Free Essay

# Stack Measurement

In: Science

Submitted By Alder
Words 622
Pages 3
Timber Stack Measurement
It is important to estimate timber volumes accurately either in the forest or when leaving. A number of methods can be used:
 Crop inventory carried out by a qualified professional in the forest prior to felling
 It can be calculated by modern thinning machines as harvesting takes place
 The timber can be measured in the stacks at roadside (see method described below)
 Weighing of the timber as it passes though the mill gate

Timber Stack Measurement
It is useful to estimate timber that is stacked at roadside:
 It can be done quickly by the forest owner
 It is useful to know how much timber is leaving the forest
 It is useful to calculate the volume of different individual stacks, which is important if different timber products are being sold separately from the one harvesting operation
All logs in a stack must be of uniform length and the stack should be built neatly and tidy for easy measurement and accuracy. Large stacking space is required to ensure that all harvested material can be stacked at roadside before any removal is carried out by timber trucks.
Length * Width * Height = Volume (unit = m3)

Some definitions
 Stack width
The width is the specified length of the timber product in the stack. A number of sample lengths
(billets) should be checked to verify the stack width.
 Stack length
Stack length is the average length of the front and back face of the stack. The stack should be measured from the centre point of the outermost billets at one end of the stack to the centre of the outermost billets at the other end.
 Stack height
Stack height is the perpendicular height from the bottom of the stack to the centre of the highest billet at the top of the stack. Average stack height is the average value of a series of height measurements taken along the length of the stack. A minimum of 3-4 measurements should be taken at regular intervals along both faces of the stack or at every two metres.

Measuring Timber Stacks

Equipment required
Measurement tape (30m), measuring stick, fixed area grid (quadrant), record sheets, stationary, scientific calculator. 1. Get Gross Volume of the Stack stack width * stack length * average stack height = gross stack volume (m3)
However, keep in mind that this volume estimate also includes open spaces between the logs. We therefore need to use a conversion factor to convert gross volume (timber volume plus open spaces) to net volume (volume of timber only).
2. Calculate the Conversion Factor
There are two options:
1. Can be calculated using an area grid (quadrant).
2. Use the industry standard conversion factor.
Option 1 – using a quadrant:
A known area grid (usually 0.7m * 0.7m =
0.49m2) is placed on a face of a stack
(represented in blue here). Using a DBH tape, measure and record the diameter of all billets that are in the grid. For those only half in, count only every 2nd one.
At least five samples should be taken across the face of the stack at regular intervals. Divide the total surface area of this known sample grid by the surface area of the billets in the sample. To do so, we use the following formula:
(Sum of ((Diameter)2 * 0.00007854 * no of billets in each diameter class) ) / no. of samples taken / surface area of the quadrant = Conversion Factor.
Option 2 – use the standard conversion factor:
0.7 is the most commonly used conversion factor in the forest industry.
3. Apply Conversion Factor to Gross Volume => Net Stack Volume gross stack volume * conversion factor = Net Stack Volume (m3)

For contact details and further information: see www.teagasc.ie/forestry

### Similar Documents

#### Performance Measurement

...Introduction When a procedure, a model, an approach, a case study, or other research is undertaken, generally some measure of the system's performance is presented and perhaps analyzed. A large number of different types of performance measures have been used to characterize systems, particularly production, distribution, and inventory systems. Such a large number of available performance measures makes performance measure selection difficult. Generally, performance measurement research focuses on analyzing performance measurement systems that are already in use, categorizing performance measures and then studying the measures within a category, and building rules of thumb or frameworks by which performance measurement systems can be developed for various types of systems. Beamon (1996) presents a number of characteristics that are found in effective performance measurement systems, and can therefore be used in evaluation of these measurement systems. These characteristics include: inclusiveness (measurement of all pertinent aspects), universality (allow for comparison under various operating conditions), measurability (data required are measurable), and consistency (measures consistent with organization goals). Besides analyzing the measures based on their effectiveness, benchmarking is another important method that is used in performance measure evaluation. Benchmarking can be useful in that it can serve as a means of identifying improvement opportunities. Camp (1989)......

