications, composition of editorial boards, and online access), while others concern the articles published in the journal (e.g., authors’ country of origin). The language of an article can be either dictated by the journal or chosen by the author if the journal has an open-language policy.

objectives and research questions The main objective of this research was to measure the internationality of Spanish communication journals. As seen above, international visibility can be measured by different criteria. This analysis was focused on parameters that were directly related not to the form but to the content of the journal: authorship, language, and citations. This focus enabled the formulation of three research questions:
1. How many foreign authors are published in Spanish communication journals? 2. In what languages were the articles written? 3. How influential are international journals on authors of Spanish research articles?

Appraising Internationality in Spanish Communication Journals

93

The first question addresses authorship. The proportion of Spanish and non-Spanish scholars was analysed in terms of the countries in which their institution are located. The second question addresses the issue of the language used in the articles. Many of the journals analysed have an open-language policy, which allows authors to publish in different languages such as English, Spanish, and other Romance languages. Finally, the third question addresses the number of references to nonSpanish journals, which reflects the influence of other scholars on the authors in the sample. Moreover, these data enable the ranking of internationality of the different journals in the sample and enable the identification of the journals that are most influential on research published in Spanish journals.

method The approach of this paper to the study of the internationality of Spanish communication journals is basically quantitative, using bibliometric techniques. The bibliometric approach began with the selection of a representative sample of Spanish communication journals. In order to construct this sample, two of the bibliographic databases refereed by the Spanish national universities agency19 responsible for the evaluation of social ´ sciences were selected: Dice20 and Catalogo Latindex.21 A third one, 22 called In-Recs, was added to the set, since this is the only database that offers an impact index for Spanish journals. Next, a comparison of these three databases was performed in order to find which Spanish communication journals appear in all three databases.23 First, in Dice the knowledge areas24 Journalism and Audiovisual Communication and Advertising contained twenty-nine journals. Second, in the Communication section of In-Recs, there were twenty journals. ´ Finally, in the Communication Sciences section of Catalogo Latindex, there were nineteen journals published in Spain. In addition, searches were carried out for certain journals that were previously in Dice and In-Recs but didn’t necessarily fall under the section of Communication ´ Sciences in Catalogo Latindex due to ambiguities in the criteria of classifications. As a result, ten additional journals were included from areas such as Sociology, Fine Arts, Information Sciences, Linguistics, and Cinema.

94

Journal of Scholarly Publishing

By comparing the results from the three databases, a list of sixteen major national journals was created, and the sample was established. A total of 1182 articles published in these journals in the period between 2007 and 2009 was entered into a database.25 The time frame of 2007 to 2009 was selected because all the required data were available for these articles. Three years were analysed in order to avoid possible biases that could arise from the non-fulfilment of a journal’s periodicity. When available, the electronic versions of the articles were used; print versions were only consulted in cases of editorial embargo or corrupted electronic files. After defining the sample, a database was created. Several variables were input for every article: year of publication, journal, issue, title of the article, authors’ institution and country or region (e.g., Hong Kong) of origin, and language. In addition, each of the 4809 citations to other journals was input. Citations make the relational analysis possible if they are interpreted as a form of recognition by the authors of the articles to previous papers published by their peers.26 When necessary for the fulfilment of the objectives of the research, a social network analysis (SNA) was applied using Ucinet 6.301 and NetDraw 2.098 for the representation of the sociograms.27

results The data from the database were used to answer the previously established research questions. Consequently, the results are presented in three categories: authorship, language, and citations.
Authorship The 1182 articles analysed in this study were written by 1635 authors: On average, 1.4 authors contributed to each article.28 Four out of every five authors came from Spanish institutions (Table 1), while nearly half of the non-Spanish authors came from Latin American countries. Among these countries are Mexico (3.1 per cent), Argentina (2.0 per cent), and Chile (1.7 per cent), which are also the most prolific countries of origin other than Spain. The first non-Spanish speaking country to appear on the list is the US (1.4 per cent), just ahead of Brazil (1.3 per cent). The first European country other than Spain is the United Kingdom in seventh place. The European Union, not including Spain, is home to 4.2 per cent of authors.

Appraising Internationality in Spanish Communication Journals

95

table 1. Authorship by country/region
Rank 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Country Spain Mexico Argentina Chile US Brazil Colombia Peru UK 10 France Italy Portugal 13 14 15 Cuba Venezuela South Korea Other No data Latin America EU without Spain Total n 1272 51 33 28 23 21 12 12 12 10 10 10 9 8 6 54 66 180 68 1635 % 77.6 3.1 2.0 1.7 1.4 1.3 .7 .7 .7 .6 .6 .6 .6 .5 .4 3.3 4.0 11.0 4.2 100

Source: All figures presented here are drawn from the data set developed by the author for this study.

The application of SNA helps us understand the dynamics of foreign authorship for every journal analysed (Figure 1). Journals are represented by the squares in the sociogram, while the countries of origin are illustrated by circles. In this figure two different measures are depicted. First, centrality for a country/region is indicated by the number of its connections to different journals where its authors’ articles have been published, and centrality for a journal is indicated by the number of connections to

96

Journal of Scholarly Publishing

figure 1. Countries of origin of foreign authors* Source: All figures presented here are drawn from the data set developed by the author for this study. * Black circles represent Spanish-speaking countries while white circles represent other countries. Country/region and journal abbreviations can be found in appendices A and B.

countries of origin of its authors. That is, more connections contribute to a more central position in the network. Second, the number of authors from a certain country/region published in a journal is indicated by the thickness of the line between the country/region and the journal. Generally, the two measurements coincide, placing Mexico, Argentina, Chile, and Brazil in the central positions of the network. It seems logical to assume that the countries with the highest number of authors are also the ones that publish in more journals than author countries. The proximity among the journals also indicates a pattern in relationships. It is worth noting how the pattern of foreign authorship of Comunicar seems quite different from the rest because of the number of connections with eastern European, Asian, and African countries that hardly or don’t at all publish in other journals in the sample. This can be attributed

