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ASSIGNMENT 2 CMNS 261 - Documentary Research in Communication
Course Authour: Donald Gutstein
Course Tutor Marker: Vincent Andrisani

Policy document Research and Analysis
Canada. Access to Information Review Task Force. (2002, June). Access to Information: Making it Work for Canadians.

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Policy document Research and Analysis
Canada. Access to Information Review Task Force.

Overview:

The decision to implement an Access to Information Act (ATIA) in Canada was a process initiated in the early 1970s and only in 1982 was a workable law established in this country. Through many years, the preliminary actions were taken by a few and only after the government officially decided to develop the law, was a real concerted effort expended on the Access To Information Act (ATIA). Heralded as an example to be followed, it has been many years since the law was amended to keep up with the times of the changing face of information access. As a result the Canadian act has languished for many years with a constant whittling away at the right to access culminating with the current outcry that the law must be made more workable. This is a brief search of the actions that have been taken and their results.

Historical aspects of Access to Information in Canada: The existing Access to Information Act (ATIA) as passed by the Federal Parliament in 1982, and was enacted in1983 after years of attempts at implementation

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of an information access bill by members of the Canadian Parliament. Spearheaded by the Conservative MP Gerald William Baldwin in the 1970s, his research was conduced in order to design an appropriate and workable Freedom of Information law (FOI). (Leonard 1987) Attaining easy access to information is a basis for the access to information law in Canada as it is felt that information enables people to operate in a democratic society. Access to information laws provides citizens with the information required to scrutinize government actions and recommend alterations of policy to help the democracy. While this does not apply to all government activities such as Crown Corporations, currently 28 Crown Corporations of 46 are subject to the ATIA (Treasury Board of Canada, 2005) The allowing of discretionary secrecy by the bureaucracy to permeate the information requests in that department or Crown Corporation if it decides not to release information by simple labeling of the information as a secret this permits non-application of the guidelines, allows the government document in question to be with-held.(TYO 1976) In Canada. the prevalence in government secrecy has existed in the parliamentary system since inception. Throughout the history, facts of all descriptions have been with held from those who have paid for the information collection through their taxes, or those who need the information in order to competently exercise their rights in a democratic society. Despite Sweden having an accessible government since the 1700, very few countries adopted an access to in formation law. In Canada however the glut of discretionary secrecy has prevailed with reports of information from government studies and research being withheld for the people with
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the excuse of national security, being exercised. This discretionary secrecy had resulted in the call for a more open government towards the full intent of the ATIA. Following the idea of laws implemented in other jurisdictions as far back as 1766 in Sweden, the concept of freer access to information in that country began as an important action of the state. Similar law was passed in Finland in 1966 with the United States installing a Freedom of Information Act in 1966 as well. Other European countries passed similarly intentioned laws through the 1970s and those countries aligned with the British system enacted laws in Australia, New Zealand, and Canada in 1982. (POC 2008) The law in Canada when passed and implemented was considered by many others to be innovative and a leader in freedom of information legislation although in the decades since implementation it has not kept up with other legislations in other countries according to a report by Justice Minister Irwin Cotler’s April 2005 document entitled A Comprehensive Framework for Access to Information Reform: A Discussion Paper . (POC 2008)
This report compares the Canadian experience with information access law to four other countries who have enacted similar legislation. The United Kingdom (U.K.), Ireland, Australia, and New Zealand were all considered as was the United States of America (U.S.A.) however the u.k was chosen as canada’s parliamentary system springs from the U.K. Openness of government required for people to properly involve themselves in

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the democratic process. Denial of information de-enfranchises people from the political area by restricting the information available with which to help make informed choices. (Democracy Watch 1998)

