Free Essay

Squatter Settlements

In: People

Submitted By cansecotaylor
Words 2569
Pages 11
Taylor Canseco
PLN 371
Rajinder S. Jutla
Term Paper
Squatter Settlements: The Worlds Largest Unknown Population In talking to many of my peers around the Missouri State campus, I wanted to know what people thought were some of the worlds largest populations. While gathering several answers, the questions asked were never necessarily specific. Answers ranged from religious populations, ethnic populations, and country populations. The reason for the questionnaire was so that people could be informed about one of the worlds largest populations; the residents of squatter settlements all around the world. With the world population nearly reaching 7 billion, almost 1/6th of these people have found a way to live in illegally built cities. While some of these cities have found ways to create peace and fluency, such as the Favelas of Brazil, many have planning issues that planners hope to one day solve. Although they are not the typical modern day cities, squatter settlements have formed some of the most fluent new urban ways of life around the world. Louis Wirth, author of one of planning’s earliest journal articles “Urbanism as a Way of Life” (actually a sociology journal), stated that there were three basic principles when it came to defining urbanism. Population size, density, and the heterogeneity of an area is how new urbanism is built. In this paper we will use these three principles, rational thinking, and the basic planning process to view how over 1 billion squatters around the world have built such astonishing cities, and how people work to study these places; From areas such as Turkey, who use ancient laws to build cities, to areas surrounding Delhi that deal with adaptation to squatter life. We will also be reviewing quotes from the book The Illegal City: Space, Law and Gender in a Delhi Squatter Settlement to get a better understanding of how resident of these areas deal with their everyday struggles of being part of the some of the largest urban areas in the world. Lets start by getting a better understanding of Wirth’s three principles of new urbanism. For starters, urban areas can only be considered urban areas if the population size seems to be large enough to call the area urban. With population size, comes an issue that must be addressed so that the population does not get out of control. People will adapt to people around them that are most like them, causing the problem of segregation among citizens in an area. What this does is weakens the sense of community which is what we see in many cities today. Planners work to address these issues by organizing cities that are dense to make a more communal area, leading us to the second principle of density. Density is described as a number of people in a given unit of area. Today we see cities go two directions to address density; they build up, or they build out. One of the best and worst qualities of a city is to create competition between residents. An easy way to view density of a city is survival of the fittest. The third and final principle is heterogeneity among individuals. The root word ‘hetero’ or different is the key component of what makes a city. People migrate to cities from all different origins, creating the most diverse and exotic places in the world. This reverts us back to the issue of people grouping with people like themselves. The major issue derived from these main points is what Wirth described as “the leveling effect”, or seeing no advancement in social and business interactions. Planners need to work together to overcome these obstacles, as well as grow from them. Although some squatter settlements have found means of success, some have become growing problems in the world we live in. Ayona Datta, author of The Illegal City, has highlighted how a settlement in Delhi deals with the law, problems, and future visions of these cities. While Sebnem Eroglu, author of Beyond the Resources of Poverty: Gecekondu Living in the Turkish Capital has also outlined daily life in a squatter home surrounding the capital city of Ankara. The object of this paper is to view planning, or the process in which we make well-informed rational decisions, in a way that can improve the way of life for over a billion people around the world. Although squatter settlements may not be the general way a person perceives a city, they are ultimately some of the most complex, dynamic, and diverse cities the world has to offer. As part of the planning process planner’s review issues, gather their information, implement a plan, and review their results. This is how our first author evaluated the squatter area of Ankara, Turkey. To start our first area of discussion we will deal with one of the largest forms of squatter settlements on the Eastern Hemisphere. In an areas of Turkey there is an old term known as ‘Gecekondu’ meaning built overnight (Eroglu, 2011, pp 1). Turkish residents overnight build these areas without any kind of taxation from government or any kind of repercussions when the sun rises. What is built in the night stays forever.
Unlike some settlements, areas of Ankara have not found a way to increase economic growth in the area of poverty. As well as a decline in economic growth, the area also struggles to meet the basic food and non-food needs. The purpose of the book is to understand socio-economic behavior in the poor households of Ankara (Eroglu, 2011, pp 2-5).
As a planner I would like to view these problems as issues beyond my control. To think something of this magnitude can be fixed with on master plan is irresponsible. Taking a rational approach to solving these problems is why planners learn to solve problems piece by piece using the planning process. Looking deeper into how households in the Ankara area responded to poverty, it can be broken down into different classifications. This process can be broken down to four areas including income generation, income allocation, consumption and investment (Eroglu, 2011, pp 18-20). After evaluating and discussing these four areas in further detail, Eroglu concluded that it is a unifying key for areas to respond in a progressive manner (pp. 20). This part of the planning process included collecting new information in the areas of poverty.
The second part of the process included new techniques that households implemented in order to establish a new framework. In order to put new techniques to work, you must go back and review what was not working in the first place. After reviewing previous plans and constructing tests that would better help the area, an idea of a plan to be implemented can be constructed in the area. Such things evaluated included internal resources such as time, bodily resources, and labor resources; it also included external resources such as social capital, public resources, and institutional entitlement (government) (Eroglu, 2011, pp. 28-35). Finally, an overview of the research can be reviewed to determine what will bring success. Eroglu concluded his implement stage by listing out several independent variables and their hypothesized effects on deprivation (Table 3.1, pp. 54).