Appraising Internationality in Spanish Communication Journals

97

figure 2. Foreign authorship (%) Source: All figures presented here are drawn from the data set developed by the author for this study.

to the journal’s orientation toward the sub-field of education in communication and its active policy of inviting foreign authors to contribute articles. The percentage of foreign authorship of the sixteen journals analysed varies from 38.5 per cent in the case of I/C to 0 per cent in the case of Questiones publicitarias (Figure 2). The average rate of foreign authorship in the sample is 18.2 per cent. Three journals other than I/C have a rate above this figure: Comunicar (36.7 per cent), CIC (23.5 per cent), and ´ Revista latina de comunicacion social (19.7 per cent). Of the 1182 articles of the sample, 879 were written by a single author (74.4 per cent) and 303 were written by a group of authors (25.6 per cent). In cases of group authorship, the number of authors on one piece ranged from two (209 cases) to seven (one case). These collaborations were usually written by authors from the same institution. However, this was not always the case: Collaborations among authors from different countries can be found as well, especially in 2009 (Figure 3). Usually, this co-authorship involved various Spanish authors, but between 2007 and 2009, there was an increase in the number of collabo-

98

Journal of Scholarly Publishing

figure 3. Collaboration among authors from different institutions* Source: All figures presented here are drawn from the data set developed by the author for this study. * Black squares represent Spanish institutions; grey squares refer to institutions in other Spanish-speaking countries; white squares represent institutions in the rest of the world. Institution abbreviations can be found in appendix C.

rations with authors at foreign institutions. The most common arrangement was a Spanish author writing alongside a Latin American colleague. This tendency is intensified by the high number of Latin American doctoral students in Spanish universities. The figure also shows that few collaborations happened with European and North American scholars — the few cases found were just exceptions. Collaboration between authors from Spanish and European institutions occurred on two articles only. The same number of collaborations occurred between authors from Spanish and American institutions. Another exceptional type of collaboration occurred when authors of entirely different backgrounds worked together to produce joint articles, one example being the grouping of Mexican, Brazilian, and Korean authors. In summary, a typical article in a Spanish communication journal was written solely by a Spanish scholar. A single author from a Spanishspeaking Latin American country was the most common case of authorship from outside Spain.

Appraising Internationality in Spanish Communication Journals

99

Language As could probably be expected, Spanish is the main language in which articles are written in Spanish journals (Table 2). In fact, the percentage of Spanish articles exceeded 92 per cent, and it was the only language used in seven of the sixteen journals. Spain is a multilingual country, but only Catalan could be found among the articles of the sample; there were no examples of Galician- or Basque-language articles, despite the fact that one of the journals, Zer, is edited by the University of the Basque Country and accepts texts in this language. Catalan was the second most used language in the journals ` ´ (4.6 per cent), thanks to the articles published in Analisi and Trıpodos, edited by Catalan universities. In the latter journal, Catalan was the most common language, used in nearly half of the articles. English was the third most used language; it appeared in twenty-one articles ´ ` (1.8 per cent) distributed across seven journals (Ambitos, Analisi, Doxa, ´ ´ Estudios sobre el mensaje periodıstico, I/C, Trıpodos, and Zer). Articles were also found in three other languages: Portuguese (appearing in ´ Comunicar, I/C and Revista latina de comunicacion social ), French ´ (Comunicar and Trıpodos), and Italian (Comunicar).

table 2. Languages of the articles
Language 2007 n Spanish Catalan English Portuguese French Italian Total 262 20 5 2 — — 289 % 90.7 6.9 1.7 .7 — — 100 2008 n 365 16 6 6 1 1 395 % 92.4 4.0 1.5 1.5 .3 .3 100 2009 n 466 18 10 3 1 — 498 % 93.6 3.6 2.0 .6 .2 — 100 2007–09 n 1093 54 21 11 2 1 1182 % 92.5 4.6 1.8 .9 .2 < .1 100

Source: All figures presented here are drawn from the data set developed by the author for this study.

100

Journal of Scholarly Publishing

Citations Citations made by authors in their articles reflect the influences they experienced. Taken together, these citations can help to identify the journals that were the most influential for authors whose articles were published in the Spanish communication journals. The 1182 journal articles from the sample contained 4809 citations to 1358 journals, resulting in an average of 4.1 citations per sample article. Most of the journals were just cited once (834 cases), twice (237 cases), or three times (96 cases). However, the most cited journal was Revista latina ´ de comunicacion social, and it was referred to 295 times (Table 3).29 Of the ten most cited journals, only two were not included in the sample: Journal of Communication (143 citations) and European Journal of Communication (fifty-three citations). From the eleventh position onward, many English journals appear alongside Spanish publications. Other relevant positions are those of the first Latin American (the Mexican Sala de prensa, 25th), Brazilian (Eptic, ´ 57th),30 French (Reseaux, 74th), and Italian (Problemi dell’informazione, 80th) journals. There were 106 journals with more than seven citations. Among these, fifty-five used English as their main language, and forty-eight were Spanish-language journals. This figure includes eleven journals from Latin American countries and Quaderns del CAC, which has Catalan as its primary language but is published simultaneously in Spanish and English. Finally, there was one journal published in Portuguese, one in French, and one in Italian. The presence of languages other than Spanish, English, and Catalan was noticeably low due: There were few instances of French (e.g., Com` ´ munication & langages, Dossiers de l’audiovisuel, Hermes, Mediaspouvoirs), Italian (e.g., Carte semiotiche, Comunicazioni sociali, Ikon, Versus: ˆ Quaderni di studi semiotici), Portuguese (e.g., Ciencia da Informacao, ¸˜ ˜ o & Educacao, Comunicacao & Sociedade), ˜ ˜ Communicare, Comunicaca ¸ ¸ ¸ and even non-Romance languages like German (e.g., Media Perspektiven, ¨ ¨a Medien Praktisch, Medienpadagogik, Publizistik), Russian (e.g., Sovietskaı Koultoura, Sovietskoe Gosoudarstvo i Pravo), Polish (Edukacja Medialna), ´ and Japanese (Kaiho Kyoiku), as well as the multilingual Observatorio (OBS*) Journal.