Stakeholders of the past and today: The first document tabled regarding Access To Information Act (ATIA), or as it was called Freedom of Information(FOI) was by Barry Mather an NDP M.P. For White Rock in 1965. This bill was not able to get passed however it lay the foundation for future bills. Mather was a previous journalist for vancouver newspapers who entered politics in the 1960s. (GOC 2002) Generally known as the father of access to’ information in canada, Gerald Baldwin started in 1974 tabling the private members bill Bill C-225, An Act Respecting the Right of the Public to Information Concerning Public Business. In 1977 a government green paper entitled Legislation on Public Access to Government Documents was introduced by the government after Baldwin made his private members bill visible and placing the issue into the public’s eye. (POC 1979) 1980 saw Bill C-43 introduced by the Communications minister Francis Fox which was sent to committee for review. While Francis Fox marshaled the bill to eventual passing and Royal Assent in 1983 there were concerns expressed by the then Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau on the effects of the proposed law on secrecy of cabinet

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documents. Despite this concern the bill was moved through passing with agreements from the opposition parties to assist getting the bill into effect. (GOC 2002) As early as 1970 the CBA expressed concern and passed a resolution at their general meeting calling on the federal government to introduce legislation on privacy and freedom of information. (Canada’s Human Rights History 1982))

Stakeholders of import: The Canadian Bar Association’s involvement in a case dating from over ten years ago involving the Prime Minister’s Office, the Minister of National Defense, the Minister of Transport in addition to the PMO’s agenda that was in the possession of the RCMP and the Privy Council’s Office. Though the case was not successful in some ways, it was however important achieving it’s goal of determining what the range and scope of the Commissioner of Information’s powers are. In it was found the portions of the agenda were not available under the ATIA as they were not subject to the act. Other portions of the request were also turned down as it contained documents that were not were not control of any government department,those documents held by the RCMP and Privy Council Office (PCO) were not turned over as there were other reasons held by the court. The importance of the decision was to clarify the powers of the ATIA in regard to the PMO and the various Minister’s offices, that they are not under the act, thus they are not subject to requests for information. Further activity by the Canadian Bar Association show the CBA has been involved in numerous cases involving the ATIA
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in order to obtain court decisions on requests and whether or not the federal law was being used in good faith by the government of not.(CBA 2009) The CBA paper Access to Information Act Reform of 2009, critically outlines the failings in the act and make recommendations the group feel are required to bring the act up to date. In the report ‘Standing Committee on Access to Information, Privacy and Ethics Study on Reform of the Access to Information Act (ATIA) dated May 2009, presented to the Standing Committee. The CBA outlined twelve areas that required alterations in their view, in order to ensure fair and equitable functioning of the ATIA as well as following the original intent of the law. (CBA 2009)The Canadian Bar Association has utilized the association’s resources to publish numerous reports, legal information brochures on ATIA, Freedom of Information and the Protection of Privacy. The access to information law was passed only after intensive lobby activity by the CBA until it passed on July 1, 1983 (The Canadian Encyclopedia 2012)

STAKEHOLDERS: The stakeholders in the Access to Information Act mainly concern the Federal government, who presented and developed the legislation and those stakeholders representing the public’s right to know. However one needs to realize that the law was initially a private members bill tabled by Gerald Baldwin in 1982. Prior to the law being tabled and ultimately passed, a Freedom of Information bill was tabled by NDP member Barry Mather in 1965. This bill was allowed to die on the order paper as it did not make
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it through the three readings required. It did however achieve two readings on four occasions. He continued to present the exact bill to the federal parliament each session from 1968 until 1974 when he retired from politics. Gerald (Ged) Baldwin M.P., was the main person involved in the early incarnations of the ATIA, even though he was an opposing Conservative member of the Peace River district at the time. First introduced as bill c-225 in 1974 the bill An act respecting the right of the public to information Concerning public business, the bill eventually died on the order paper it was however studied extensively by the Standing Joint Committee on Regulations and Other Statutory Instruments. (The Canadian Encyclopedia 2012) In the cases of Mather and Baldwin, their importance was in the opening up of the issue, that of access to information and that it was one of the main rights of a person in a democratic society. These action pushed the government with it’s inborn tendency to being secret, toward a more open form of government. Francis Fox was the Federal Government Minister of State under whom the Access to Information Act was introduced and ultimately passed with enactment in 1983 under Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau, who called Gerald Baldwin the father of the Information Access law when it was enacted despite Baldwin being a member of the opposition Conservative party. (Wikipedia 2012) On July 17, 1980, the then Liberal Communications Minister Francis Fox introduced Bill C-43 containing both the present Access to Information Act and Privacy Act. Though the bill was passed through the second reading, it was subsequently