The third and final area of focus that I wanted to discuss pertains to one of the final parts of the planning process. After reviewing all of the collected findings, Eroglu determined that experiences of deprivation were more associated with ‘primary’ poverty, rather than forms of ‘secondary’ poverty. What this meant was that poverty was less likely to be caused by decisions and practices concerning income allocation, as when men control the money and spend it on themselves rather than on family (Eroglu, 2011, pp 224). The main conclusion that was found in the book was that the capacity of resources controlled the outcome of an area. Planners need to establish communication between government and pedestrians in order to create a thriving area, regardless of if a piece of land has a title to it or not. I thoroughly enjoyed how the author of this book took the time to examine individual households rather than view settlements as a whole. Recommendation for reading more into this book is high on my part and I believe important for planners to read and understand.
The second book, The Illegal City, takes a more direct look at the abstract problems of the Delhi squatter settlement and does not try to find a solution. Rather than discussing the planning process, we will review the main points of the book and then turn our attention to the three urban principles discussed earlier.
As a short introduction to The Illegal City, a side note for the reader is that most of the laws and depictions of violence in the book are a reflection of what squatter settlements are like. The biggest bridge for planners in dealing with squatter settlements is the feud between squatters and government. Who has the upper hand is a question that puts planners in a moral showdown between what/who is right or wrong. Although the government may have certain rights over land, individuals regardless of social and economic status have rights that are to be met. Getting both parties to cooperate with one another is a matter of utmost importance and is key in finding ways to better these large amounts of people.
Squatter settlements lose most of their arguments due to the meaning of the word squatter. Squatting is occupying a piece of land or area that is unoccupied or abandoned. Although squatters may think they have rights to be there, governments usually own the land occupied by squatters and see them as illegal uses of land. In The Illegal City, Datta discusses the subject of law and space. “Indian Constitution is constructed with a relationship between law, space and subjectivity by spatializing and differentiating legal subject hoods across public and private life,” (Datta, 2012, pp 20-21). Essentially Indian law gives the government the power to create laws and rules against groups of enumerated social populations (squatters). Cases about discrimination and citizenship in India that surround ‘justice’ are continually contested in court and have often times proven to be ruled in favor of marginalized groups. Space and subjectivity of groups have been previously decided by Indian law, but have been a large part in the growth of marginalized groups in the country.
Leading into the next chapter, the arguments between the two groups often led to urban development violence. “Authors of the Indian constitution were dead set on getting rid of social inequalities through law but left the responsibility of formulating policies around economic inequalities on the sate,” (Datta, 2012, pp 31-32). What that meant was that any kind of poor structures were to be dealt with by national and urban developers. After the establishment of the National Planning Commission in 1947, several five year plans were implemented in a long attempt to rid the country of refugee/squatter unplanned settlements. In 1956, India passed the Slum Areas act, giving the word ‘slum’ an actual meaning (Datta, 2012, pp 34). Therefor, ‘slum’ in India could range from historic neighborhoods, urban villages, and to squatter settlements such as Jhuggi Jhorpi.
Today there is a difference between legal and illegal slums in India. A major issue separating slums from legal spaces is the use of resources such as water, sewage, and land. A resettlement colony was given the legality by the government after the camp had been situated. One of the major problems was that those who were not in the resettlement colony were living on the same land that the resettled were using to defecate on. Thus, rise of tension was apparent when questions of what constituted ‘public’ land (Datta, 2012, pp 56-57). Residents of the squatter camp claimed that the area was their urban infrastructure, while the government considered them to be nothing but a problem that needed to be removed.
Now to discuss the three principles that were mentioned earlier, starting with population size. In this situation the size of the population is a major contributing factor as to why squatter settlements are becoming a large problem. With a population of over 15 million people, Delhi is one of the largest cities in the Eastern hemisphere and has several problems involving squatter settlements. A major concern in squatting settlements is health implications, and in any area that has a population the size of Delhi, something must be done in order to maintain peace and cleanliness throughout the city.
Right into the second principle, density is a major problem in an area such as Delhi. Although the city is quite large, density plays a key factor in everyday life of the city. Concerns such as lack of shelter are a driving reason for the development of squatter settlements. Aside from that, major health concerns become an apparent and urgent issue that the city must deal with. A number of other concerns and issues arise with the density presented in this area, which leads planners to a difficult path of where to start first and how to address each issue.
The third and final principle stated was the heterogeneity present in Delhi. In the squatter areas of Delhi, there are several branches of religion as well as several cultural backgrounds that make up the demographic of the city. Although this can be a good thing while trying to build a city that is urban and advancing, it can also cause problems and social segregation among its millions of citizens. These three components are something a planner should always keep in mind when traveling to new places. The better a planner understands the area of study, the more prepared he/she will be in trying to help contribute to the city.
Throughout this paper, I want to leave the reader with a few key principles to take away from this short essay. The first being that Wirth’s three urban principles are a key factor in education of a certain area. Study the area, understand the surroundings, attempt to gain a grasp of why the city is the way it is that way you may apply your knowledge to the area.
The second thing I wanted to show the reader is that the planning process is there to guide you along the way of fixing things that need mending. Take things step by step and make sure you have done previous research on a subject to ensure the same mistake is not made twice, or even made at all. Although the planning process may not have a concrete definition, it is important for all planners to step back and take things step by step to ensure all parties/concepts are addressed in a certain plan.
My final principle to take away from this is that rational decision-making is key in not making mistakes. If a planner ever feels like he/she is getting ahead of himself, they probably are. It is important to slow down and ensure that the decision you are making is the right one and one that you feel confident about bring to the table.