Appraising Internationality in Spanish Communication Journals

101

table 3. Most-cited journals
Rank 1 2 3 4 6 7 8 9 10 11 13 14 16 17 18 19 20 25 57 74 80 Journal ´ Revista latina de comunicacion social Telos Zer Comunicar Journal of Communication ´ Estudios sobre el mensaje periodıstico ´ Comunicacion y sociedad ` Analisi ´ Ambitos European Journal of Communication CIC Journal of Advertising Research Communication Research Journal of Advertising ´ Trıpodos Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media Public Opinion Quarterly ´ Area abierta Journalism Quarterly Media, Culture & Society Sala de prensa Eptic ´ Reseaux Problemi dell’informazione Country Spain Spain Spain Spain US Spain Spain Spain Spain UK Spain US US US Spain US UK Spain US UK Mexico Brazil France Italy Citations 295 197 164 143 143 89 68 62 58 53 48 48 44 41 41 40 38 37 34 33 27 12 9 8

Source: All figures presented here are drawn from the data set developed by the author for this study.

102

Journal of Scholarly Publishing

conclusions The analysis of Spanish communication journals indicates that they are basically nationally oriented, since less than 20 per cent of their authors come from abroad. Although the rate of foreign authorship differs greatly among the journals of the sample, even in the most international journal, less than 40 per cent of authors are foreign. Using the quantitative data of this study, one cannot conclude whether these foreign authors were invited to write an article or whether they followed a formal peer-review process. With the exception of Comunicar and Telos, this information is not given by the journals. The exception of Comunicar, however, is quite relevant, since it has the second highest percentage of foreign authors and has contributors from the most countries/regions, including countries/ regions peripheral to Spain such as Egypt, South Africa, India, Hong Kong, South Korea, and Australia. Usually these foreign authors appear in a section of each issue that contains articles by invited authors. In some cases, this practice is a part of a process of internationalization and demonstrate an interest in different points of view stemming from different cultural contexts and provided by authors that otherwise would not have submitted their work to Spanish journals and audiences. A safe conclusion is that language constitutes a barrier for foreign authors trying to publish their work. That is why the international appeal of these journals is limited to Latin American countries. About half of the foreign authors come from these countries, and these journals can be seen as natural outlets for them. This relationship seems bidirectional, since eleven out of the forty-seven most cited Spanish-language journals come from Latin America and were usually cited by Spanish scholars. An open-language policy has been proposed as a tool by several Spanish journals to increase their international appeal and the number of manuscripts from foreign authors, especially from non-Spanish-speaking countries.31 Nevertheless, it has proven to have little success since it has been scarcely applied. Many of the few English, Portuguese, French, and Italian texts found in the sample seem to be invited articles. One possible explanation for this is that authors think that a text written in those languages would gain broader visibility in their own country’s journals or, in the case of English-language articles, in British or North American journals.

Appraising Internationality in Spanish Communication Journals

103

The most international element of this analysis is the citations, though they indicate an English-language bias. Journals published in English are widely available and are commonly used by Spanish-speaking authors, but this is not the case for journals written in other languages. ´ Cases where the French Reseaux or the Italian Problemi dell’informazione are cited do little to make up for the problem, since other journals published in languages other than Spanish, English, or Catalan are hardly cited. This study demonstrates that Spanish communication journals do have a broader reach than Spain’s borders: They interact with the Spanishspeaking world. This area constitutes a geolinguistic academic region with non-Spanish-language input limited almost entirely to citations from the English-speaking world. Even the influence of a very close cultural group like the Portuguese is extremely limited.

appendix a: country/region abbreviations JAP: Japan ARG: Argentina KOR: South Korea AUS: Australia LUX: Luxembourg AUT: Austria MEX: Mexico BEL: Belgium MOR: Morocco BRA: Brazil NET: Netherlands CAN: Canada PER: Peru CHI: Chile POL: Poland COL: Colombia POR: Portugal CRI: Costa Rica PRI: Puerto Rico CUB: Cuba RUS: Russia CZE: Czech Republic SAF: South Africa DEN: Denmark SWE: Sweden EGY: Egypt SWI: Switzerland FIN: Finland TUR: Turkey FRA: France UK: United Kingdom GER: Germany URU: Uruguay GRE: Greece USA: United States of America HKG: Hong Kong VEN: Venezuela IND: India ITA: Italy

104

Journal of Scholarly Publishing

appendix b: journal abbreviations ´ AA: Area abierta ´ ´ CIC: Cuadernos de informacion y comunicacion ´ CyS: Comunicacion y sociedad ´ EsMP: Estudios sobre el mensaje periodıstico ´n social HyCS: Historia y comunicacio QP: Questiones publicitarias ´ RLCS: Revista latina de comunicacion social appendix c: institution abbreviations ´ ´ AUC: Asociacion de Usuarios de la Comunicacion AUSTRAL-ARG: Universidad Austral (Argentina) ´ CAA: Consejo Audiovisual de Andalucıa CAU-KOR: Chung-Ang University (South Korea) ´ ´ CEIP FA: Colegio de Educacion Infantil y Primaria Francisco Alcala ´ CSIC: Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientıficas CUV: Centro Universitario Villanueva DEU-KOR: Dong-Eui University (South Korea) ´ EHU: Euskal Herriko Unibertsitatea / Universidad del Paıs Vasco ´ n de Emisoras Municipales de Andalucıa de Radio ´ EMA-RTV: Asociacio ´ y Television ´ EOIRV: Escuela Oficial de Idiomas Rıo Vero ´ n Comercial y Marketing ESIC: Escuela Superior de Gestio EWU-KOR: Ewha Womans University (South Korea) ´ ´ FAVA: Fundacion Audiovisual de Andalucıa ´ FIA: Fundacion Infancia y Aprendizaje ´ GCUNESCO: Grupo de Comunicacion de la UNESCO GEAC: Gabinete de Estudios en Acciones Comunicativas GEPEFIC-BRA: Grupo de Estudo e Pesquisa Educacao Fısica e Cultura ¸˜ ´ (Brazil) GNUE-KOR: Gyeongin National University of Education (South Korea) HD-GER: Hochschule Darmstadt (Germany) HU-KOR: Honam University (South Korea) IED: Instituto de Estudios de la Democracia ´ IES RC: Instituto de Educacion Secundaria Ribera de Castilla ´ ITESM-MEX: Instituto Tecnologico y de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey (Mexico) MW-AUT: Medienhaus Wien (Austria)