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forwarded in 1980 to Committee study where it languished until the end of the session. It was not until the present incarnation of the bill was introduced and passed in 1982, was a comprehensive law enacted. (GOC 2002)

Current Stakeholders supporting amendment of the ATIA: The operation of the Access to Information Act is overseen by the Office of Information Commissioner Suzanne Legault who is an Officer of Parliament that directly reports to the House of Commons and the Senate. Legault is assisted by Andrea Neill , who is the Assistant Commissioner. As well a staff dedicated to the operation of the act is to advise and provide input on the issues facing the department and other interested parties. Her position as an advocate for the information rights of Canadians provides her with the powers to investigate complaints, perform audits, pursue court cases under the laws, report on the handling of public and private requests, undertaking research and publishing it, as well as promotional campaigns on the access to information laws.(OIC 2012) The Information Commissioner investigates complaints about Federal institutions handling of requests, in addition to any complaints that arise during the process. Additionally, the office mediates any disputes and if necessary proceeds with the appropriate legal action. While the Commissioner has the power to proceed to direct legal action, they try to mediate where ever possible to obtain a satisfactory resolution of the complaint. (OIC 2012)

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In the realm of information, the Commissioner of Information has to be able to understand and balance the public’s right to know with any issues of privacy that may encumber the security of the state or it’s inhabitants. In this respect, the issue of privacy it is dealt with by the office of the privacy commissioner headed by Jennifer Stoddart, and assisted by Chantal Bernier. While this is not directly a factor in the operation of the Information Commission, it none-the-less is a concern that has to be balanced. Privacy versus right to know has always been a factor needing to be reconciled with regards to the public’s rights. The original act had the issues of Freedom of Information and that of privacy integrated (ref 18a), however it was made a separate department called the Privacy Commission in a 1985 alteration of the act which placed it under the Department of Justice.(Office of the Privacy Commissioner 2010) The validation and recognition of those who contribute to and enhance the public’s right to know has fallen on a few people. These people are recognized by way of an award sponsored by the office Commissioner of Information by way of the the Grace-Pepin Award. These two individuals, John Grace (1927-2009) and Marcel Pepin (1941-1999) are the two figures that the award is named after. Grace was a public figure that was involved in the field of information rights who was The Information
Commissioner after holding the post of head of The Canadian Radio and Telecommunications Commission (CRTC) as well as that of the Privacy Commissioner of Canada. He was appointed as the Information Commissioner of Canada where he

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was known to be independently minded as well as always standing for government transparency and accountability. Marcel Pepin’s role as the President and Founder of the Commission d’access a I’information du Quebec was after his career as a newspaper journalist at La Droit, La Presse, Le Soleil as well as the Pare Commission that persuaded the Province of Quebec to enact information and privacy laws. As the first head of the Commission d’access a l’information du Quebec and his return to journalism,he became the vice-president of the french network and then as the ombudsman for CBC French network always showing that he was a strong advocate of the freedom of information and felt it was the foundation of democracy. (Right to Know 2012) In a landmark case in 2011, taken in order to determine the scope and intent of the ATIA in which the Information Commissioner instituted the action against the Minister of Defense. In the unanimous decision the court found the PMO and various ministerial offices are not institutions under the ATIA nor is the Prime Minister an agent of the Privacy Council Office (PCO) in the court’s clarification of the word ‘control’. (Cameron, Warnock,2011)
The Right to Know (RTK) is an association of organizations interested in the advancement of the right to information. As a multinational non governmental organization it has branches in most provinces in canada performing the activities of . Upholding the right of people to information from the government it lobbies and