Works Cited
Eroglu, S. (2011). Beyond the resources of poverty Gecekondu living in the Turkish capital. Farnham, England: Ashgate.

Datta, A. (2012). The illegal city space, law and gender in a Delhi squatter settlement. Farnham: Ashgate Publishing.

Similar Documents

Free Essay

Mba560 Business Regulation Simulation

...Business Regulation Simulation University of Phoenix Alumina Inc. is a $4 billion aluminum maker based in the United States (U.S.) and operates in eight other countries around the world. The company has business interests in automotive components and the manufacture of packaging materials, bauxite mining, alumina refining, and aluminum smelting (University of Phoenix, 2008). The U.S. market constitutes 70% of the company’s sales. A crisis has arisen from allegations of environmental damages which have led to a person’s illness (University of Phoenix, 2008). This paper will identify key facts, regulations, and legal issues; identify several of Alumina’s values and stakeholders; identify conflicts which constitute ethical dilemmas; summarize legal counsel’s advice on the issues; and evaluate alternative solutions in the context of Alumina’s legal position. Key Facts, Regulations and Legal Issues Five years ago, a routine EPA compliance inspection revealed higher than acceptable levels of a carcinogenic substance, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), to which Alumina promptly responded with a cleanup. The subsequent environmental audit reported the violation as corrected and the company has maintained a good compliance record since then (University of Phoenix, 2008). Alumina has made every effort to be compliant with environmental regulations. Administering environmental laws at the federal level is the Environmental Protection Agency. Since many of the laws......