Appraising Internationality in Spanish Communication Journals

105

´ NTE-BRA: Nucleo de Tecnologia Educacional (Brazil) ´ ˜ PUCSP-BRA: Pontificia Universidade Catolica de Sao Paulo (Brazil) ´ ´ RTVA: Radio Television de Andalucıa SWU-KOR: Seoul Women’s University (South Korea) UA: Universitat d’Alacant ` UAB: Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona ´ ´ UACJ-MEX: Universidad Autonoma de Ciudad Juarez (Mexico) ´ UAL: Universidad de Almerıa UAN: Universidad Antonio de Nebrija ´ UAT-MEX: Universidad Autonoma de Tamaulipas (Mexico) UB: Universitat de Barcelona UC3M: Universidad Carlos III de Madrid ´ UCAM: Universidad Catolica de Murcia ´ UCJC: Universidad Camilo Jose Cela UCM: Universidad Complutense de Madrid UCOL-USA: University of Colorado (United States) UDEP-PER: Universidad de Piura (Peru) UDIMA: Universidad a Distancia de Madrid UEMC: Universidad Europea Miguel de Cervantes UGR: Universidad de Granada UHU: Universidad de Huelva ´ ´ UJAT-MEX: Universidad Juarez Autonoma de Tabasco (Mexico) UJI: Universitat Jaume I UM: Universidad de Murcia UM-USA: University of Missouri (United States) ´ UMA: Universidad de Malaga ´ UMAYAB-MEX: Universidad Anahuac Mayab (Mexico) ´ UMH: Universidad Miguel Hernandez ´ ´ UNAM-MEX: Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (Mexico) UNAV: Universidad de Navarra ´ UNAVARRA: Universidad Publica de Navarra ´ UNC-ARG: Universidad Nacional de Cordoba (Argentina) ´ UNED: Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia UNICAMP-BRA: Universidade Estadual de Campinas (Brazil) ´ UNIVALI-BRA: Universidade do Vale de Itajaı (Brazil) UNIZAR: Universidad de Zaragoza UOC: Universitat Oberta de Catalunya UPA-CHI: Universidad de Playa Ancha (Chile)

106

Journal of Scholarly Publishing

UPB-COL: Universidad Pontificia Bolivariana (Colombia) UPF: Universitat Pompeu Fabra UPSA: Universidad Pontificia de Salamanca URJC: Universidad Rey Juan Carlos URL: Universitat Ramon Llull URV: Universitat Rovira i Virgili US: Universidad de Sevilla USAL: Universidad de Salamanca USC: Universidade de Santiago de Compostela ` USF-ITA: Universita degli Studi di Ferrara (Italy) USJ: Universidad San Jorge ´ USMP-PER: Universidad San Martın de Porres (Peru) ˜ USP-BRA: Universidade de Sao Paulo (Brazil) USPCEU: Universidad San Pablo-CEU ` UV: Universitat de Valencia UV-MEX: Universidad Veracruzana (Mexico) UVA: Universidad de Valladolid UVIC: Universitat de Vic UVIGO: Universidad de Vigo
´ david ferna ndez-quijada holds a PhD in Audiovisual Communication and is ´ Lecturer at the Departament de Comunicacio Audiovisual i Publicitat I of the ` Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, in Spain. His research interests include cultural industries and policies and bibliometrics. notes ´ ´ ´ ´ 1. Felix Moya-Anegon, Zaida Chinchilla-Rodrıguez, Benjamın Vargas-Quesada, ´ lvarez, Francisco Jose Munoz-Fernandez, Antonio Gonzalez´ ˜ ´ ´ Elena Corera-A Molina, and Victor Herrero-Solana, ‘Coverage Analysis of Scopus: A Journal Metric Approach,’ Scientometrics 73, 1 (October 2007): 53–78 ` ´ 2. Genevieve Gregoire, Francois Derderian, and Jacques Le Lorier, ‘Selecting the ¸ Language of the Publications Included in a Meta-analysis: Is There a Tower of Babel Bias?,’ Journal of Clinical Epidemiology 48, 1 (January 1995): 159–63 3. Thed N. van Leeuwen, Henk F. Moed, Robert J.W. Tijssen, Martijn S. Visser, and Anthony F.J. van Raan, ‘Language Biases in the Coverage of the Science Citation Index and Its Consequences for International Comparisons of National Research Performance,’ Scientometrics 51, 1 (April 2001): 335–46 4. Julia Osca-Lluch and Julia Haba, ‘Dissemination of Spanish Social Sciences and Humanities,’ Journal of Information Science 31, 3 (June 2005): 230–7