Words: 2747 - Pages: 11

#### Measurement

...Vershire also has some issues on the performance measurement report and evaluation system. Besides the inefficient way to measure manufacturing efficiency, performances of plant managers are measured based on the metric that they cannot directly control, i.e. sales. Therefore the related compensation packages and promotions mislead and lack sufficient incentives to motivate plant managers. As illustrated before, it is inappropriate to treat a plant as a profit center, rather than an expense center. Due to the manufacturing nature, plants have fully control on costs and should be motivated to lower the cost to make contributions to the revenue. Monthly performance evaluation report and supporting report for a plant showing both sales and costs in Exhibit 2 and 3 are submitted by each plant and reviewed by corporate management. Items that failed to meet the budgeted targets require explanations from plant managers, no matter it is cost-related or sales-related. Moreover, sales report on plant basis is confusing by itself since products are sold on district basis. The sales department had sole responsibility for the price and delivery schedules, which are not identical in each order because of contingencies such as traffic, weather, and sick staff. Plant managers have no way to explain the detailed decision making process of sales department to provide a sufficient explanation to sales failures without asking sales department. Furthermore, second-hand information tends to be......

Words: 629 - Pages: 3

#### Measurement of Poverty

...Measurement of poverty By Name: Course code+ Name: Professor: Institution: City and State: Date: Measurement of Poverty Over the past few decades, there have been dramatic socio-economic and environmental changes around the globe. This has affected phenomena such as growth of the population, rapid urban development, and increased levels of poverty (D’Ambrosio, Deutsch and Silber, 2011). It has also influenced the changes in climatic conditions, increased natural calamities which impact the socio-economic development in different parts of the world. As a result, more people have been exposed to the negative effects of the occurrence of different hazards (D’Ambrosio, Deutsch and Silber, 2011). This leaves the affected populations suffering in poverty, thus increasing their numbers. Increased levels of poverty led to the formation of policies by the United Nations to combat the rising cases of poverty with the aim of reducing the number of people living in poverty by halve before the year 2015. Formulation of the millennium development goals which features the quantitative objectives and indicators set to measure the progress towards the war on poverty eradication took course. To establish the level of poverty in the society, therefore, measurement should be performed severally using a number of available tools (Davidson and Duclos, 2000). This will aid in determination of the extent of its effects throughout the world. This paper aims at discovering the......

Words: 3454 - Pages: 14

#### Crime Measurement

...Crime Measurement Kaliyan Hernandez July 14, 2014 Crime Measurement Ever wonder, how does researchers come up with certain statistics for the U.S when it comes to crime? Or, how would one know where criminal activity would be in their community based on facts? Examining crime measurement primarily in the United States can be determined and based on multiple factors. These factors are soon to be discussed which will include instruments that are used to measure crime, major crime reporting programs and their purposes, crime rates, arrest rates, clearance rates, and recidivism rates. This paper also will address the criminal justice interactive video, how crime rates can be deceiving, arrest rates in relation to crime, if there is an ultimate resolution with these specific rates in relation to preventing criminal activity, and certain statistics that tell us about crime as a whole in the United States. All these factors and more will explain how crime is measured in our country. The United States Department of Justice has two statistical programs that measure the amount of crime in the Nation which are the Uniform Crime Reporting Program (Known as UCR) and the National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS). Each program show the outcome of different parts of the Nation’s crime problem by using different methods focusing on different parts (U.S. Department of Justice, 2009). The UCR collects ad compiles from police reports and other law enforcement agencies and is......