Words: 2013 - Pages: 9

Premium Essay

Futures their stated terms and conditions. Because forward contracts are private agreements, there is always a chance that a party may default on its side of the agreement. Futures contracts have clearing houses that guarantee the transactions, which drastically lowers the probability of default to almost never. Secondly, the specific details concerning settlement and delivery are quite distinct. For forward contracts, settlement of the contract occurs at the end of the contract. Futures contracts are marked-to-market daily, which means that daily changes are settled day by day until the end of the contract. Furthermore, settlement for futures contracts can occur over a range of dates. Forward contracts, on the other hand, only possess one settlement date. Lastly, because futures contracts are quite frequently employed by speculators, who bet on the direction in which an asset's price will move, they are usually closed out prior to maturity and delivery usually never happens. On the other hand, forward contracts are mostly used by hedgers that want to eliminate the volatility of an asset's price, and delivery of the asset or cash settlement will usually take place. For further reading, see Futures Fundamentals....

Words: 274 - Pages: 2

Free Essay


...MUST BE POSTMARKED NO LATER THAN NOVEMBER 21, 2011 Palmer Solicitation Call Settlement c/o GCG, Inc. P.O. Box 9713 Dublin, OH 43017-5613 Toll-Free: 1 (800) 465-4481 Control No: 2167189704 SPI *2167189704* Claim No: SPI7311123 *SPI7311123* LYNDA SNEAD 14924 LAPPIN DETROIT, MI 48205 REQUIRED ADDRESS INFORMATION OR CORRECTIONS If the pre-printed address to the left is incorrect or out of date, OR if there is no pre-printed data to the left, YOU MUST provide your current name and address here: Name: Address: City/State/Zip: INSTRUCTIONS AND INFORMATION THIS CLAIM FORM MUST BE COMPLETED AND POSTMARKED TO THE CLAIMS ADMINISTRATOR AT THE ABOVE ADDRESS NO LATER THAN NOVEMBER 21, 2011 To be eligible to share in the settlement benefits, you must be or have been an individual, non-government and non-business Sprint customer at any time from July 23, 2005 through June 13, 2011 who, while a Sprint customer: a) lived in Washington State and received from Sprint one or more pre-recorded commercial telephone solicitations; and/or b) lived in Washington State and received from Sprint one or more commercial telephone solicitations less than one year after advising Sprint or its agents that you did not wish to be called again by Sprint; and/or c) lived in the United States and received from Sprint one or more commercial telephone solicitations more than 30 days after advising Sprint that you did not wish to be called again by Sprint. For purposes of this Claim......

Words: 884 - Pages: 4

Free Essay


...e environment and atmosphere of the first colonies to settle in the new world was widely dissimilar, and some found success while others suffered harsh conditions. Virginia as labeled by Captain John Smith would fall into the last category. The colony of Jamestown came to the New World seeking land, assets and commerce, and settled in a coastal area, which did not provide the freshest water and proved to be abundant with disease. Jamestown was the first English settlement in America (1607). It had a stiff time at first and did not thrive until the colonists received their own land and the tobacco industry began flourishing due to Mr. Rolfe, the settlement took root. People continued to arrive and new settlements arose. As we can see with the article entitled “The Starving Times,” Jamestown suffered significantly when John Smith, their greatest capable leader, returned to England. Smith even records that he heard of a wife being murdered and cannibalized because of lack of food. This colony did eventually find some strength when it began to harvest tobacco, rice and indigo. Lord Baltimore received land from King Charles I to create a sanctuary for Catholics. His son, the second Lord Baltimore, personally possessed all the land and could use or sell it as he wished. In 1649, the Toleration Act was approved allowing all Christians to worship as they pleased. Maryland seemed to find more success in the New World thanks to its harvesting of tobacco, furs and flesh. Adjudicating by...

Words: 286 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

1.Describe the Legal and Ethical Issues Surrounding Andersen’s Auditing of Companies Accused of Accounting Improprieties.