Appraising Internationality in Spanish Communication Journals ´ ´ ´ 5. David Fernandez-Quijada, ‘Iberoamerica en el contexto de la investigacion internacional en ciencias sociales,’ Biblios, 36 (July 2009): 1–15 6. Christine Tardy, ‘The Role of English in Scientific Communication: Lingua Franca or Tyrannosaurus Rex?,’ Journal of English for Academic Purposes 3, 3 (July 2004): 247–69 7. Stephen K. Donovan, ‘Making International Journals Truly International,’ Journal of Scholarly Publishing 41, 3 (April 2010): 375–8 8. M. Zitt and E. Bassecoulard, ‘Internationalization of Scientific Journals: A Measurement Based on Publication and Citation Scope,’ Scientometrics 41, 1/2 (January 1998): 255–71; M. Zitt, and E. Bassecoulard, ‘Internationalization of Communication: A View on the Evolution of Scientific Journals,’ Scientometrics 46, 3 (November 1999): 669–85 ´ 9. Gualberto Buela-Casal, Pandelis Perakakis, Michael Taylor, and Purificacion Checa, ‘Measuring Internationality: Reflections and Perspectives on Academic Journals,’ Scientometrics 67, 1 (April 2006): 45–65 ´ ´ 10. Gualberto Buela-Casal, Izabela Zych, Juan Carlos Sierra, and Marıa Paz Bermudez, ‘The Internationality Index of the Spanish Psychology Journals,’ International Journal of Clinical and Health Psychology 7, 3 (September 2007): 899–910; Izabela Zych and Gualberto Buela-Casal, ‘The Internationality Index: Application to ´ ´ Revista latinoamericana de psicologıa,’ Revista latinoamericana de psicologıa 41, 3 (November 2009): 401–12; Izabela Zych, and Gualberto Buela-Casal, ‘Interna´ ´ cionalidad de las revistas de psicologıa multidisciplinar editadas en Iberoamerica e incluidas en la Web of Science,’ Universitas Psychologica 9, 1 (January 2010): 27–34 ´ ´ ´ 11. Elea Gimenez-Toledo, Adelaida Roman-Roman, Pablo Perdiguero, and Irene Palencia, ‘The Editorial Boards of Spanish Scholarly Journals: What Are They Like? What Should They Be Like?,’ Journal of Scholarly Publishing 40, 3 (April 2009): 287–306 12. Michael Calver, Grant Wardell-Johnson, Stuart Bradley, and Ross Taplin, ‘What Makes a Journal International? A Case Study Using Conservation Biology Journals,’ Scientometrics 85, 3 (November 2010): 387–400 ´ ´ ´ ´ 13. Adelaida Roman-Roman and Elea Gimenez-Toledo, ‘Como valorar la inter´ nacionalidad de las revistas de Ciencias Humanas y su categorizacion en ERIH,’ ´ ´ ˜ Revista espanola de documentacion cientıfica 33, 3 (July 2010): 341–77 14. Ali Uzun, ‘Assessing Internationality of Scholarly Journals through Foreign Authorship Patterns: The Case of Major Journals in Information Science, and Scientometrics,’ Scientometrics, 61, 3 (November 2004): 457–65 15. Shengli Ren and Ronald Rousseau, ‘International Visibility of Chinese Scientific Journals,’ Scientometrics 53, 3 (March 2002): 389–405

107

108

Journal of Scholarly Publishing 16. Chiang Kao, ‘The Authorship and Internationality of Industrial Engineering Journals,’ Scientometrics 81, 1 (October 2009): 123–36 17. Edmund Lauf, ‘National Diversity of Major International Journals in the Field of Communication,’ Journal of Communication 55, 1 (March 2005): 139–51 18. Pere Masip, ‘European Research in Communication During the Years 1994– 2004: A Bibliometric Approach’ (paper presented at 1st European Communication Conference, Amsterdam, 24–26 November 2005); Pere Masip, ‘Mapping Communication Research in Europe (1994–2009): A Bibliometric Approach’ (paper presented at 3rd European Communication Conference, Hamburg, 14 November 2010) 19. Although there are regional authorities, the national authority was consulted, the ´ ´ Agencia Nacional de Evaluacion de la Calidad y Acreditacion (ANECA) — that is, the National Agency for Quality Assessment and Accreditation. 20. http://dice.cindoc.csic.es 21. http://www.latindex.unam.mx/index.html?opcion=2 22. http://ec3.ugr.es/in-recs/ 23. The data were retrieved on two dates: 31 March 2009 for articles from 2007–8 and 1 July 2010 for articles from 2009. 24. Each official knowledge area corresponds to a similar field of study and is how science is administratively organized in Spain. For example, the communication field is split between Journalism and Audiovisual Communication and Advertising. 25. During the search for articles from 2009, two journals (Icono 14 and Telos) were added to the sample of fourteen journals that had been searched for articles from 2007 and 2008. This is why these two journals only offer results for 2009. As is usually done in this kind of study, editorials and book reviews were excluded. 26. Loet Leydesdorff, ‘Theories of Citation?,’ Scientometrics 43, 1 (September 1998): 5–25 27. Stepehen P. Borgatti, Everett G. Martin, and Linton C. Freeman, Ucinet 6 for Windows: Software for Social Network Analysis (Cambridge, MA: Analytic Technologies 2002); Stepehen P. Borgatti, NetDraw: Graph Visualization Software (Cambridge, MA: Analytic Technologies, 2002) 28. The figure of 1635 authors includes duplicated names because some authors have written more than one piece. 29. It should be noted that the journals from the sample are among the most cited; not only because they are the most significant Spanish journals but also because of the effect of authors’ citing of their own work, which is clearly excessive in ´ ˜ some cases. See David Fernandez-Quijada, ‘El perfil de las revistas espanolas de ´ n (2007–2008),’ Revista espanola de documentacion scientıfica 33, ´ ´ ˜ comunicacio 4 (October 2010): 553–81.

Appraising Internationality in Spanish Communication Journals 30. This Brazilian journal publishes mainly in Portuguese, but it also accepts articles in other Romance languages, including Spanish and English. In fact, most of the cited articles from Eptic were written in Spanish. 31. This has not been the only method tried out to attract foreign authors. Zer, for instance, published an ephemeral English edition in 2007, while since 2010 ´ Revista latina de comunicacion social has published its articles in Spanish and English simultaneously.