Words: 831 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

#### Levels of Measurement

...Normally, when one hears the term measurement, they may think in terms of measuring the length of something (e.g., the length of a piece of wood) or measuring a quantity of something (ie. a cup of flour).This represents a limited use of the term measurement. In statistics, the term measurement is used more broadly and is more appropriately termed scales of measurement. Scales of measurement refer to ways in which variables/numbers are defined and categorized. Each scale of measurement has certain properties which in turn determines the appropriateness for use of certain statistical analyses. The four scales of measurement are nominal, ordinal, interval, and ratio. Nominal: Categorical data and numbers that are simply used as identifiers or names represent a nominal scale of measurement. Numbers on the back of a baseball jersey and your social security number are examples of nominal data. If I conduct a study and I'm including gender as a variable, I may code Female as 1 and Male as 2 or visa versa when I enter my data into the computer. Thus, I am using the numbers 1 and 2 to represent categories of data. Ordinal: An ordinal scale of measurement represents an ordered series of relationships or rank order. Individuals competing in a contest may be fortunate to achieve first, second, or third place. first, second, and third place represent ordinal data. If Roscoe takes first and Wilbur takes second, we do not know if the competition was close; we only know that Roscoe......

Words: 574 - Pages: 3

#### The Stack

...The stack In life problems solved by confrontations is mandatory, no matter how hard you try to avoid them, sooner or later they will catch up, and stacking them instead of confronting them, will only make the problems bigger. Don’t wait for others to do your dishes take responsibility. That is among other things what Rose Tremain writes about in the short story ”The stack”, which was written and published in 2000. The story is told by an 3. Person omniscient narrator bound to John McCreedy. The main theme in the story is family problems that we can see, because the story is about a family that doesn’t function. The communication is bad, and the tone is hard between the members, they don’t like talking to each other and you get the feeling that the members in the family are alienated towards each other. The Story takes place in a small family in London it is in modern time, and about a modern family living in the suburban area. It can be seen through the language represented in the text: “Fuck off, Dad. Everyone remembers their fuckin’ age”. As shown in this quote. The main character is John McCreedy also known as McCreedy, he is father of 2 children and married to Hilda. Original McCreedy is from Ireland, which he misses enormously. He has a drinking problem and spends a little too much time in the pub: “But don’t go and spoil it by going out first and getting sloshed.” Through this quote it gets clear to us, that it is a regular thing for him to drink. We can......

Words: 988 - Pages: 4

#### Performance Measurement

...Performance Measurement Robert Campbell MGT/437 March 14, 2011 Sunil Mehta Performance Measurement According to NY Government (n.d.) website, “Strategic, performance measurement-based management systems allow an organization to align its business activities to its strategy, and to monitor performance toward strategic goals over time” (para. 1). Each measurement should be objective, easy to understand, controllable by minimizing outside influences, timely, accurate, cost-effective, useful, motivating, and trackable (NY Government, n.d.). The use of performance measurement is important because the stock market’s volatility has shown that financial measurement is not the only measurement. By using measurement techniques companies can compare themselves to established norms. In this discussion there will be a look at three different types of performance measurement systems, what they do and how they are used. These systems identified are the balanced scorecard, performance dashboards, and the economic value added. The balanced scorecard is a strategic planning and management measurement style widely used throughout the business world to bring its business activities in line with the vision and strategy of the organization (Balanced Scorecard Institute, 1998-2010). According to the Balanced Scorecard Institute (1998-2010) the implementation increases focus on strategy and results, increases organizational performance by measuring what is important, and aligns......