...partner discrete sampling's premise, Andersen had still approved the sunlight company to have the questionable point financial reporting. Finally, Sunlight Company suspends pay. Claim request which proposed regarding the American negotiable securities and the transaction committee, Andersen strong against. Finally, to accuse in the situation which shows neither approval nor disapproval, Andersen and the shareholder out of court settlement, compensates $110million dollars. Second point, “waste management.” Waste Management the company to make a false report gathers shares the desk, Waste Management Company’s financial reporting 1992 to 1996 income false report to amount to $1.4 billion dollars to the company. The American negotiable securities and the transaction committee discovered that Andersen's report has the misleading function. Rules it to be a suspect the improper occupation operation finally. Andersen has accepted this ruling, and has paid damages $7 million dollars civil fine. The Andersen also agreement is $220 million dollar out of court settlement payment partial funds, but had not acknowledged that oneself have any error. Third point is “Baptist Foundation of Arizona”. BFA invested heavily in real estate, a more speculative investment strategy than other Baptist foundations in the state traditionally used. Profits from investments were supposed to be used to fund the...

Words: 438 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Clash of Cultures

...Clash of Cultures Complete the grid by describing the characteristics of three groups of peoples: Native Americans, colonists, and West Africans. | |Native Americans |Northern colonists |Mid-Atlantic colonists |Southern colonists |West Africans | |Political structure|Tribal leaders |May flower Compact, William |Overseen by proprietor, Lord |Virginia Company of London ( Royal|Climate and Geography ( big | | |Land was customarily common, |Bradford |Baltimore, autocratic ( House of |colony ruled by governor chosen by|influences | | |enslavement happened but not in | |Burgesses |the king |Trade routes | | |severity | | | |Kingdoms | | |Iroquois Confederacy: strategy to | | | | | | |protect from attack. | | | ......

Words: 289 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Trading and Settlement

...Understanding the Rolling Settlement Chapter 6 Understanding the Rolling Settlement Learning Objectives: After reading this chapter, you should be able: 1. To identify the various segments into which the market is divided. 2. To recognize the activities performed at various stages of trading, clearing, settlement and post settlement in various markets. 3. To apply the knowledge of the working of the market in real life situation. 4. To examine the present system in the light of historical perspective. Your guide engine to learning: 6.1 6.2 Introduction Trading Activities (T day) 6.2.1 6.2.2 6.2.3 6.3 Clearing Activities (T+1 day) 6.3.1 6.3.2 6.4 Pay-in and Pay-out of Funds Pay-in and Pay-out of Securities Direct Pay-out to Investors Post Settlement Activities (T+3 to T+9 day) 6.5.1 6.5.2 6.1 Unilateral Netting Multi lateral Netting Settlement Activities (T+2 day) 6.4.1 6.4.2 6.4.3 6.5 Opening of Trading Account Placing the Order to Buy/Sell Collecting Charges Auction Close-out Procedures Introduction As we have already read in the previous chapter, that under rolling settlement, all trades executed on a trading day are settled X days later. This is called ‘T+X’ rolling settlement, where ‘T’ is the trade date and ‘X’ is the number of business days after trade date on which settlement takes place. The rolling settlement prevailing in India is T+2, implying that the outstanding positions at the end of the day ‘T’ are compulsorily settled 2 days after the......

Words: 6843 - Pages: 28

Free Essay

Jamestown vs. Plymouth

...later be called the, “House of Burgesses.” This served as a good model for many law making bodies in the U.S. Plymouth had a similar government. Their government consisted of general court. They also had a Governor. The government made laws and also levied taxes. Another similarity between the two is neither of the colonies was funded by the royal family. Colonists at Jamestown and Plymouth suffered greatly in the beginning - the colonists at Jamestown weren't used to the hard labor they had to do and suffered from illness, while the colonists at Plymouth arrived later during the year and suffered from an extremely harsh winter. Plymouth and Jamestown also had many distinct differences. For example, they both had different reasons for settlement. The Plymouth colony was in search for religious freedom from England. Jamestown wanted to spread Christianity to the natives and expand English trade. Another difference in these two was their economic cultures. Jamestown experimented with many different things but their main crop was tobacco. Plymouth didn’t have much luck with farming. They took part of another era, trading. They traded fur to the natives and locals. They also found an industry in fishing due to their thin rocky soil. In Jamestown, it was Europeans and in Plymouth it was Pilgrims. In Jamestown the conflicts were on the economic issue while in Plymouth, it were on economy and religion as well. In Jamestown, the Europeans were dependent on Indians because they......