109

Copyright of Journal of Scholarly Publishing is the property of University of Toronto Press and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use.

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Speech

...Journal #1 My speech wasn’t as bad as I thought it was going to be, but it could have been better if I put more time into getting more information from my partner. The body paragraphs needed to give more information and go into more detail. Although it wasn’t that bad of a speech giving the thought that we met up for about thirty minutes. Back in high school when someone was giving a speech, we, the audience always tried to make them laugh, or simply just didn’t pay attention to the speaker and did something else. Now the audience was paying attention and being respectful which calmed me down when giving my speech. As the speaker I needed to be more enthusiastic while giving my speech, because how is the audience going to be interested if I don’t even seem interested. I noticed very few people glancing at their phones or just with a blank look in their face; this made me relax a little more for some reason. Even though I could have had more information and gone more into detail, my speech did flow from the thesis statement to my conclusion paragraph. I was getting more nervous as the names kept getting closer to mine, once my partner Aldo, brought me up when he gave his speech, which calmed my nervousness down a bit because it wasn’t that bad being in front of the class and having everyone’s eyes looking at you. Once my turn came to speak, I took deep breaths as I made my way to the front of the classroom, and once there I paused, and took one last deep breath, and......

Words: 388 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Speech

...Speech # 3 – Personal Interest Speech 4-6 minutes General Purpose: To inform Specific Objectives: ➢ To expand effective delivery technique and to have the opportunity to speak on a topic of personal interest with high rate of success. ➢ To incorporate the use of a presentation aid as support material into your public speaking. ➢ To build confidence in Public Speaking through an assignment that draws on speaker’s personal interest in music, literature, or an object of significant meaning in the speaker’s life. Description/Requirements: Each student must choose a favorite song, piece of literature, or object he or she feels (1) has a personally significant message; (2) expresses an idea representative of his or her generation or culture; and (3) explains something that is important and relevant to society. In this speech, the speaker must consider him/herself a “teacher” (an informative speaker sharing information with your audience). A topical organizational pattern is suggested for this speech. OPTION ONE: This option requires you to choose a favorite song. Included in the speech must be: (1) a description of the song (e.g., composer/lyricist, its musicality, a description of the artist); (2) the song’s theme and its relevance to the class and/or society; (3) an oral interpretation of a section from the song; (4) the student's personal reaction to the song (i.e., why you chose it); and (5) an audio or visual portion of the song to be...

Words: 695 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Professional Speech

...COM 225 Public Speaking Professional speech Critique Questions ***Please use this to evaluate your professional speeches. Please also remember to provide some type of proof of your attendance. 1. Who was the speaker? John Lynch 2. What was the topic of the speech? Finding your identity in Christ and not using masks to hide your weaknesses and sins. 3. How did the speaker establish his/her credibility? John is a very credible source, and he established that by referencing the book he is the author of, TrueFaced. TrueFaced was written by John and three other elders here at Open Door and its main focus is to teach us how to trust God and others with our hearts. 4. Did the speaker have an attention getter and describe it? He got the audience’s attention by creating the imagery of a fork in the road. One path is laden with self-achievement, stress, and loneliness; while the other is filled with grace, community, friendships and a sense of peace. He said that we are all standing at that fork in the road and we need to make a choice as to which way we want to live this life here on earth. The way he described this fork in the road brought everyone to his attention and left the audience anxious to listen to everything else he had to say about living your life with Jesus as a part of it. 5. What was the General Purpose of the speech? The general purpose of the speech was to inform Believers and non-believers of what these two different...

Words: 536 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Speech to Entertain

...Speech to Entertain: An Overview The primary purpose of a speech to entertain is to have the audience relax, smile and enjoy the occasion. The speech should have a central theme or a focus. A series of jokes will NOT work well for this type of speech. Good speeches to entertain typically mix humor with more serious morals, lessons learned, or experiences. In other words, they have a real point to make… they are not just silly, slapstick humor. You can tell a lighthearted, personal story that reveals a life lesson you’ve learned or examine a familiar subject from a different and unexpected viewpoint or take a lighthearted look at a particular issue. Example: Summer jobs: “Summer jobs for high schoolers: The daily diary of the American Nightmare.” Additional suggestions for the composition and delivery of after dinner speeches are as follows: 1. Carefully select an interesting, timely, and appropriate topic. Having something familiar in the talk that the audience can relate to will enhance listener interest. 2. Build your speech around a central theme, moral, or idea. 3. Support your main point or central theme with colorful stories, narrative and examples. 4. Be imaginative and creative when delivering your talk. Few speeches demand more imagination and creativity than the speech to entertain. 5. Be positive and good-natured when delivering your talk—irony and sarcasm are acceptable but not bitterness. 6. Be optimistic and modest when speaking and......

Words: 938 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Informative Speech

...Informative Speech Assignment Information Speeches: 4 - 5 minutes Speech Day: Come to class early on speech days Do not disrupt other speeches by arriving late! Turn in your speech outline with a references page Purpose of Speech: To support a clear, one-sentence thesis To use at least three different kinds of supporting material To organize the speech with an appropriate and discernible structure To experiment with creative vocal delivery and presentation To demonstrate principles of effective audience-centered public speaking Please choose one of the following formats for your informative speech: • Present an activity, routine, or practice in a “how-to” instructional teaching lesson • Pick an everyday item and teach your audience “how-to” use it for a purpose it was not intended for Your informative speech should focus on the following: • Constructing creative ways to share information and communicate your credibility as a knowledgable speaker • Employing narrative (stories) and sensorial or image-rich language (metaphors etc.) • Presenting with enthusiasm and sharing your interest in this topic/process with us Your informative speech will be graded on the following criteria: • Practiced and improved delivery • Creative use of stories, vocals, images, gestures, body movement, props, and/or space • Turned in and typed speech outline (must be turned in on the day you speak) • Your ability to manage your time When planning your speech: • Tell a......