Words: 1326 - Pages: 6

Free Essay

#### Measurement Tools

...Objective: To acquaint the student with basic principles of using measurement instrumentation and to help the student become familiar with several measuring devices used in physics and apply them to measuring length and mass. Particular emphasis will be given to the use of the Vernier Caliper and the Micrometer scale. Formulas, rules: Density: ρ=M/V Volume: Cylinder: V=π r^2h Rectangular box: V=l×w×h r: radius = d/2 d: diameter l: length w: Width h: Height M: Mass Results (tables): Cylinder: Measurement 1 2 3 Average H (cm) 6.42 6.43 6.44 6.43 d (cm) 2.23 2.22 2.24 2.23 V (cm^3) 25.07 24.89 25.38 25.11 M (g) 66.80 66.99 66.91 66.90 ρ (g/cm^3) 2.66 2.69 2.64 2.66 Rectangular Box: Measurement 1 2 3 Average l (cm) 4.98 4.97 4.96 4.97 w (cm) 3.24 3.27 3.28 3.26 h (cm) 1.61 1.66 1.67 1.65 V (cm^3) 25.98 26.98 27.17 26.71 M (g) 66.67 66.61 66.52 66.62 ρ (g/cm^3) 2.57 2.47 2.45 2.50 Graphs: Cylinder: Rectangular box: Calculations: Cylinder: #1: V=π r^2h=π×〖(2.23/2)〗^2×6.42=25.07 〖cm〗^3 ρ=M/V=66.80/25.07=2.66 〖gm/cm〗^3 #2: V=π r^2h=π×〖(2.22/2)〗^2×6.43=24.89 〖cm〗^3 ρ=M/V=66.99/24.89=2.69 〖gm/cm〗^3 #3: V=π r^2h=π×〖(2.24/2)〗^2×6.44=25.38 〖cm〗^3 ρ=M/V=66.91/25.38=2.64 〖gm/cm〗^3 Rectangular box: #1: V=l×w×h=4.98×3.24×1.61=25.98 〖cm〗^3 ρ=M/V=66.67/25.98=2.57 〖gm/cm〗^3 #2: V=l×w×h=4.97×3.27×1.66=26.98 〖cm〗^3 ρ=M/V=66.61/26.98=2.47 〖gm/cm〗^3 ......

Words: 386 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

#### Lab 3 Stacks and Queues

... Q1: What is the initial value of variable Top? The initial value of Top is blank. It is initialized under the array. It is waiting for a number to be set to set a value. Q2: What is the difference between Pop and Peek operations? Pop operations takes of the value at the top of the array. Each time that it is pressed it removes the first value at the top of the array. Peek only returns the value of the item to the top of the stack. So, if the button push is pressed, then that value is inserted to the top of the array. Q3: What are the initial values of Front and Rear? The initial value of the variable Front is the slot in the array spot for 0. The index 0 is where front is placed. The Rear variable is waiting for a value to be inserted to take a spot. This variable will always be the value that was last inserted to the array. Q4: What is the difference between Rem and Peek operations? The operations remove deletes the value at the top of the array. In other words on the rear variable. The peek operation returns the value that the variable rear is pointing to. Q5: What technique in array it used to allow 50 inserted into the queue? Once the array was filled all the way to the top, the pointer came back to the bottom of the array where we had deleted two values. It came down to index 0 and stored the value 50. Q6: What is the difference between priority queue and the regular queue at insertion operations? There is a difference between priority and regular queue. Regular......

Words: 341 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

#### Experimental Measurement

...Article Astronomy December 2010 Vol.55 No.35: 4010–4017 doi: 10.1007/s11434-010-4197-x SPECIAL TOPICS: Experimental measurement of growth patterns on fossil corals: Secular variation in ancient Earth-Sun distances ZHANG WeiJia1,3,4*, LI ZhengBin2,3 & LEI Yang1 1 2 Department of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China; Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China; 3 State Key Laboratory of Advanced Optical Communication Systems & Networks, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China; 4 Committee of Yuanpei Honors Program, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China Received June 3, 2010; accepted July 22, 2010 In recent years, much attention has been given to the increase in the Earth-Sun distance, with the modern rate reported as 5–15 m/cy on the basis of astronomical measurements. However, traditional methods cannot measure the ancient leaving rates, so a myriad of research attempting to provide explanations were met with unmatched magnitudes. In this paper we consider that the growth patterns on fossils could reflect the ancient Earth-Sun relationships. Through mechanical analysis of both the Earth-Sun and Earth-Moon systems, these patterns confirmed an increase in the Earth-Sun distance. With a large number of well-preserved specimens and new technology available, both the modern and ancient leaving rates could be measured with high precision, and it was found that the Earth has been leaving the Sun...