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advocates on behalf of the public as well as hold events along with information campaigns to enlighten people about the ATIA. (Right to Know.2012))
A prime mover in the fight toward more equitable and fair application is Murray Rankin, a lawyer in Victoria, B.C. Practice who is one of the foremost critics as well as an advisor regarding the Access to Information Act (ATIA). A recent paper entitled Report 16 - Access to Information Review Task Force presented to the Federal Government. He, in conjunction with the assistance of Kathyrn Chapman, and Arvay Finlay, produced the research paper making recommendations regarding the content of Section 24 of the ATIA . In this he points out there are provisions that excluded documents from the eyes of the public and that this contravenes the essence of the law which is to provide a more transparent view of the government workings. He is extremely critical of the arbitrary refusal to disclose information which should be allowed to open view. There are parts of the act which are overridden by other laws and that the laws of information and privacy should be in one statute which would make the system more efficient. The increase in the ‘creeping secrecy’ was due to the phenomenon of the ‘not withstanding ‘ clause of the act meaning that any other act may countermand the openness of the ATIA. The increase in exclusions for the law have increased many times since the ATIA was given Royal Assent.(GOC 2001) Openmedia.ca concerns itself with the freedom of access to information specifically with regards to the open access of the media in Canada to obtain information. Openmedia.ca has been active in the openness of information and as one
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of their many reports on the issues.(Open Media 2012) Though Openmedia is a non-governmental organization (NGO) it tries to clarify and make suggestions regarding access to information, specifically the internet, as well as privacy concerns to the canadian government information commission as well as the privacy commission as they impact the internet flow of information. (Open media 2012) The subject of online spying, that of information gathering out of sight of legal guidelines, in order to accumulate information is the target of one of the current campaigns developed by Openmedia.ca in opposition to Bill C-30, in response to the attempts by the current government to control and utilize the internet in such a way to provide information to police agencies. (Open media 2012)

Protagonists: Vic Toews, the current Minister of Public Safety has taken it upon his role as Minister to intercept and interpret the information flow as being something the government should police by use of warrantless spying on Canadian citizens, their online communications, and otherwise violate basic rights top freely communicate. Through the introduction of Bill C-30, Investigating and Preventing Criminal Electronic Communications Act. The surveillance of internet traffic and using it as a fishing expedition by discovering those who share information and files on the world wide web. In addition this bill will reduce privacy and allow the government to intercept

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communications and listen to them contravening the need for judicial oversight by way of a search warrant, as they decide, thus circumventing both the ATIA and the Privacy
Act. Despite controversy and criticism, Toews says government proceeding with C-30. Toews has an extreme right wing view of law with which he criticizes decisions by the courts or others not in alignment with his hard-line views. (Wikipedia 2012)
Robert Nicholson, the Minister of Justice under the Conservative leader Stephen Harper is also the Leader of the Government in the House of Commons as well as the Minister for Democratic Reform by. In January 2007, Mr. Nicholson was named Minister of Justice and Attorney General of Canada. (GOC 2011)
International comparison: Internationally, the Canadian act took a leading role in the comprehensiveness, and innovations to assist access to information, however Canada has lagged behind other countries with the ATIA failing to have made substantial and effective amendments to allow the operations of the government to be more transparent. (GOC 2011)
The problems that have arisen from the invention of the internet as well as the increase of globalization with regards to information has created a new paradigm with regards to information technology. In the case of information held in canada by the government the trend of the civil service has been to with hold the information with the myriad of exemptions as well as the tendency to reduce any information given out to the minimum required. As the world is moving toward a technologically driven system, where by