Words: 377 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Informative Speech Assignment

...presentation should be audience adapted, organized, extemporaneous and informative. Using the forms of support discussed in the text, develop and construct a speech of description, demonstration, or explanation. 1. Speech of Description: This speech should provide a “clear picture” of your subject. Describing the Statue of Liberty is an example of this type of speech. 2. Speech of Demonstration: This speech should help the listener learn a new skill, behavior, or technique. Showing students how to create a web site is an example of this type of speech. (See my web page for a list of ideas on How To speeches) 3. Speech of Explanation: This speech offers information about topics that are abstract and difficult to understand. Explaining the effects of global warming is an example of this type of speech. Procedures:  Select one of the above and develop a 5-7 minute presentation.  The speech should be carefully organized and contain a clear purpose statement. (We will discuss the outline format in class)  Use visual aids where appropriate. (Note for Demonstration speeches visual aids are required)  Use an extemporaneous speaking style. (DO NOT READ YOUR SPEECH)  A typed full sentence outline is required and due one class date prior to the first assigned speech. (You will not be assigned a time slot without submitting your outline ON TIME.)  A “Reference” page is required utilizing an APA style......

Words: 294 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Informative Speech Reflection Paper

...Abubakr Mohamed 1. What I most liked about my speech was the first three and a half minutes because I started out my speech with confidence and strong voice that carries throughout the room. I also followed my outline and stick to it which made my purpose clear and showed the importance of the topic to the audience. Moreover my eye contacts was on entire audience , my posture was good , legs did not cross, no leaning on podium, and my hands movement was minimal and did not move too much which is the case when I usually talk to people. I think I also was able to show the importance of my topic to audience by getting their attention. I avoided making my speech to technical so it will be easy for those who are not familiar with the topic to understand. 2. After the three and a half minutes I started to rely heavily on my outline instead of eye contact and that the main point I need to work on. Also, I had multiple problems with stumbling over my words and using fill in words instead of speaking clearly and using very descriptive words. Furthermore, I saw that I tended to sway a lot, and that is something I will consciously try to fix during my next speech. In term of content, my outline needed more information and examples that will encourage the audience to ask questions after the speech and that will reflect their interest in my speech. For delivery , I was very nervous and I stumbled over my words and I had to pause longer than I should to recall my points ...

Words: 637 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Speech

...first thing I would like to say is "thank you." Not only has Harvard given me an extraordinary honour, but the weeks of fear and nausea I’ve endured at the thought of giving this commencement address have made me lose weight. A win-win situation! Now all I have to do is take deep breaths, squint at the red banners and convince myself that I am at the world’s largest Gryffindors' reunion. 首先请允许我说一声谢谢。哈佛不仅给了我无上的荣誉,连日来为这个演讲经受的恐惧和紧张,更令我减肥成功。这真是一个双赢的局面。现在我要做的就是深呼吸几下,眯着眼睛看看前面的大红横幅,安慰自己正在世界上最大的魔法学院聚会上。 Delivering a commencement address is a great responsibility; or so I thought until I cast my mind back to my own graduation. The commencement speaker that day was the distinguished British philosopher Baroness Mary Warnock. Reflecting on her speech has helped me enormously in writing this one, because it turns out that I can't remember a single word she said. This liberating discovery enables me to proceed without any fear that I might inadvertently influence you to abandon promising careers in business, law or politics for the giddy delights of becoming a gay wizard. 发表毕业演说是一个巨大的责任,至少在我回忆自己当年的毕业典礼前是这么认为的。那天做演讲的是英国著名的哲学家Baroness Mary Warnock,对她演讲的回忆,对我写今天的演讲稿,产生了极大的帮助,因为我不记得她说过的任何一句话了。这个发现让我释然,让我不再担心我可能会无意中影响你放弃在商业,法律或政治上的大好前途,转而醉心于成为一个快乐的魔法师。 You see? If all you remember in years to come is the 'gay wizard' joke, I've still come out ahead of Baroness Mary Warnock. Achievable goals - the first step to self-improvement....

Words: 3247 - Pages: 13

Free Essay

Movie Review- King's Speech

...Movie Review: The King’s Speech The King’s Speech relates to this course by showing someone who struggles with presenting speeches in front of large crowds of people, eventually gets over his fear and accomplishes his goal by giving an amazing speech. I’m almost for certain that more than half of my public speaking class is afraid to give a speech in front of people due to nerves. To me, giving a speech in front of people makes me nervous and scared. I feel like the King George VI because I tend to mumble and move around a lot when I give speeches. If I were in the King’s situation I would seek help just as he did. But instead of freaking out all the time, I would practice my speeches and try to find different tactics that would help me remain calm while I’m presenting. This movie makes me believe that public speaking is intimidating. But with a composed attitude and a straightforward speech I will be able to tackle the nerves and give a worthy speech. To form a good impression on the listeners I have to make eye contact with the audience members, speak slowly and loud, take pauses when needed, and show appropriate facial emotions when I’m sincere about what I have to say. When preparing my speech I have to create an introduction that gets the audience’s attention, so then they will become interested in what my speech is about. Seeing the King’s speeches fail made me realize that I should take appropriate actions when feeling apprehensive. I should act confident, know......

Words: 338 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Oral Comm Farewell Speech

...Farewell Speech Hello class. Thank you all for a great semester. You have watched me improve and excel in my speech skills and I am forever grateful because this will truly be an asset that I can use throughout the rest of my life and when I begin my career. In the career path I have chosen, international business, I know that I will need to rely heavily on my communication skills. The tips and the techniques that I have learned from Mr. Rounds and all of you are incredibly helpful when delivering speeches. From the first speech until this last one, I have grown into a much better speaker. This class has been one to remember. In the beginning, I would have never imagined that I would have opened up as much as I have, especially on the commemoration speech. I can be emotional at times, so I am very proud that I was able to deliver a speech that was so personal without letting my emotions get the best of me. This is because I feel comfortable with all of you because we have exceptionally close for a group of thirty strangers. Throughout this semester, I have not only become a better speaker, but also a better people person. Speech is not something I realized was so important until this semester. Professor Rounds, you have shown me what it means to set a goal and accomplish it. You have shown me what it takes to not only speak in public, but to speak to where people will listen to me in public. I now know how to change the tone of my voice while speaking, as well as how......

