Premium Essay

Standard War

In: Science

Submitted By gurusai20
Words 11753
Pages 48
The Art of Standards Wars

Carl Shapiro Hal R. Varian

S

tandards wars—battles for market dominance hetween incompatible technologies—are a fixture of the information age. Based on our study of historical standards wars, we have identified several generic strategies, along with a number of winning tactics, to help companies fighting today's—and tomorrow's—battles.

There is no doubt about the significance of standards battles in today's economy. Public attention is currently focused on the Browser War between Microsoft and Netscape (oops, America On-Line). Even as Judge Jackson evaluates the legality of Microsoft's tactics in the Browser War, the Audio and Video Streaming Battle is heating up between Microsoft and RealNetworks over software to deliver audio and video over the Internet. The 56k Modem War of 1997 pitted 3Com against Rockwell and Lucent. Microsoft's Word and Excel have vanquished WordPerfect and Lotus 1-2-3 respectively. Most everyone remembers the Video-Cassette Recorder Duel of the 1980s, in which Matsushita's VHS format triumphed over Sony's Betamax format. However, few recall how Philips's digital compact cassette and Sony's minidisk format both flopped in the early 1990s. This year, it's DVD versus Divx in the battle to replace both VCRs and CDs. Virtually every high-tech company has some role to play in these battles, perhaps as a primary combatant, more likely as a member of a coalition or
Prepared for the Cnlifornia Management Review.Jh'is material is adapted from our book, Information Rules:A Strategic Guide to the Network Economy (Harvard Business School Press, Boston, MA, 1998). See www.inforuies.com for further information about the book.To order a copy, call 888-500-1016. We are indebted to our colleagues Joseph Farrell and Michael L Katz who have greatly contributed over the past 15 years to our understanding of these issues....

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Standards War

...What is a Standard? According to International Organization for Standardization (ISO), standards are “documented agreements containing technical specifications or other precise criteria to be used consistently as rules, guidelines, or definitions of characteristics, to ensure that materials, products, processes and services are fit for their purpose.” Standards are developed by combined efforts from several interested volunteer members from the industry like producers, consumers and regulators of certain product or service. Generally Standards are governed for compliance by certain professional organizations. Advantages of Standards • Interoperability • Benchmark for Quality, Safety and Performance • Cost Effective • Reduce risks • Promote fair competition and avoid monopoly • Market Access - For instance, by meeting the requirements of a European Directive, you can sell in any country in the European Economic Area. • Promote innovation - The shared knowledge and network benefits they afford help reduce costs and associated risks, allowing a business to: increase speed to market, create interoperability, shape and develop a new market What is Standards War? 2 or more incompatible technologies struggle to become a de facto standard What the book talks about? Classification of Standards War: 1. Rival Evolutions Technologies from both parties involved in the war are backwards compatible but mutually incompatible. E.g. Blu-ray Vs......

Words: 1813 - Pages: 8

Premium Essay

Human Resources Management

...What is the International Strategy? The Strategy for Disaster Reduction The International Strategy for Disaster Reduction reflects a major shift from the traditional emphasis on disaster response to disaster reduction, and in effect seeks to promote a "culture of prevention". UNISDR is the secretariat of the International Strategy and mandated by the UN General Assembly to ensure its implementation. The International Strategy for Disaster Reduction builds upon the experience of the International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction (1990-1999), which was launched by the General Assembly in 1989. The International Strategy embodies the principles articulated in a number of major documents adopted during the Decade, including, in particular, the Yokohama Strategy for a Safer World: Guidelines for Natural Disaster Prevention, Preparedness and Mitigation and its Plan of Action, and the text below entitled "A Safer World in the 21st Century: Disaster and Risk Reduction". Both of these were endorsed at the Programme Forum on the International Decade held in Geneva from 5 to 9 July 1999, which also adopted the Geneva Mandate on Disaster Reduction. Learn more about the UN Resolutions and Reports on DRR A Safer World in the 21st Century: Disaster and Risk Reduction Introduction While hazards are inevitable, and the elimination of all risk is impossible, there are many technical measures, traditional practices, and public experience that can reduce the extent or severity......