Words: 362 - Pages: 2

Free Essay


...on the out-of-court settlement of McDonald's Corporation with Stella Liebeck over burn from hot coffee. Information on the lawsuit and the settlement.. Reports on the out-of-court settlement of McDonald's Corporation with Stella Liebeck over burn from hot coffee. Information on the lawsuit and the settlement.. Reports on the out-of-court settlement of McDonald's Corporation with Stella Liebeck over burn from hot coffee. Information on the lawsuit and the settlement.. Reports on the out-of-court settlement of McDonald's Corporation with Stella Liebeck over burn from hot coffee. Information on the lawsuit and the settlement.. Reports on the out-of-court settlement of McDonald's Corporation with Stella Liebeck over burn from hot coffee. Information on the lawsuit and the settlement.. Reports on the out-of-court settlement of McDonald's Corporation with Stella Liebeck over burn from hot coffee. Information on the lawsuit and the settlement.. Reports on the out-of-court settlement of McDonald's Corporation with Stella Liebeck over burn from hot coffee. Information on the lawsuit and the settlement.. Reports on the out-of-court settlement of McDonald's Corporation with Stella Liebeck over burn from hot coffee. Information on the lawsuit and the settlement.. Reports on the out-of-court settlement of McDonald's Corporation with Stella Liebeck over burn from hot coffee. Information on the lawsuit and the settlement.. Reports on the out-of-court settlement of McDonald's......

Words: 1743 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

American Identy

...they came from Europe and now they will put that advantage to use in the building of new settlements in a new land. Another benefit is the fact that the Americans in the colonies are fortunate about not having a continuous reminder about the King, royalty, and British government because there are no Esquires and British court visible as they were in Europe. As Americans, they chose to follow the laws and guidelines placed upon them by their own elected legislature that contributed to forging a new society. Another main difference between Americans and Europeans is that in Europe, there is a big gap from the upper class and the working-class and it was abundantly clear by the rich who were who in their society. Americans on the other hand did not have that gap because if you were rich or poor you needed to work side by side and contribute equally to ensure that the new settlement were going to be successful thus, the treatment of everybody was fair. Some of the contributions by the British Northern American colonies were clear. An example was when a man arrived for the first time a since of pride overcame him with the sight of home like industries, merchants, and a similar but newer and better version of their homeland. Some contributions were their arts, sciences, and ingenuity that showed in their products like roads, houses, bridges that they built to connect other villages or settlements. Some of the most important contributions were their curiosity of the unknown and......

Words: 410 - Pages: 2

Free Essay


...The City in History: Reading Guide Chapter 1 Sanctuary, Village, and Stronghold 1. What does Mumford mean when he states, “human life swings between two poles: movement and settlement”? (5) 2. What role did cemeteries and shrines play here? How were they key elements in the establishment of settlements (cities)? 3. What was the third original aspect of temporary settlements? What role did it play in the formation of settlements (cities)? 4. What was lacking in paleolithic culture with regard to establishing permanent settlements? Why was this important? 5. What role did the domestication of animals play here? 6. What role did women play in early village life? 7. What tools/technologies were essential to early village life? 8. Describe the social organization, physical form, layout and features of the early village. 9. Why were containers so essential to the neolithic villager? 10. Describe the essential elements of the early village between 9000 and 4000 B.C.E. What are the essential characteristics identified by Mumford? Why were these so important? 11. What does Mumford mean when he sates, “conformity, repetition, patience were the keys to this [neolithic] culture once it had solidified”? (18) 12. Mumford states that, “the ancient Greeks thought that their own respect for custom and common law…was a unique product of their culture.” (20) Where does Mumford say the roots of such......