Words: 328 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Freedom of Speech

...Freedom of Speech, Hate Speech, & Talk Radio Brice Hinchman Freedom of Speech, Hate Speech, & Talk Radio What is Freedom of speech? Well, the definition for freedom of speech is the ability to speak freely without being subject to censorship or without fear of retaliation from a governing body. There are at least two documents, the US Constitution and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, that acknowledge that free speech is an unalienable right and protect it for all. There is another form of speech that may or may not be protected, depending on the circumstances, under the same documents and that is hate speech. Some of the limitations that are put in place by Government, employers, and educational facilities are a violation of what freedom of speech is really about, being able to freely speak your mind, but are necessary to protect the rights and liberties of other individuals. The freedom of speech is a very powerful right that is protected by the First Amendment to the United States Constitution. Our Founding Fathers set the stage when they wrote the Declaration of Independence by stating that “We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty, and the pursuit of Happiness” (Choices, 81). One of these liberties and unalienable rights was the Freedom of speech. The First Amendment to the United States Constitution, which was......

Words: 2457 - Pages: 10

Premium Essay

Hate Speech

...other countries have laws against hate speech and that such laws have sometime been passed in the United States, although not nationally. I think this is because, as mentioned by Waldron, many countries consider hate laws in Europe and in other countries in which manifestations of hate are prohibited rather than tolerated in the name of free speech. I also think this because other countries in which have these hate laws, their constitutions acknowledge that basic rights, including freedom of expression, are legitimately subject to restriction. I think it isn’t consistent because many states vary in the extent to which they allow their national legislation be guided by international human-rights laws. The Foundation for Individual Rights in Education reviews the narrow definitions of exceptions for the free-speech clause of the U.S Constitution, noting that universities frequently go beyond these exceptions in their speech codes. Those narrow exceptions include: speech that incites reasonable people to immediate violence, so-called “fighting words”, harassment, true threats and intimidation, obscenity, and defamation. I think that universities go beyond these exceptions in their speech codes because of the recent events that have happened. For example, I think the Virginia Tech massacre made a lot of universities scared that something like that could happen at their university, so they started to go beyond exceptions of the free-speech clause to make sure that nothing......

Words: 852 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Speech Acts

...Teaching ideas A-level English Language and Literature 7707 Dramatic Encounters: Speech acts Introduction These teaching ideas can be used with students when exploring the types of speech acts given to character and the effects of these. They offer students the opportunity to explore the nature of different speech acts and their significance in relation to the overall focus of ‘conflict’, and how understanding these is important to interpreting key aspects of dramatic discourse, the themes, characterisation and the links with contextual factors. They also encourage students to think about how the playwright represents natural speech features, show characters’ asserting power through the writer’s choice of speech acts. The suggested activities are intended to span two lessons lasting one hour each. Learning objectives Students will: • • • define speech acts and recognise the different types of speech acts explore how playwrights use speech acts to craft characteristics of conflict, for characterisation and to link to the key themes of the play evaluate the significance of different speech acts in their use within the play and their likely interpretative effects, as well as the influence of contextual factors. Prior knowledge needed Students should have some knowledge of the following: • • • • language levels how playwrights represent natural speech features power – how it is presented, negotiated and shifts aspects of stagecraft and......

Words: 1560 - Pages: 7

Free Essay

Figures of Speech

...FIGURES OF SPEECH List of Figure of Speech and Examples Alliteration This is a very common figure of speech that involves using words that begin with the same sound.  For instance, “Sally sells sea shells by the seashore” is alliteration – and try saying it fast to see how difficult it is! It is often used in advertising slogans to create something catchy that more people will remember.  Assonance Remember the phrase “I Like Ike”? It was a very common phase for those who supported Dwight Eisenhower during his presidential run. This is a figure of speech that focuses on the vowel sounds in a phrase, repeating them over and over to great effect.  Hyperbole “It was as big as a mountain! It was faster than a cheetah! It was dumber than a rock!” This figure of speech makes things seem much bigger than they really were by using grandiose depictions of everyday things. Hyperbole is often seen as an exaggeration that adds a bit of humor to a story.  Irony This figure of speech tries to use a word in a literal sense that debunks what has just been said. “Gentlemen, you can’t fight in here! This is the War Room!” from Dr. Strangelove is a great example. It is often used to poke fun at a situation that everyone else sees as a very serious matter.  A. Situational B. Dramatic C. Verbal Metaphor Indirect comparison The use of metaphor compares two things that are not alike and finds something about them to make them alike. “My heart is a lonely hunter that......

Words: 798 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Freedom of Speech

...that the channel, like Spacetoon, wouldn’t want the children to see, so they censor it. Moreover, censorship is not only used in cartoon, it is used also in movies and series to delete sexual content or foul language. In addition, there are many types of censorship, and the types imposed are different from one country to another. Some countries may impose moral censorship; others impose military, political, or religious censorships. Many people would agree on some of the types of censorships enforced in the countries; however, people have the right of freedom of speech and the knowledge behind political issues, so these should not be censored by the country. Censorship is a problem that is known from before World War 1 and it is still a controversial issue with many people who are with the act and laws set regarding censorship and many who are against. Censorship is the restraint over any type of communication like speech regarding many different matters. For example, being against rules set or some political moves that a country performs, things that are considered to be harmful, sensitive, or inconvenient to the general body of people. These things that constraints are set upon are determined by the government, or media outlet. There are a lot of debates behind the topic “censorship.” One of them is, should governments put regulations on broadcasters, or does that affect people’s freedom, other debates are about...

Words: 3670 - Pages: 15