Words: 2205 - Pages: 9

Free Essay

Re: Re: Module 4 Dq 2

...are nurses themselves and work in their various fields. So when something comes up that needs addressed, they meet as a committee and discuss the issue. Then they decide what would be the best action to take for solving the problem. By doing this they are able to come up with the standards we now have. They realize that there must be a code of ethics and code of conduct set forth and these are the rules that we as nurses must follow. No one is allowed to change any part of it. So far there is a wide variety of standards that have been put into place. It is good for to know these rules and they will guide us in daily nursing duties. By implementing the higher standard of care, we are all able to work more proficiently and professionally. In order to develop a new standard, there usually has to be a problem that has come to the attention of one or more of the committee members, or from someone else that has brought forth a concern or complaint. The members then meet in order to come up with a solution to help with the problem. Such an example would be when too many nurses were getting stuck with needles and contracting diseases from them. From that basis came the implementation of the safety standards we now have to help prevent needle sticks, including not recapping needles, and using the safety features provided with each...

Words: 254 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Ncea Example

... |23 12월 2011 | | |11 Music | |Endorsed with merit at level 1 |24 12월 2011 | |2012 | |Entries and Results | |Show explanation of the entry details | |Hide explanation of the entry details | |Each standard can have a range of results including "N" for not achieved, "A" for...

Words: 354 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Whatabout Gene Gene

...Tech Partners Consulting www.techpartners.net.au SOEs – Standard Operating Environments The SOE concept explained in business terms Authored by Alan Pickering, Tech Partners Consulting September, 2003 Introduction The use of Information and Communications Technology (ICT) in organisations has gone well past the stage of being unique, novel and even technically difficult. Nowadays, the technology is readily available, thanks to the volume demand from commercial and residential market segments. Even so, there are benefits from adopting a Standards based approach to choosing and deploying ICT assets; and offering technology based IT services to customers. This white paper will provide a brief introduction to the philosophy of Standard Operating Environments, and will explain the likely benefits, costs and planning factors that relate to adopting an SOE approach. Background When desktop computing and Local Area Networks appeared in organisations in the 1980’s, they were small scale and of little immediate consequence. Being somewhat complex, and requiring some hands on technical skills, they were acquired in small quantities. The low cash costs meant they were often purchased ‘under the radar’ of senior management and IT teams. The practical use and popularity of PCs and LANs grew, to the point that some organisations recognized the need to account for the cost of assets and people’s time spent on support. Since then, industry analysts have studied......

Words: 2707 - Pages: 11

Free Essay

Management

...re-align cabinet it must be dis-assembled in order to redo the wall fixings and provide correct alignment – two employees one full day labour & travel: $1,550.00 2) If extra brackets are required an additional $500.00 will be added Issue two in entry room is the cabinet with miss-aligned shelving – included in our quote are the following items: • One new cupboard unit as per site measurement re-using existing veneered panelling – includes new polish • Two employees for two hours labour – should this not suffice extra labour will be charged Our price including delivery, fitting & GST: $1,500.00 Laundry: Included in our quote are the following items: • Eight ‘G’ grip handles to be filed to industry standard using existing hardware • Repainting the overhead door with the stain evident Our price including delivery & GST: $350.00 Hallway shoe cupboards: Included in our quote are the following items: • Two replacement cupboards to correct issue with miss-aligned shelving as per dimensions on site measure • Respraying edge of doors • Re-using...

Words: 872 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Heat Transtrator

...PROC5000/Anthony Vatterott/SPARTAN HEAT EXCHANGERS, INC/Dalton 1 SPARTAN HEAT EXCHANGERS, INC. Rick Coyne is the Materials Manager at Spartan, Inc. Until recently, the company has benefitted from excellence in customization and specialized research & development of design with full-service custom unit fabrication. This has historically allowed Spartan to maintain a positive rapport with clients, as their approach allowed for meeting the client’s specific needs. However, the industry trend has changed and competition from international sources has pressured Spartan’s Executive Management to revise the fiveyear development plan to compete with Korean and European firms. The standard for the industry has shifted from customized solutions to a low-price, highly-standardized market. This is not in line with Spartan’s current initiatives and Max Brisco, vice president of manufacturing, has solicited Rick to provide a detailed plan on how to achieve savings and efficiency in a transition to a more competitive manufacturing structure. The most critical step in this reformation is to redesign workflow and job order processing from a job order/job ticket method to a more streamlined and standardized process. This will require re-engineering the workflow of the manufacturing workforce, and offers an opportunity for the research & design component to redirect their efforts away from customized products and toward a working internal manufacturing process. The use of job shop......