Words: 437 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

‘Risks from the Venezuela Mass Movement Event Owed More to Physical Factors Than Human Factors’

...The Venezuela mass movement event was a series of mudslides and landslides resulting from a series of floods in December 1999.There was many causes to this, some being human and some being more physical causes like heavy rainfall. This effected most settlements in the state of Vargas the largest of which being Caracas. It was the combination of these two things, a natural event being the mud and landslides and the vulnerable population in Vargas, many of which were living in shanty towns making them particularly vulnerable which made the event into a hazard and disaster. This can clearly be shown by Dregg’s model. As is clear from the first diagram that when the natural event does not affect people in anyway (shown as the two circles do not touch) then it is only called an event and no loss of any kind is observed. However when the people are affected by the event and in the case of Venezuela this effect was very large with many of the people defenceless in shanty town accommodation as well as living in a crowded and dense and living near in the shadow of the mountain. All of this meant a large interaction between the event and the vulnerable non resilient population creating the disaster. There were a number of physical causes to the event of both climatological and geomorphical nature. The largest cause of all and the trigger for the slides is the heavy rainfall in the weeks and days especially before the event. As can be seen by the graph, December had been an......

Words: 2008 - Pages: 9

Free Essay

Lit One

...During the early 1600s Western Europe wasn’t the only area to explore and grow; Native American lacked the knowledge of a written language but was still able to adjust to their cultural fully. However this period was known as the Renaissance. At the age of 16 a man by the name of John Smith ran off to sea. A scoundrel he was became a pirate, poet, trader, and a solider. Mr. Smith then ventured off to the Virginia Colony where he later joined what is known as the Virginia Company only to make the fortune, not to please God. Smith relationship with the Indians was very uncertain. Although Smith was nice to the Indians he never let them forget about what the English Steel meant. The story of the love-struck maiden Pocahontas was not vouched for by any of his troops. Many of his writing included Native American which he called barbarians. He also complained about these ritual-driven meeting and how it took a long period of time to get things straight or taking care of. On the other hand a man name William Bradford a Godly sincere person who believes in religion, prays a lot and gives God all the thanks for blessing him with fertile land keeping him safe. Bradford was an architect of the Mayflower Covenant. The mayflower covenant is simply an agreement between settlers who has rested on “the Glory of God and advancement of the Christian Faith in which the Country and king is honor. He also creates boundaries of how the native and people of Plymouth should treat each other.......

Words: 351 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Policy Formulation: Settlement House Movement

...Policy Formulation The settlement house movement is synonymous with the plight of America’s urban poor. These urban poor Americans lived in such appalling conditions is hard to imagine that plant life could survive let alone human beings. This movement took place in the late 19th century and continued in the beginning of the 20th century. Crusaders of this era were burdened the task of getting the rich and poor to live harmoniously and collectively in an interdependent community. It was this call to duty in which the establishment of “settlement houses” were born and produced. These houses were manufactured in poor urban parts of the country where they had settlement house volunteers who would live; share their culture, knowledge, and education as well as helping to improve the poverty line of their low income neighbors. These volunteers and residents; officiated effective methods of helping and in turn created a path for government agencies to take over the majority of the responsibility. These settlement house workers with their innovative mentality to find solutions to their everyday poverty and injustice also lead the way to creating the profession of social work that we all know today. The settlement house pioneers had unique ways to their approach to policy formulation. Two of the most unique themes that characterized the social workers’ approach of the movement were reform and research. Reform during this era meant that “accepting the forces of......

Words: 523 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Malaysian Legal System

...Outline the provision of Charter of Justice 1807 Royal Charter of Justice refers to the permission granted by British crown for a statutoryreception which gives power to the East India Co. to operate a competent English legal system andestablish reception of English common law. There are 3 charters of justice granted in history and thefirst is in 1807 in Penang and this charter established that all civil and criminal matters to be exercised byPenang. The second charter is in 1826 and the third charter was granted in 1855. The law that shallapply is English law as administered in England on March 1807 and the application of law subject to localcircumstances. The charter also created the Court of Judicature of Prince of Wales. A Recorder wasappointed to act as judge to the court established. This statutory reception introduced and affirmed thestatus of English law and undoubtedly the tool of the colonial advancing through the Penang. In the case of Fatimah v Logan 1871, the court describe Penang as a desert and uninhabitedisland and without any fixed legal institution and since the Sultan of Kedah never exercise his power onPenang, therefore the territory is considered as terra nullius and without a Lex Loci. It was ruled that thelaw of Penang is common law.Outline the provision of Charter of Justice 1826 Royal Charter of Justice refers to the permission granted by British crown for a statutoryreception which gives power to the East India Co. to operate a competent English......

Words: 885 - Pages: 4