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electronic copies are available when asked for, the rules have become more unwieldy than in 1982 when the ATIA was passed. (GOC 2008)
The situation in other countries shows that the issues in canada are not unknown in a country such as the United States with their FOI act, it is however fairly clear that the Canadian experience has not kept up with the advance of technology nor has the concept of open government made adjustments over the past 30 years toward truly open government. (The Star.com 2011)
Further study of the law in the United Kingdom, which is more pertinent than the USA as the UK and Canada share a similar philosophy of government. The main item is that the UK Commissioner has the duty to promote the concept of access throughout the country as well as a Code of Practice in that the bureaucracy being obligated to retain and provide information, and records meanwhile having an independence to the government. Whereas in Canada, there is information currently outside the view of the information commissioner who has no right to view and determined if the documents should be made public once the bureaucracy determines they will not present it to view. In canada this exemption or exclusion of organizations that will remain silent can not be inspected by the information commission and no recourse is available. In the UK, the Parliament is under the rules of their corresponding access legislation and while there are exclusions to protect certain documents such as cabinet confidences, there is non-the-less a more accessible system, being used. The UK allows people other than residents to request information as does ireland and australia. In Canada or New
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Zealand, only a resident may request information. The cabinet documents are not available to view in Canada and this exemption is considered to be part of the ATIA restrictions unlike other jurisdictions and subject to a 20 year exclusion even if the public interest is determined by those wishing to see them. The UK does allow for prosecution for offenses whereas the Canadian ATIA does not allow for this which in the end if the statute is violated there is no repercussions for the violator in Canada. (POC 2008)

Policy discourse

The published paper called the Report of the Access to Information Review Task Force, observed the ATIA was a workable document however is lacking in the overall intent of the law towards a government open to the eyes of the public. Reasons given for this were the lack of training for staff in the bureaucracy, lack of resources and the tendency for public servants to be secretive rather than open and transparent. It is felt the culture of secrecy was firmly entrenched in the government over the 20 plus years since the ATIA was enacted. This has not significantly increased the openness despite the number and quality of requests increasing significantly since the ATIA was enacted. Overall the number of departments exempt under Section 24 has nearly doubled since the act’s inception with the back door restrictions erosion of the act. (FAIR 2012) Procedural actions in the ATIA’s implementation were not found to be greatly at fault, but the lack of the law’s intent being followed and how it was to be interpreted were pointed to as major concerns. In addition there has been a great deal of leeway in
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the interpretation and it was felt this needed to be addressed in the law. Additionally, it was felt further clarification of the exclusion of records criteria removed through the discretionary blocking of access must be modified toward more openly allowing documents, must be done in order to release documents from the imposed secrecy. An overall clarification is needed to safeguard and strengthen the public’s right to know under the law in order to strengthen the act. Overall the act was considered to be in line with the original principles of the law as originally set out and in this respect it was felt the law was workable but revision to keep the act properly aligned to the times considering the technology that has made the public’s access more simple and quicker. In terms of the cost, the application of the act is not out of line with those in the USA so this is not a factor that needs to be reviewed. Suzanne Legault, The Director of the ATIA in a report released in May 2012 said that she should be allowed to review a document considered to be a cabinet confidence. Similar requests and recommendations have been made in the past by previous directors however not implemented. The Access to Information Act turns 30 amid calls for reform from many critics of the act’s inadequacies. (CBC NEWS, 2012) The issue of Cabinet confidences has led to an increase in documents that are not available for viewing with the Conservative government not supporting proposed amendments or asked for changes since attaining a majority government .(GOC OIC 2012) While the act is currently in operation, it continues to be reduced in power and scope. Revisions have become a bureaucratic endeavor which have not been put into
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action by either the previous Liberal governments or the current Conservatives. This factor has not been addressed despite the promise of more open government especially by the most recent regime with the resulting opposite actions being done to open government to scrutiny. The paper attempts to create workable change by supporting amendments, yet this advice is not actually taken by the governments with any sincerity. Overall the paper support the proper use of the ATIA by suggesting amendments to ensure the work of the Commission follows and the act is adhering to the overall intent of ensuring the government is open as well as very transparent to all who see it.