Words: 9003 - Pages: 37

#### Physiological Measurements

...Danielle Fuller Unit 335 CA Physiological measurements OUTCOME 1: Describe current legislation, national guidelines, organisational policies and protocols affecting work practice. When taking physiological measurements you have to take into account of the standard precautions. Bullet pointed below are some of the legalisations that relate to taking physiological measurements. Confidentiality * It is important to think about confidentiality when taking a patients physiological measurements because by law patients notes and details have to be kept private. Health & Safety Act 1974 * It is important to have knowledge of the health & safety at work act 1974, because this outlines your responsibilities as an employee, some of these include, correct use of work items provided by your employer, for example physiological measurement tools. Consent * Consents is a patient’s voluntary agreement for a health care worker to provide care. It is extremely important to have a patients consent before taking physiological measurements because a competent adult has a right under common law to grant or withhold consent. OUTCOME 2: Explain the principles of blood pressure to include: • blood pressure maintenance • differentiation between systolic and diastolic blood pressure • normal limits of blood pressure • conditions of high or low blood pressure What is a blood pressure? Blood pressure is measured in millimetres of mercury (mmHg). The reading of a blood......

Words: 1512 - Pages: 7

#### Performance Measurement

...Introduction The topic of contrast and comparison contained within this paper consists of the evaluation of three individual performance measurements that exist in management. The individual performance measurements are broken down in order to better understand the inner workings of such measurements goals. Therefore the end result will be measured by how important performance management actually is. In the world of business there are many cliché’s about how performance measurements are implemented and what they actually do such as “if your company doesn’t measure results then you can’t tell success from failure.” http://www.balancedscorecard.org/Home/tabid/36/Default.aspx The key focus on strategic objectives should always articulate precisely what the organization wants to accomplish which is the key to finding accurate, true, strategic measurements. The strategic performance measures will allow the organization to monitor the implementation and effectiveness of the operational efficiency. The best performance measures will provide a way to monitor and see if that strategy is actually working. Focusing on the importance of the employee’s contribution to the success of the organization is another important measure that can be added along with providing a common language for the communication of everyone. Performance measurement is so vital in the structure of an organization because it is an ongoing and constant reporting and monitoring of accomplishments. ......

Words: 735 - Pages: 3

#### Oop Stack

...process is a stack which is following the process of Last In First Out (LIFO). Problem 2: Box inside Truck This problem is also a stack related case which is Last in First Out process. Stuff carry and place box 1 then box 2 then… inside the truck. But when they carry out, they will carry the 12th box which is the last box that was put in first. These 2 problem can be simplified into 1 single problems which are box and car are called object the same. Object Oriented Encapsulation (Abstraction) Abstraction is the process of simplifying a difficult problem. We will use abstraction to simplify above problems. Both cars and boxes are object. A B C Stack is like a one way box. First object that goes in, will come out the last. You put object in it, you will pull it back sequentially. To understand the working of Stacks consider for example the data elements:  Data Elements: A , B , C  In the above problem, data elements were entered in the following order A,B,C. In Stack Terminology the elements were pushed in the following order A, B, C.  StackPush Order = A, B, C  Also, we have StackTop = C  Now, if we consider removing the elements also known as popping the element from the stack  StackPop Order = C, B, A  Notice that the StackPop is exactly the reverse of the order in which the data elements were popped.  Thus the most important operations on the Stack Data Structure are: * Push()                  : Inserting an element onto the Stack *......

Words: 853 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

#### Measurement

...MEASUREMENT: Measurement is the heart of scientific discipline. It is the process of assigning numbers to objects or observations, the level of measurement being a function of the rules under which the numbers are assigned. According to Zikmund, “Measurement is the process of describing some property of a phenomenon of interest, usually by assigning numbers in a reliable and valid way”. In our daily life we are said to measure when we use some yardsticks to determine weight, height or some other features of a physical object. We also measure when we judge how well we like a song, intelligence, achievement, attitude, perception regarding quality. We, thus, measure physical object as well as abstract concepts. Measurement is a relatively complex & demanding task, especially so when it concerns qualitative or abstract phenomena. So, technically speaking, measurement is a process of mapping aspects of a domain onto other aspects of a range according to some rule of correspondence. It is a collection of quantitative data. TYPES OF MEASUREMENT: 1) Nominal measurement: All qualitative measurements are nominal, regardless of whether the categories differ from one another only in names. Nominal measurements represent the most elementary level of measurement in which values are assigned to an object for identification or classification purposes only. In nominal level of measurement, the categories differ from one another only in names. In other words, one category of a......

Words: 4319 - Pages: 18