Words: 529 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Short Case

...explain the situation and also reassure them that it was contained and that we are working to make sure this problem never happens again. We will also ask for discretion as to why we are recalling the water and let them know that the water that has been sold will not harm anyone unless taken in in amounts that are too large for one person to take in. We are working to replace it immediately so that our customers do not receive any more contaminated water. In return for the recall, we will put extra safeguards into place to make sure that nothing like this will happen again. We will also issue a statement to the public, letting them know that our product has not lived up to the standard it was intended to me, so we will be replacing their already purchased water with new bottles that meet our standards. All they have to do is bring in the UPC code to one of our vendors and the will give them a voucher for a free 24 pack of water in return, to be used at any of our vendors locations and paid for by the...

Words: 265 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Organizatioanl Behaviour

...you like it.” (Moon & Quelch, 2006, p.3) This is extremely important in keeping the Starbucks tradition alive and my personal experience can serve as an example: Before the “Java chip frap” Starbucks had the “Chocolate brownie.” There were three Starbucks in a one mile radius from where I lived: one across the street, one in Barnes and Nobles, and one in the grocery store. Since I made a lot of visits to the grocery store it became the stop for getting my daily dose of Starbucks. I like the kind of frappuccino that has big chunks of anything inside that get suctioned up through the straw. Basically, I like to chew and sip. The standard procedure of concocting a chocolate brownie frappuccino venti is taking a standard amount of chocolate brownie and blending it with the rest of the ingredients for a standard amount of time. But who likes standards? So, I told the barista to add a little more chocolate brownie and keep ‘em a little chunky, in other words, easy on the...

Words: 412 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Doc, Docx, Pdfs

...annual conferences. First starting because of a growth in the personnel services profession being needed a lot more. Before NAPS the National Employment Association (NEA) was formed from a combination of two previously established organizations, in return creating the National Personnel Consultants (NAPC), then later the National Association of Personnel Services. Made to represent spots in the legislative arenas in Washington, D.C., to give advice and help states where government affair challenges exist, making regulations of ethical practices in the industry, an increase in public and business awareness of the importance of personnel services, and educating everyone possible on better practices and maintenance of hug professional standards. Because of NAPS the training and educating of practitioners took on national recognition. Now NAPS is in charge of annual conferences and seminars to help all individuals, owners, and managers across the U.S. (Certified personnel consultant) When it comes to becoming apart of NAPS, these individuals aspire to represent excellence through good business sense, legal principles, and conducting oneself to the...

Words: 526 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Implementation Plan

...actual testing procedure. This would include defining and setting the standards and the guidelines. Next, the team needs to decide on the proper hardware and software would be best suited for the project. With this in mind, the next logical step would be to work on the network required to support the testing environment. Some of the elements that make up the environment are the requirements for testing the design. This would include a test schedule, identifying the performance requirements, and developing a method to control test, so that there is a base or standard to compare it with. The test plan should also cover the required activities involved in the testing. The group needs to delegate the team’s roles and responsibilities. They will need to develop the testing schedule by preparing the test environment and identifying any risks. Next, is the actual set up. The test environment setup is a very important part of test phase. It represents the need focus on preventative measures to avoid pitfalls. The primary attention should be in the planning activities such as: * Track activities * Setup activities * Installing the hardware * Installing software The test team should consider the number of tests to be performed, the manner in which testing will be approached, and the test conditions that need to be applied. Most important of all, the test design standards and guidelines need to be defined and followed. This will ensure......