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Cited References:

Baldwin, G., Szablowski, G., Rowan, D. (1976), Discretionary Secrecy TYO Interview

Cameron, A.,and Warnock, J.,(2011). Defining the Scope of the Access to Information Act: Canada (Information Commissioner) v. Canada (Minister of National Defence). Privacy Pages – CBA National Privacy and Access Law Section Newsletter http://www.cba.org/cba/newsletters-sections/2011/PrintHTML.aspx? DocId=46723#article4

Canada’s Human Rights History (1982) Privacy http://www.historyofrights.com/Issues/privacy.html

Canadian Bar Association (2009) CBA supports amendments to Access to Information Act press release http://www.cba.org/cba/news/2009_Releases/2009_05_06_Access_to_info.aspx

Canadian Bar Association (2009). Access to Information Act - National Privacy and Infolrmation Law Section - Canadian Bar Association. http://www.cba.org/cba/submissions/pdf/09-25-eng.pdf

The Canadian Encyclopedia (2012) Freedom of Information by G. Gall. http://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.com/articles/freedom-of-information

The Canadian Encyclopedia (2012)Gerald William Baldwin http://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.com/articles/gerald-william-baldwin

CBC NEWS, (2012). Access to Information Act turns 30 amid calls for reform. By David McKie, CBC News.http://www.cbc.ca/news/politics/story/2012/07/06/pol-access- to-information-30th-anniversary.html

Democracy Watch (1998). Open Government Campaign Advocating for stronger laws to require everyone in politics to act openly. http://www.dwatch.ca/camp/accessdir.html

FAIR, (2012). World Press Freedom Day: Our Rights In Canada. http://fairwhistleblower.ca/content/world-press-freedom-day-our-rights-canada

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Government of Canada (2001). Report 16 - Access to Information Review Task Force SECTION 24 AND SCHEDULE II OF THE ACCESS TO INFORMATION ACT - STATUTORY PROHIBITION AGAINST DISCLOSURE - OPTIONS FOR REFORM. THE NEW ACCESS TO INFORMATION AND PRIVACY ACT: A CRITICAL ANNOTATION T. Murray Rankin* 1983 http://www.atirtf-geai.gc.ca/paper-prohib3-e.html#author

Government of Canada.(2002). Access to Information: Making it Work for Canadians Report of the Access to Information Review Task Force Annex 8 Historical Background of Access to Information in Canada http://www.atirtf-geai.gc.ca/report/reportAnnex8-e.html

Government of Canada.(2011). The Honourable Robert Nicholson, P.C., Q.C., M.P. for Niagara Falls, OntarioMinister of Justice and Attorney General of Canada. http://www.justice.gc.ca/eng/mag-mpg/index.html

Government of Canada, (2008). Canada’s Federal Privacy Laws by Nancy Holmes Law and Government Division. http://publications.gc.ca/collections/collection_2008/lop-bdp/prb/prb0744-1e.pdf

Government of Canada OIC, (2012). NEWS RELEASE The federal Access to Information Act turns 30! http://www.oic-ci.gc.ca/eng/med-roo-sal-med_nr-cp_2012_3.aspx

Government of Canada,(2008). PRB 06-08E Access to Information Legislation in Canada and Four Other Countries. Law and Government Division http://www.parl.gc.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/prb0608-e.htm

Leonard, D. (1987). Baldwin, Gerald William taken from the Canadian Encyclopedia http://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.com/articles/gerald-william-baldwin

Library of Parliament. (2008). Parliamentary Information and Research Service. http://publications.gc.ca/collections/collection_2008/lop-bdp/prb/prb0744-1e.pdf

Office of the Information Commissioner of Canada (2012). Who We Are http://www.oic-ci.gc.ca/eng/abu-ans_who-we-are_qui-sommes-nous.aspx

Office of the Information Commissioner of Canada (2012). The Commissioner, A/ Assistant Information Commissioner (Complaints Resolution and Compliance) http://www.oic-ci.gc.ca/eng/abu-ans_the-commissioner-le-commissaire.aspx#

Office of the Information Commissioner of Canada (2012). What We Do. http://www.oic-ci.gc.ca/eng/abu-ans_what-we-do_ce-que-nous-faisons.aspx
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Office of the Privacy Commissioner (2010). About the Office of the Privacy Commissioner. http://www.priv.gc.ca/au-ans/index_e.asp

Open media.ca(2012). Media Advisory: OpenMedia.ca Releases Names of MPs Standing With Canadians Against Warrantless Online Spying - Citizen Outcry Against Bill C-30 Pushes Over Sixty MPs to Add Their Names to OpenMedia.ca Pro-Privacy Listing. http://openmedia.ca/news/media-advisory-openmediaca-releases-names-mps- standing-canadians-against-warrantless-online-spying

Open media.ca.(2012). Stop Online Spying. http://stopspying.ca/

Parliament of Canada.(1979) BALDWIN, Gerald William, O.C., Q.C., LL.D. http://www.parl.gc.ca/parlinfo/Files/Parliamentarian.aspx? Item=88de9baa-8839-401f-9aa2-55522b62d47f&Language=E&Section=ALL

Parliament of Canada (2008). PRB 06-08E Access to Information Legislation in Canada http://www.parl.gc.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/prb0608-e.htmand Four Other Countries.

Right to Know (2012). Grace-Pépin Access to Information Award :Recognizing those who contribute to the promotion of access to information principles http://www.righttoknow.ca/en/content/grace_pepin_award-prix.asp

Right to Know.(2012). Why Request Access to Information? http://www.righttoknow.ca/ en/content/why_request_access_to_information.asp

The Star.com, (2011). Study ranks Canada’s freedom-of-information laws dead last http://www.thestar.com/news/canada/article/918732--study-ranks-canada-s- freedom-of-information-laws-dead-last

Treasury Board of Canada (2005). Review of the Governance Framework for Canada’s Crown Corporations : Report to Parliament http://www.tbs-sct.gc.ca/report/rev-exa/gfcc-cgse-eng.pdf

Wikipedia(2012) Access to Information Act http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Access_to_Information_Act

Wikipedia (2012). Vic Toews. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vic_Toews

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NON CITED REFERENCES AND BIBLIOGRAPHY:

Canada's FOI Laws Outdated. (2011). Information Management Journal, 45(2), 7. http://web.ebscohost.com.proxy.lib.sfu.ca/ehost/detail? web.ebscohost.com.proxy.lib.sfu.ca/ehost/detail? sid=a88d4f0b-2cfb-4e6f-99e2-38e3da72d7240sessionmgr15&vid= 1&hid=14&bdata= JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZQ%3d%3d#db= bth&AN=60578277

Info Source Bulletin Number 33B - Statistical Reporting Statistical Tables 2009-2010 — Access to Information Access to Information RequestsApril 1, 2009 to March 31, 2010 www.infosource.gc.ca

Report 19 - Access to Information Review Task Force THIRD PARTY PROVISIONS Published: July 2001 T. Murray Rankin and Kathryn Chapman http://www.atirtf-geai.gc.ca/paper-thirdparty1-e.html

Parliament of Canada. PRB 06-08E Access to Information Legislation in Canada and Four Other Countries. Kristen Douglas Alysia Davies Law and Government Division Revised 8 October 2008 http://www.parl.gc.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/prb0608-e.htm

Department of Justice Privacy Act (R.S.C., 1985, c. P-21) www.justice.gc.ca

Department of Justice Access to Information Act (R.S.C., 1985, c. A-1) http://laws-lois.justice.gc.ca/eng/acts/A-1/page-30.html#docCont

Department of Justice Strengthening the Access to Information Act 2011-12-01 A Discussion of Ideas Intrinsic to the Reform of the Access to Information Act http://www.justice.gc.ca/eng/dept-min/pub/atia-lai/p1.html

Government of Canada 2002-06-22 Access to Information: Making it Work for Canadians Report of the Access to Information Review Task Force

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Department of Justice Access to Information Act (R.S.C., 1985, c. A-1) Permanent review of Act by Parliamentary committee 75. (1) http://laws-lois.justice.gc.ca/eng/acts/A-1/page-30.html#docCont

THE ACCESS TO INFORMATION ACT 25 YEARS LATER: TOWARD A NEW GENERATION OF ACCESS RIGHTS IN CANADA BY MURRAY RANKIN QC (WITH RESEARCH ASSISTANCE OF CHANTELLE SUTTON) JUNE 10, 2008

FIPA BC FREEDOM OF INFOMATION AND PRIVACY ASSOCIATION http://fipa.bc.ca/home/news/142