Words: 283 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Makale

...1. The specials and the standards need to separate for the following reasons: a. They are not the exactly same process. The process for special carpets adds more steps than the standards carpets. So it is not convenient to use the same line. b. The setup time is too long. It costs as much as hours to changeover from the standard products to the special products. It costs money and requires storage space, and some of it will probably go to waste. c. The hurry order. There is third order called hurry order. When it happens, the process need to stop for rush special due, and the standard and special products will be delay to get to customers. If there are two lines, the special order’s influence will be down. The standard products and the special products can run in one line. 2. The JIT philosophy is that getting the right quantity of goods at the right place at the right time. It’s based on the simplicity and emphasis on quality. But in the Katz Carpeting company, the inventories of the carpets were high. They produced a lot what they already had , yet not enough of what was needed. They can’t get the right quantity of goods. 3. The following is the steps to implement the JIT system. First, they should make quality improvements. Their quality was becoming a problem, with customers frequently returning carpets for rips or incorrect dyed colors. They need to solve these problems, because the quality is pervasive and all the JIT objectives are dependent on quality......

Words: 304 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Nursing Standards of Practice

...that might be involved in developing a standard of practice. Outline the Process for Developing Nursing Standards of Practice and Identify the Different Entities That Might Be Involved in Developing a Standard of Practice. When outlining the process for developing standards of practice the American Nurses Association relies on members as the first link in developing an official resource. Members are nominated to a working group that researches the issue at hand and writes a statement before going to the ANA for final approval.   This bottom-up approach ensures the standards are current and accurately represent nurses across the nation (ANA 2014). The Department of Health Scope of Practice Tree asks us, Is the act permitted or prohibited by the nurse practice act, Is it consistent with standards?   Do you have current clinical skills to perform the act safely?   Is the act with in in standard of care?   Are you prepared to accept the consequences of your action? The six main categories of practice are assessment, Analysis, Outcome Identification, Planning, Implementation, and Evaluation.   By implementing standards of care we are able to provide excellent care to out patients.   Different entities that might be involved in developing a standard of practice are The American nurses Association and the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organization (JACHO) have established and recognized standards of care.  Standards of care are found at the national......

Words: 337 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Quality Management

...Introduction  Many organisations today use total quality management framework to improve their management and product continually to meet the customer requirement. Total quilty management is an approach that use to involve each person in the orgnasation and fixes the mistakes . (Talha, 2004) The aim of this essay is to evaluate, discuss and critically analyse the case study of coke and lewis laboratory on how developing the total quality systems in the organisation . The author will discuss the challenges that faced the organisation of setting up the two quality management system .Furthermore; it is going to choose a suitable system for coke and lewis laboratory. Back ground The company provides critical testing and calibration for the pharmaceutical and manufacturing industry in Europe and United Kingdom. It has good reputation because of its excellences equipments .However, because of the expansion and challenge of other organisation they decide to restructure the quality in each stage of their process .Moreover, they brought a consultant and use ‘top-down’ approach .the results of it was negative, so the company change to another plan which team working approach .However the second approaches show some successful but the company need to improve its quality. Evaluating of the two approaches The first strategy was Top-down approach. Is plan at the top level and to achieve the objectives of top management its come the objective for bottom level Peratec......

Words: 1828 - Pages: 8

Free Essay

Sustainability in the Mice Industry

...such as, creating jobs and increasing revenue; there are also a number of negative consequences such as the quality of the natural environment becoming at risk where these activities are taken place. Sustainability in the MICE industry has already been recognized in one of Toronto’s main facilities, the Metro Toronto Convention Centre (MTCC). This venue has been awarded Ontario Sustainable Tourism Award, which acknowledges the convention centres sustainability goals and their Local Food Program, it offers renewable power generated entirely from wind and hydro facilities with their partnership with Bullfrog Power, granted the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) Certification which is a new international sustainability standard, above all, has generated 4,7$ billion dollars in direct-spending economic impact to the community throughout the 30 years they have been operating. (Metro Toronto Convention Centre: News) In 2012, The...

Words: 1032 - Pages: 5