The Canadian Encyclopedia Access to Information Act ARTICLE CONTENTS: G. Gall http://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.com/articles/access-to-information-act

The Push for Open Government - up to a point http://fipa.bc.ca/library/Articles/The_push_for_Open_Government_- _up_to_a_point__Jan_13_2012.pdf

Canada’s history Access to information http://www.canadashistory.ca/Special-Pages/Search-Results.aspx? searchtext=access+to+information&searchmode=anyword

The Canadian Encyclopedia: Gerald Baldwin by David Leonard http://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.com/articles/gerald-william-baldwin

The Canadian Encyclopedia: Freedom of Information http://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.com/articles/freedom-of-information

Canada’s Human Rights History: Privacy http://www.historyofrights.com/Issues/privacy.html

Archives Canada: Search archives . Gerald Baldwin http://www.archivescanada.ca/english/search/RouteRqst.asp? sessionKey=1143412449030_206_191_57_196&r=2&i=NA&l=0&v=0&coll= 1&lvl=2&t=Baldwin,+Gerald+William,+1907-1991

The Vancouver Sun : Information Please by Stanley Tromp Oct. 4, 2004 http://www3.telus.net/index100/infoplease

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Google Search : Barry Mather and NDP http://www.google.ca/search?client=safari&rls=en&q=%22barry+mathers %22+and +ndp&ie=UTF-8&oe=UTF-8&redir_esc=&ei= Fi3dT7XVGeOJ6gG23NCiCw

Fallen Behind: Canada’s Information Act in a world Context. September 2008 http://www3.telus.net/index100/report

Freedom of Information: Part 2 Fighting our culture of secrecy BY THE OTTAWA CITIZEN SEPTEMBER 23, 2007 http://www.canada.com/ottawacitizen/news/story.html?id=9202d839-ba86-45d7- b75c-63416f1159df

Canada’s Access to Information Act and the Canadian Security and Intelligence Community. Professor Wesley Wark, Department of History, University of Toronto. http://circ.jmellon.com/docs/pdf/canadas_access_to_information_act_and_the_ canadian_security_and_intelligence_community.pdf

Government of Canada (2001) External Consultations Proceedings for Review by Participants - Roundtable on Access to Information Review, Ottawa - June 6, 2001 http://www.atirtf-geai.gc.ca/roundTable2001-06-06-e.html

Government of Canada (2001). Access to Information Review Task Force: Problematique: How to modernize access to federal government information in a way that promotes open, effective, accountable government, and an informed citizenry in a knowledge society, and is consistent with the public interest and personal privacy http://www.atirtf-geai.gc.ca/problematique-e.html

Government of Canada (2010). Info Source Bulletin Number 33B - Statistical Reporting Statistical Tables 2009-2010 — Access to Information Access to Information Requests April 1, 2009 to March 31, 2010 http://www.infosource.gc.ca/bulletin/2010/b/bulletin33b/bulletin33b02-eng.asp

Government of Canada (2001). COMPENDIUM OF RECOMMENDATIONS, PROPOSALS AND MEASURES FROM PREVIOUSLY PUBLISHED DOCUMENTS RELATING TO ACCESS INFORMATION. http://www.atirtf-geai.gc.ca/paper-compendium-e.html#30_year

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Department of Justice (2011). Strengthening the Access to Information Act A Discussion of Ideas Intrinsic to the Reform of the Access to Information Act. http://www.justice.gc.ca/eng/dept-min/pub/atia-lai/index.html

Department of Justice (2012). Access to Information Act (R.S.C., 1985, c. A-1) http://laws-lois.justice.gc.ca/eng/acts/A-1/page-19.html#docCont

CBC NEWS (2012). MPs in dark about government spending, report says Federal budget arrives too late each year. http://www.cbc.ca/news/politics/story/2012/07/15/parliament-mp-costs.html

Government of Canada, (2002). Access to Information: Making it Work for Canadians Report of the Access to Information Review Task Force. http://www.atirtf-geai.gc.ca/report/report1-e.html

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